I-M223 Y-DNA Haplogroup

ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup I2a1b1 (was I2a2a & earlier I2b1)
  • 5774 members

About us

The most up-to-date version of the I-M223 tree currently under investigation can be found here.

New co-administrators were added to the Project for specific sector or branches. Their roles are to monitor the areas they are responsible for and to assist members from those areas, add new groups. You can see a list of most of the co-admins on the Activity Feed page. New Big Y-700 results continue to be posted and we see the discovery of new branches and our I-M223 tree grow substantially over the past couple of years. We encourage members to upgrade to Big Y-700 and in some cases the Project can assist with funding such an upgrade.   

Team of administrators worked out a new branch/group identification system for displaying the members Y-DNA results. This replaced a cumbersome system that just used numbers to represent the various branch nodes from I-M223 down. The more branch nodes the longer the number.number string became. We replaced this in part by a letter system to represent key branch nodes in the tree. The sector names such as Basics, Roots, Isles and Continental (Cont) were retained as they have historical origins in the Project.
This group naming system, unique to the I-M223 Project, allows the FTDNA Projects template to sort all groups in alpha-numerical order as if it was the I-M223 tree, going from I-M223 down to all branches, sub-branches and twigs.
This work on reorganizing the headline descriptions for each group is complete. These descriptions will be updated as we receive new Big Y test results.

In 2020, FTDNA and YFull conducted their own analysis of ancient samples. These studied ancient samples are marked with a separate color by YFull. FTDNA does list these ancient samples on the Discover tool. The most important change is the discovery of the FT355000 node below I-M223, which splits our line into two divisions: I-FT355000 and I-P222. Currently, newly tested members are no longer assigned as I-M223, but as I-P222. New results at YFull has identified living descendants of this ancient I-FT355000 branch. The I-M223 Project is currently (2023) trying to have one of these men tested for Big Y-700 at FTDNA.

After fifteen years of research, the National Geographic has finished the Genographic Project. Thanks to all our members who tested Geno2 and transferred their results to our project. Among them we have a few members whose results are invisible to our other members because FTDNA requires ordering one of its STR marker tests. We recommend this solution, which will allow us to better match our members.

Roberta Estes reports:
The Big Y-700 price has been permanently dropped by $100 by decoupling the BAM file download from the price of the test itself.

The current team of administrators is:
  • Wayne Rodney Roberts - administrator, responsible for the entire project. He coordinates all changes regarding groups and subgroups, manages the project fund and the work of the co-administrators.
  • David Boon - co-administrator, manages the Isles-Limbo group.
  • Scott Engel Stewart - co-administrator, manages the Cont3 group.
  • Tom Krzempek - co-administrator, manages the Cont2b group and cooperates with changes in other groups and their updates. (no longer a co-administrator)
Additionally, the administrators' work monitoring tree changes and the Activity Feed page is supported by Wade Kotter who is also part of the administrators team in the I-M223 YFull group.

FTDNA has prepared an upgrade from the existing Big Y-500 to the Big Y-700. This upgrade price is $179.

Brief information from Roberta Estes:
Family Tree DNA just announced the Big Y-700 which replaces the Big Y-500.
The Big Y test itself provides a scan of the majority of the Y chromosome, providing results to testers including:
  •     All SNPs found, both ancestral (original value) and derived (mutated state)
  •     New mutations never discovered before known as Private Variants. It’s exciting to be a part of scientific discovery AND these are useful genealogically as well.
  •     Reports for named SNPs and private variants, both
  •     Matching for SNPs
  •     SNP tree placement
  •     The new Block Tree
  •     First 500, now 700 STR values included for free.
  •     Matching to other testers for both SNPs and STRs above 111 (STRs below 111 are handled separately).

Information from FTDNA:
The Big Y-700 test is now available for purchase. This test includes 727 STR markers in addition to our standard 111 STRs but not all STRs will be called for a given sample.*
All FamilyTreeDNA website and CM pages have been updated as needed to display Big Y and/or Big Y-700.

It is important to note the following:
• The Big Y-500 is no longer available for purchase.
• At this time, there is not a Big Y-700 upgrade for an existing Big Y-500 customer; however, there is an upgrade option for Y-DNA customers who have not yet purchased a Big Y-500.

*As testing proceeds, additional information will be available.

FTDNA has updated its best product, the Big Y test. Now, the Big Y Test will be offered as Big Y-500 and members will receive an additional STR markers check within the panel 6 in positions 112 through 550, at no extra cost.
Roberta Estes writes: "The markers above 111 are ENTIRELY FREE with a Big Y test – for both existing customers who have already taken that test, and all future customers too. Yes, you read that right. If you took the Big Y previously, you are receiving the markers in panel 6, 112-550 absolutely free."

