Y-Haplogroup I2a Project- Background

Administrators

Surnames

I2a, I2a1, I2a1a, I2a2, I2a2a, I2a2a1, I2a2b, I2a3

Background

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 The Y-DNA Haplogroup I2a Project began on February 27, 2006 and will continue as long as members wish. We may use words or terms the reader is not familiar with, if so, please scroll further down this webpage to "Definitions and Explanations".

February 2014 Update:  We are waiting for results from Family Tree DNA's new Big Y test that will sequence 10 million base pairs of the Y chromosome. It is expensive, $695 currently, but several of our members have ordered it: 5 orders from I-M26 (Sardinian), 14 orders from L621, 13 from (I-CTS5966) "Dinaric" and one from "Disles", 7 orders from I-L161 "Isles" and 5 orders from I-L233 "Western" group.  

We have put some haplogroup trees and other information on this site: http://i2aproject.blogspot.com/

The Genographic 2.0 test has proved very useful for the I2a Haplogroup, people in all our branches have learned some new information about their paternal haplogroup. At this point we are recommending that all people in the I2a1b (I-L160) group do Geno 2.0 to discover their more specific paternal haplogroup. People in the other groups of I2a (I2a2, I2a3 etc.) do not need to do Geno 2.0 for paternal haplogroup information, but they may wish to do it to learn about their ancient ethnic ancestry or to support the Genographic project. The Geno 2.0 test is done by the FTDNA lab but must be ordered from the National Geographic Society USA, click "Buy the Kit" at the upper right of this page: https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

Please contact Bill or Bernie if you are considering Geno 2.0 or if you have already ordered it or have results. We have no way of knowing about any Geno 2.0 testing unless you tell us.

People who have already done National Geographic Society's Genographic 2.0 test can do a no-cost transfer of their results to Family Tree DNA and they are welcome to join our I2a Project if they belong to the following paternal line: I-L621 I-L161 I-L233 I-CTS595 I-PF3983 I-M26 I-PF4189 I-PF4190 I-PF4398 I-Z102 and maybe some others, please contact berniecullen@gmail.com for assistance doing the transfer and signing up with our project.

DONATIONS CAN BE MADE TO THE I2a GENERAL FUND AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS WEBPAGE.

At this point we are testing new SNPs discovered in Geno 2.0 of interest to our I-M26 and I-L161 "Isles" groups. You may wish to test these SNPs yourself and/or make a donation to support testing high priority people unable to afford their own testing, please contact berniecullen@gmail.com for recommendations specific to you.

To donate, scroll to the bottom of this webpage and find: To donate to the general fund please: Click Here (the orange icon is lighted) click onto the icon and you can donate any amount. Leave the settings as is but do state in the note box you want your donation to go to the I2a general fund.

What are Y-DNA Haplogroups? Y-DNA Haplogroups are the major branches of the Y-DNA Chromosome tree. They are defined by "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms" (SNPs) called Snips. SNPs are accumulated along different lineages as Y-DNA Chromosomes are passed from father to son(s) over many generations. All Y-DNA Haplogroups ultimately descend from a single Y-DNA Chromosome carried by a male who lived in the distant past.

What are Y-DNA Haplogroup Projects? Surname Projects pertain to recent ancestry, ie, four to twelve (or more) generations back. Y-DNA Haplogroup Projects pertain to a person's deep ancestry, ie, their ancient ethnic origins. Meaning thousands of years ago. So the research emphasis changes from genealogy to a mixture of Anthropology and Archaeology, but yDNA still plays a major role for the time being.  Anthropology is defined as the study of humans everywhere and throughout time. Archaeology is defined as the study of human cultures. yDNA is defined as Y-Chromosome DNA, and pertains to the male Y-DNA which is passed from father to son(s) virtually unchanged over the eons. Haplogroup Projects such as I2a provide a place for individuals with the same Haplogroup to connect with one another and study their common origins through historic, pre-historic and anthropological migrations.

Purpose of the Y-DNA Haplogroup I2a Project. The purpose of this Y-Haplogroup I2a Project is to investigate the history and distribution of our ancient ancestors. When and where they lived as they treked out of Africa into what is now current day Europe and then on throughout the World. We want to trace migration routes. We want to learn what parts of the world our subclades are believed to have originated? What parts of the world are our subclades found today? What major cultural events were going on for our subclades or in the World during those times?

Here is a link to Eupedia website which describes various cultures of Haplogroup I over the eons:Haplogroup I cultures. Haplogroup I2a cultures follow I1. We will be attempting to determine subclades of our current members by the defining, furthest downstream SNP. SNP (called snip) is defined as a mutation in a person's DNA. A better definition may be found further down on this webpage. Currently our I2a Haplgroup members are involved in "Walk Through the Y" SNP searches to hopefully discover new SNPs. More hopes, that new SNPs will help us know more about our I2a Haplogroup and its subclades. 

