This project is open for Y-DNA results from all the Nordic countries, as well as those only suspected of having origin in the area.
Scandinavia = Denmark, Norway, Sweden
Nordic countries = Scandinavia, Finland, Iceland
Genealogy in the Nordic countries relies on knowledge of patronymic names. A patronymic name (Latin: pater=father) is a name constructed from the father’s given name. In Norse custom patronyms and matronyms were formed by using the ending -son to indicate “son of”, and -dotter for “daughter of”. This name was used as a descriptive name for most Scandinavians. The -sen versions are mainly Danish or Norwegian, the -son versions are Swedish or Norwegian.
The patronymic system gradually disappeared and was replaced with a family last name system in all three Scandinavian countries:
- Denmark during 1828-1904
- Sweden around 1900
- Norway in 1923
Families would then adopt a name, either a patronymic in recent use, a farm name (Norway) or place name from the family history, a soldier name (Sweden) or other to be their hereditary last name.
Iceland still uses a patronymic naming system.
In Finland there were both old surnames (Savo, Savolax), and a patronymic system combined with farm names and place names. More on Wikipedia.
To get the most out of your DNA test results, you should join multiple projects. Different projects will give you different perspectives about your ancestry. Since one can normally not rely on hereditary surnames in the Nordic countries, matching and Y-DNA genealogy can not be based on having names in common. Geographical projects are therefore of much better use.
Haplogroup Projects: You should always join the different projects for your haplogroup, whether confirmed or predicted. Haplogroup projects are often the best source of information about which upgrades might help your search. They also give you perspective on your ancient ancestry.
Geographic Projects: You should always join a geographic project, if you know your ancestors' European origins. The Scandinavian project is a geographic project. When you join the Scandinavian project you should also join the country project for your specific ancestry, if you know it. For Nordic families geographic projects give you the best chance to find your distant relatives.
Surname & Family Projects: Surname projects are useful for families that adopted hereditary surnames between 1100 and 1400. Most Nordic families did not adopt hereditary last names until relatively late, so surname projects have limited value for them. However, if you have an old surname a surname project might be useful.
Related Projects: Related projects focus on different ethnic and cultural groups. These projects can give you other perspectives about your ancestry. Consider joining those that are relevant to your family.
- Special Note: If your earliest known male line ancestor did not live in a Nordic country but you are curious about a possible Nordic origin, you are welcome to join the Scandinavian project but you might get more benefit from joining one of the related projects, such as the Viking project.
Recommended Country Geographic Projects
Y-DNA Haplogroup Projects are recommended in addition to geographic projects. All members, and especially those who also wish to explore their deeper ancestry (beyond genealogy and historical sources), are encouraged to join their relevant Y-haplogroup projects.
- G-L497: https://www.familytreedna.com/public/G-YDNA/
- R1a-M513 (R-M417): http://www.familytreedna.com/public/R1a/
- R1b-M343: http://www.familytreedna.com/public/r1b/
- I1-M253: http://www.familytreedna.com/public/yDNA_I1/
- N-M231: http://www.familytreedna.com/public/n1c1/
- Q-M242: http://www.familytreedna.com/public/ydna_q/
- Anglo-Saxon Project
- Danish Demes Project
- Forest Finn Project
- German Language Area Project
- Jewish Projects (search)
- Saami Project
- Scandinavian Romani Project
- Swedish Nobility Project
- Viking Project
- Anbytarforum: Genetisk genealogi (DNA) Swedish
- DNA-anor Facebook group Swedish
- Family Tree DNA's Forums
- Norway DNA Facebook group Norwegian
- Scandinavian DNA Project Facebook page English
- Slektsforum DNA Norwegian
- Karlsson, (2006) Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-8.
- Lappalainen, (2006)Regional differences among the Finns: A Y-chromosomal perspective Gene 376 (2), 207-215
- Rootsi, (2004)Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137
- Underhill, (2000) Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361.
- Underhill, (2001) The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62.
- Underhill, (2007) New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42.
- Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC)C), (2002) A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups Genome Research, 12:339-348.
- SMGF Database: Sorenson Family of Companies non-profit Foundation's proprietary database
- ySearch: Database of DNA results, sponsored by FTNDA
Journals and Newsletters
- American Journal of Human Genetics
- Annals of Human Genetics
- European Journal of Human Genetics
- Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes
- Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes Archives
- Genome Research
- Human Genetics
- Journal of Genetic Genealogy
- Society for Molecular Biology
- HGP, The Human Genome Project
- ISOGG, International Society of Genetic Genealogy
- NHGRI, National Human Genome Research Institute
- SSGG, Swedish Society for Genetic Genealogy
Websites about Y-Chromosome DNA
- Eupedia: European Prehistory, Anthropology, and Genetics
- Family Tree DNA STR Page
- Family Tree DNA SNPs & Haplogroups Page
- Family Tree DNA Walk Through the Y Page
- Y-Chromosome Consortium Tree
Please contact the project administration before using project member's results. The results of individual project members are their own and the right to reuse them outside this project is reserved to their individual consent.