The Big Y test, launched in November 2013, was based on hg19. Currently FTDNA has updated this test from hg19 to hg38. This is a more accurate representation of the human genome and is the most recent version referenced by the human genome community. This test should better mapping of NGS data to the proper location and also consideration of alternative haplotypes across the genome.

As of 25 September 2014, the I-M223 (I2a2a) Tree Configuration is as follows:
1- M223
1.1- S9403/SK1254, Y6098
1.1.1- L1228 (Basics2) L1227 (Basics2 Group D)
1.1.2- Y6099 (Basics1 - B1719/YCA=17-19)
1.2- CTS616, CTS9183
1.2.1- Y3721, Z2093 (Basics3) L1229 (Roots, Roots Group 2/446 = 9) L1230 (Roots Group 2a1/446 = 9, 531 = 11) Y3681, Z2069 Z2058 Z2054 (Roots Group 1/446 = 8) L812 (Roots Group 1a/446 = 8, 438 = 8) L319 (Roots Group 1a1/446 = 8, 438 = 8) Y7244 P53.3 (Roots Group 1d/446=8, 438=10) Y7243 Y4332, Y4334/FGC15106 (Roots Group 2b/446=9, 531=12) Y4760 BY138 Y7240 M284 (Isles, Isles P) L1195 L1193 (Isles E) CTS4922, Y3684, Y3713 L1194 (Isles E group 1) Y5996 (Isles E group2) L126, L137, L369 (Isles Limbo, Isles Sc, Isles Irish) S7753 Y4750
1.2.2- CTS10057, CTS10100 Z161 L801, Z76, Z183, Z2198, CTS2392 (Cont2X) CTS6433 (Cont2a, Cont2to1) S2364 Z78, Z171 (Cont1-X) Z185 (Cont1-XXX) Z180 (Cont1-XXXX) L1198 (Cont1 Groups 1 and 1a) Z166 (Cont1 Group 2) Z190 (Cont1b, Cont1c) Z79 (Cont1c1) PF6654 (Cont1c2) - F3195 (Cont1d) - P195.2 (Cont1e) - PF5268 (Cont1f) ZS20 CTS661/L1272 Y4955 Y5695 Y7263 (Cont2a Group 9a1) Y5692 (Cont2a Group 9b) PF3292 (Cont2a Group 2a) L1425, S12606, S17264, S25383 CTS5332/PF7472 (Cont2a Group 1a) S25451 CTS1977 (Cont2b) Y5282 P95 (Cont2b Group 1) L1201 (Cont2b Group 2) CTS1858 (Cont2b DYS578=9) CTS10148 Y7152, S16196 L1317, L1290 (Cont2d) L623, L147.4 (Cont2c) CTS11871 (Cont2e) L701, L702, PF6894, PF6897 (Cont3) P78, L484, L1443 (Cont3a) S25733 A427 S23612, Y4884 YFS17153, Y5359 S10702, Y6396 L699, L703, PF6896, PF6899, PF6902 (Cont3b) L704 (Cont3b1) L1226 (Cont3b1a) L700 (Cont3b1b) S12195, S21579, Y5669 (Cont3b) Y6973, BY159/Y6996 (Cont3b G1)

05/15/2014 - Currently, two companies have offered BAM file analysis for a fee. They are Full Genomes Corporation (FGC) and YFull. Full Genomes Corporation (FGC) - a company makes next generation sequencing technology available for the DTC (direct to consumer) market focusing on the Y chromosome. The newly discovered mutations it marks with the prefix FGC.
YFull - the main aim of the project is to provide services for the analysis of full Y-chromosome raw data and it marks newly discovered mutations with the prefix Y.

12/01/2013 - YSEQ (established by Thomas and Astrid Krahn) to make traditional Sanger sequencing products for the Y-chromosome available direct to consumer. The newly discovered mutations are named with the prefix A.

11/30/2013 - FTDNA introduced a new product: a next generation sequencing (NGS) test labeled Big Y. At the same time, the WTY (Walk Through the Y) project was finished. The Big Y test results will be able to download as a BAM or VCF file for further analysis.

06/14/2013 - BritainsDNA launched the Chromo 2 test. It used its own proprietary S series names for many of the Y-SNPs and gave its own nicknames to the Y chromosome DNA.

11/30/2012 - The Genographic Project, launched on April 13, 2005 by the National Geographic Society introduced a new product: the Geno 2.0 test. New branches have been found in our tree marked with newly discovered SNP markers prefixed with: CTS, PF and F. This test also detects previously discovered SNP markers with prefixes Z, M, L and P, but at the same time adds new ones with these extensions.

