Overview of Project Subgroups
This project uses a ‘dynamic’ subgrouping process which utilizes all available information (SNPs, STRs, surnames and known genealogies) to group together testers who share a significant common YDNA ancestor.
Key features include:
- Testers who are very likely to be related within ‘genealogical time’ (last 500 years or so) or descended from a surname founder
are grouped together
- ‘Outlier’ individuals and small groups are usually grouped with their closest relatives (even if distances are outside the standard
limits for matching)
- Average grouping size is ~9-10 members
- ‘Colorized’ results pages show group/surname STR signatures and variations
- New members are grouped immediately (usually within 24 hours of joining)
- Groups are reviewed regularly to consider the impact of new branches and new members
- The process is flexible and variations are considered for exceptional cases
Subgroups are organised into 12 major sections as follows:
Members are confirmed or predicted SRY2627+ and have DYS490=10. These groups are confirmed or predicted CTS8289+ and Z208+ which appear to be equivalent to the DYS490 12->10 mutation.
Members are confirmed or predicted SRY2627+ and Z205+ but Z208- and/or have DYS490=12.
Members are confirmed or predicted SRY2627+ and either FT141876+ or Z200+ but Z205-.
C80-C89 members are confirmed SRY2627+ and have DYS490=12 but no downstream SNP results.
C90 members are SRY2627+ but don't have a result for DYS490 or any downstream SNP results.
C80-C90 are encouraged to order a Big Y test to refine their placement in the project.
Members are confirmed or predicted ZS312+ and/or Z267+ but SRY2627-.
Members are confirmed or predicted ZS312+ and Y19152+.
Members are confirmed or predicted ZS312+ and BY3214+. Those with DYS439=8 are confirmed or predicted Y36951+.
Members are confirmed or predicted ZS312+ and FGC39110+.
Members are confirmed or predicted Z46513+ and L165+.
Members are confirmed or predicted Z46513+ and negative for L165 and ZS312.
Members are confirmed or predicted Z198+ and CTS4188+.
Members are confirmed Z198+ and negative for Z46513 and CTS4188.
Members have incomplete SNP test results and cannot be placed within one of the above groups. Big Y test recommended.
Further information about each subgroup is included on the members-only Updates page.
Project members are placed into groups based on SNP test results supported by STR matches. As of 15 August 2023, there are 162 subgroups. The charts below show the interconnectivity of our members within their respective subgroups and the surrounding subgroups; they are color coordinated with the subgroups displayed on our DNA Results pages. Charts may be downloaded as PDF or image files, and we're happy to email higher-resolution images upon request. Age estimates are available on the R-Z198 Group Time Tree.
R-Z198 Haplogroup Project: M & N Groups PDF download