Membership The membership of the Y-Haplogroup I2a Project is limited to only those who have been predicted, or confirmed by SNP tests, for Y-Haplogroup I2a and its subclades which are listed above in Project Surnames. Sponsors of male donors (who are I2a) are also welcome.

How to Join the I2a Haplogroup Project First you must have yDNA test results from at least 12 DYS markers at FTDNA. Next, go to your "personal pages" at the FTDNA website. Click onto the icon "Join Projects" in the upper left of the screen. When the new screen appears,scroll down to Search by Surname and input I2a (the letter i not the number 1) in the search engine opposite "equals". When that new screen appears, click onto I2a Y-Haplogroup When that new screen appears, fill in your info to join. Please show your most distant known male paternal ancestor's name, birthyear and birthplace. If you are already a member of FTDNA, there is no extra cost to join the I2a Y-Haplogroup project. If you have tested thru Relative Genetics, DNA Heritage, Ancestry, Oxford Ancestors or Genebase, here is a link to a Promotional Order Form from FTDNA giving lower prices to join FTDNA. The form is to be filled out and mailed or faxed to FTDNA. FTDNA Promotional Order Form

The I2a Group Administrator will assist each new member in determining their particular subclade. 

Current listing of all Haplogroup I projects: wiki ISOGG Hg I projects

Other Haplogroup I projects such as I2a are:

Haplogroup I1

Haplogroup I1c

Haplogroup I and subclades I1a, I1b

Haplogroup I(x) and I2b2

Haplogroup I2b2

M223 Haplogroup I2b1

Here is a good tutorial on Hg I:Genebase Tutorial Click onto the lighted icon and read about Haplgorup I beginnings.

Here are the top ten DNA News Websites: Top Ten DNA News Websites

Here are some definitions and explanations:

Clade comes from the Greek word Klados = branch. A Clade on the Y Chromosome tree is also called a Haplogroup. Subclade is a term to describe the relationship between two clades with the sub-clade being downstream (occurring later in time). A Clade includes all the descendants of a single founder (common ancestor).

Haplogroup is defined as a group of similar Haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) mutation. Your Haplogroup tells much about your ancient ethnic origins. Meaning thousands of years ago. In the case of our I2a Haplogroup, we all share the SNP (called Snip) I-P37.2+. The I2a Haplogroup has numerous subgroups or subclades, all determined by various other SNPs which we will discuss later.

CHROMOSOME is a structure found in the nucleus of a cell that contains genetic material. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pair of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes, X for females and Y for males.

Human Y Chromosome DNA (yDNA) Haplogroups are lettered A thru T and are further divided using numbers and lower case letters. Our main Haplogroup happened to be called I (the letter i, not the number 1). The time of origin is between 20,000 and 25,000 years ago. Haplogroup I is divided into I1 and I2. The origin of I2 is about 15,000 years ago. SubHaplogroup I2 is further divided into I2a and I2b.

The Y Chromosome contains two types of ancestral markers. Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are highly informative for tracing your recent ancestry. They will allow you to find matches in the last four to twelve generations. Meanwhile the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) help you understand your deep ancestry. SNPs are small "mistakes" that occur in DNA. SNPs are rare. They happen at a rate of approx one mutation every few hundred generations. When a SNP occurs it marks a point in the shared Y chromosome tree. Each mutation event can be linked to a time and place in history. By testing SNPs it is possible to retrace the history of a paternal line. Because a Haplogroup consists of similar Haplotypes, it is possible to predict a person's Haplogroup from his Haplotype. A SNP test confirms the Haplogroup.

SNP is defined as a change in the DNA which happens when a single nucleotide (A, T, G or C) in the genome sequence is altered. A person has many SNPs that together create a unique DNA pattern for that individual. Snips clarify the branching of a tree--separation of different subhaplogroups.

Haplotype is defined as one person's set of values for the DYS markers that have been tested. In other words, your yDNA test results. Think of Haplotypes as leaves on a tree, and a Haplogroup as a limb of that tree. Haplotype is a contaction of the phrase "haploid genotype".

Allele is defined as a DNA sequence that repeats at a certain location (DYS marker) on the Y Chromosome. The Allele value is the number of times the sequence repeats. Pronounced uh-LEEL.

STR is a short DNA motif (pattern) repeated in tandem. A, T, G or C repeated eleven times would give the DYS marker a value or allele of eleven.DYS is short for DNA/ Y-Chromosome/ Segment. The name of a marker on the Y-Chromosome.