06/15/2012 - Not long ago, it was a known fact that two-thirds of all individuals in the I-M223 Haplogroup would be negative for all downstream SNP's. Thanks to our group effort, we can say that as of June, 2012 that is no longer the case. Now we can trust that there is more than 99% chance that an M223+ individual will be positive for at least one downstream SNP.
As of today, the new I-M223 Tree Configuration is as follows:
1- M223
1.1- L1229* (Roots)
1.1.1- L812* (Roots Group 1a/446 = 8, 438 = 8) L319 (Roots Group 1a/446 = 8, 438 = 8)
1.1.2- L1230 (Roots Group 2a Section 1/446 = 9, 531 = 11)
1.2- Z161
1.2.1- L801 Z76* (Cont2a, Cont2b/P95-, Cont2to1, Cont1-X) Z78* (Cont1-XX) L1198 (Cont1, Cont1a, Cont1b) Z79 (Cont1c) P95 (Cont2b) L1201 (Cont2b)
1.2.2- L623, L147.4 (Cont2c)
1.3- L701, L702
1.3.1- P78 (Cont3a) L484 (Cont3a)
1.3.2- L699, L703 (I2b1-XX) L704 (I2b1-XX1) L1226 (I2b1-XX1)
1.4- M284*
1.4.1- L1195 L1193* (Isles E) L1194 (Isles E) L126, L137, L369 (Isles Limbo, Isles Sc)
1.5- L1228 (I2b1-X)
1.5.1- L1227 (I2b1-X)

05/31/2012 - WTY results for kit# 22066 (Sewell, M223>Z161>L801>Z76>Z78>L1198*) have been scored by Astrid Krahn. It revealed no new SNP's.

05/08/2012 - WTY participant kit# 48274 (Griffin, Roots Group 2a) had his results scored by Astrid Krahn. Coverage was of 412,910 base pairs and two new SNP's have been found: L1229 and L1230.

05/04/2012 - WTY participant kit# E5922 (Hofstee, I2b1-X) had his results scored by Astrid Krahn. Coverage was of 415,359 base pairs and two new SNP's have been found: L1227 and L1228. Kit# 83425 (Wilson, I2b1-XX) is negative for both of these, so they are not upstream SNP's. Kit# E5922 is also negative for Z76, L1193, L1194, L1195, L1226, L1201, L1198. Positive for L1196 and L1197.

05/04/2012 - WTY participant kit# 83425 (Wilson, I2b1-XX) had his results scored today. Coverage was of 423,487 base pairs and one new SNP has been revealed: L1226. Based on coverage from previous WTY's, the following participants and their sub-haplogroups can be presumed negative for this new SNP: 31781 (Games, Cont2c), 69631 (Rasey, Cont2a), 150778 (Mendes da Silva, Roots Group 1a/446 = 8, 438 = 8), 113655 (Gibbon, IslesSc Group 1). This limits L1226 to I2b1-XX.

05/03/2012 - Another WTY participant kit# 199243 (Gunning, Isles Sc) had his results scored today by Astrid Krahn at FT DNA. Coverage was of 418,587 base pairs but unfortunately no new SNP's have been discovered. This exam did cover the sites for the L1193 and L1194 SNP's, for which this participant was negative. That means all Isles English individuals should be testing for L1193 and L1194, as these SNP's are specific to the Isles English subgroup. No news yet on L1195. The exam also covered the site for Z76, and Gunning is negative for it as well. This reinforces the theory by 1,000 Genome Project volunteers that Z76 is phyloequivalent to L801 or maybe slightly upstream from it.

As of 04/25/2012, the I-M223 Tree Configuration is as follows:

1- M223* (I2b1-X, I2b1-XX, Roots-X, Roots/L812-)
1.1- L812* (Roots Group 1a/446 = 8, 438 = 8)
1.1.1- L319 (Roots Group 1a/446 = 8, 438 = 8)
1.2- L801* (Cont2a, Cont2b/P95-)
1.2.1- Z78* (Cont1, Cont1a, Cont1b) Z79 (Cont1c)
1.2.2- P95 (Cont2b)
1.3- L623, L147.4 (Cont2c)
1.4- P78 (Cont3a)
1.5- M284* (Isles E)
1.5.1-L126, L137, L369 (Isles Limbo, Isles Sc)

04/25/2012 - Another WTY participant kit# 127052 (McCall, Cont1) had his results scored today by Astrid Krahn at FT DNA. Coverage was of 411,308 base pairs and one new SNP has been discovered: L1198. The next step is for us to investigate the relationship between L1198 and Z78.

04/25/2012 - WTY participant kit# 65183 (Michaels, Cont2b/P95-) had his results scored today. Coverage was of 394,577 base pairs of and one new SNP was revealed: L1201. We already know this SNP is relevant because the Cont1 WTY participant kit# 127052 is negative for it. The next step is for this SNP to be tested on a larger scale within Cont2b.

04/20/2012 - The first WTY results from our most recent initiative have been scored by Astrid Krahn. Kit# 12526 (Farmer, Isles E/I2b1a) had coverage of 392,734 base pairs and yielded the following new SNP's: L1193, L1194, L1195, L1196, L1197. The next step is for these SNP's to be tested on a larger scale.

04/08/2012 - New I2b1/M223 Discussion Forum created at Yahoo! Groups: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/I-M223/

01/31/2012 - Successful fundraising initiative takes 8 M223 Project Members to the "Walk Through the Y" program:

199243 - Gunning (Isles Sc)
12526 -  Farmer (Isles E)
127052 - McCall (Cont 1)
65183 - Michaels (Cont 2b, P95-)
83425 - Wilson (I2b1-XX)
E5922 - Hofstee (I2b1-X)
48274 - Griffin (Roots Group 2a)
22066 - Sewell (Cont1)

12/21/2011 - M223 Tree Configuration as of 12/2011:

1- M223* (I2b1-X, I2b1-XX, Roots-X, Roots/L812-)
1.1- L812 (Roots)
1.1.1- L319 (Roots)
1.2- L801* (Cont1, Cont1a, Cont1b, Cont2a, Cont2b/P95-)
1.2.1- P95 (Cont2b)
1.3- L623, L147.4 (Cont2c)
1.4- P78 (Cont3a)
1.5- M284* (Isles E)
1.5.1-L126, L137, L369 (Isles Limbo, Isles Sc)

10/18/2011 - WTY participant Mendes da Silva (Roots Group 1, DYS 446 = 8, kit# 150778) has had his results scored by the FT DNA team. The exam covered 244955 bp's and a brand new SNP has been discovered: L812. This new finding reinforces the success of the M223 WTY campaign.

10/10/2011 - Results have been scored for WTY participant Rasey (Cont2a subgroup, kit# 69631). The exam covered 231451 bp's and three brand new SNP's have been discovered: L800, L801, and V218.2.

6/30/2011 - Results have been scored for a project member who participated independently in the WTY program. Three new SNP's have been discovered in the exam of kit# 31781: L147.4, L622 and L623. The Project will hereon work with members to understand the position of these SNP's on the phylogenetic tree.

6/23/2011 - A recent fundraising campaign has made it possible for two of our project members to participate in WTY. The first participant (kit# 69631) belongs to the "Cont2a" subgroup and was co-sponsored by the Rasey Y-chromosome DNA Surname Project. The "Roots 446 = 8" participant (kit# 150778) has origins in Mediterranean Europe, as do a good number of members of the Roots subgroup. Both participants have been accepted into the program. The next step is to collect new samples, which will then be analyzed by the FT DNA team. It is a slow process, so it should be a few months before we have any news. With these two exams, we hope to finally discover an SNP, which will officially divide the Continental and Roots subgroups and maybe allow for some segmentation within those. - Aaron Salles Torres, Project Administrator

3/2011 - Aaron Salles Torres is the new Project Administrator.

10/28/2009 - The I2b2 WTY results are in, and unfortunately he was also positive for L-181. This means that this new SNP is upstream of the I2b1/I2b2 split and will not help divide I2b1. Bummer.

9/7/2009 - Our I2b1 Roots donor's WTY results are in, and unfortunately he is also L181+ and has no other new SNPs. Because he shares this L181 with our Continental donor, it does not split the Roots and Continental branches as we had hoped it might. These results now place L181 upstream of I2b1 Roots and Continental, and per previous I2* WTY results, downstream of I2*. What we need to do now is wait for the I2b2 donor's WTY results and see where he stands. If he's also positive for L181, then it's not even unique to I2b1. If he's negative, then we'll go about selectively having other I2b1 people test for it

8/2/2009 - The WTY results for our Continental donor are in, and one new SNP, L-181, has been discovered. It is unknown at this time how this SNP fits in as we are still awaiting the WTY results for the I2* donor and the I2b1 Roots donor. Stay tuned...

7/8/2009 - I2b1 Project Discussion created at DNA Forums 7/7/2009 - No WTY Results yet. 6/1/2009 - Link to Ken Nordvedt's updated "Warped Founders Tree": Warped Founders Tree 5/22/2009 - Subgrouping work is still underway. About another 100 people in the old Cont2 group still need to be run through the haplogroup prediction tool. Please double-check my results for accuracy for your own kits.

5/2/2009 - Reorganization of subgroupings is underway. 5/1/2009 - The Walk the Y Project for I2b1 is now fully funded and underway.

4/21/2009 - I have taken over administration of the I2b1 Project as the former admin no longer was able administer it. Many thanks to Grant for having administered it so well for so long. Organization will be in a state of flux for awhile. Please bear with me as I try to get my arms around this. Jane Gilbert