Downstream: means towards the present. 

sources of the above:FTDNA GlossaryFTDNA SNPs-R-UsISOGG Glossary

EXPLAINING GD OR GENETIC DISTANCE RANGES AT VARIOUS MARKER LEVELS:

The range of GD "Genetic Distance" between donors varies with each marker panel, regarding kinship. Actually, if donors do not have the same or similar Surname, the following ranges of kinship do not apply. Familytreedna says that a common ancestor would not have lived in the last 500 years or so.  We are showing the kinship ranges just to inform our members. The following ranges of GD would apply for Surname DNA Projects at Familytreedna. Here are the GD ranges. At the 12 marker level, if GD equals or exceeds 3, no kinship is indicated. At the 25 marker level, if GD equals or exceeds 4, no kinship is indicated. At the 37 marker level, if GD equals or exceeds 6, no kinship is indicated. At the 67 marker level, if GD equals or exceeds 7, no kinship is indicated. At the 111 marker level, if GD equals or exceeds 10, no kinship is indicated. Bearing this in mind, FTDNA has established GDs at the various marker level that when reached, all subsequent donors will be truncated, or omitted from your personal page: "Match" reports (Use the pull down tab: Y-DNA).  At the 12 marker level, when GD exceeds 3, all donors beyond that are omitted. At the 25 marker level, when GD exceeds 10, all donors beyond that are omitted. At the 37 marker level, when GD exceeds 20, all donors beyond that are omitted. At the 67 marker level, when GD exceeds 40, all donors beyond that are omitted. At the 111 marker level, when GD exceeds 80, all donors beyond that are omitted. Sources of this info: FAQ #22 of "Understanding Results" and FAQ #63 of GAP Reference at FTDNA website.

SUBCLADES OF HAPLOGROUP I2A: I2a is a major subHaplogroup of Y-Haplogroup "I" (the letter i, not number 1). It is defined by the SNP P37.2+. I2a has the following known subgroups/ subclades:

I2a* (includes I2a*-P37.2-France and I2a*-P37.2-Alpine subclades)

.I2a1 Defined by SNPs M26, L158, L159 (Includes I-M26 subclades)

....I2a1* Defined by being negative to SNP L160

....I2a1a Defined by being positive to SNP L160

.....I2a1a*

.....I2a1a1 Defined by SNP M161 (possible private)

..I2a2 Defined by SNPs M423 and L178, (includes Din-N, Din-S, Isles and Disles subclades)

..I2a2* (unobserved)

..I2a2a Defined by SNP I-L69.2(=T)/S163.2 (includes I2a2a-M423-Din-N, Din-S and Disles subclades).

....I2a2a1 Defined by SNP P41.2/M359.2 (no member of I2a has tested positive)

....I2a2b Defined by SNP L161 (includes I2a2b-M423-Isles A1,A2,B1,B2,C1,C2,D1,D2 subclades)

..I2a3 Defined by SNP L233 (includes I2a3-L233 Western and I2a3-L233 West Isles sublades).

source of above info:ISOGG 2010

GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF I2A SUBCLADES The Balkan countries likely harbored subclade I2a during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations; also extends north and west through Europe and into the British Isles.

source: Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) at Wikipedia

From Ken Nordtvedt's "Story of I1b1" comes the following descriptions of the various subclades of I2a:

..."Dinaric. (I2a2, M423+) It is mainly found in eastern Europe with frequency peak in Bosnia and Croatia, near the Dinaric Alps."

..."Western I2a (I2a* P37.2+)(now I2a3-Western) is located more to the northwest in Germany, but appreciable amounts of it are found in the British Isles as well."

..."Isles (I2a2, M423+) is almost exclusively found in the British Isles and especially in Ireland."

....Sardinian (I2a1, M26+) accounts for about a third of Sardinia ydna, but it is also found at decent frequencies in regions of Italy and Iberia. It is also scattered up the Atlantic seaboard of Europe and into the British Isles. SNP M26+ defines this subhaplogroup of I2a but its extremely unique YCAIIa,b motif makes an SNP unnecessary for its identification." I add to this that Sardinia is not necessarily the origin of M26 but rather, probably a recipient of M26 from the mainland. SubHaplogroup I2a1 is very common in Sardinia and was likely among the first humans to populate the island about 9000 years ago. It is also found in the western Mediterranean and western Europe at lower frequencies. Unlike I2a, I2a1 is not present east of the Adriatic Sea.

Here's a link to a map showing locations of most of the current SNP's of Haplogroup I throughout EuropeMap of Haplogroup I's SNP locations throughout continental Europe

Below is the link to Ken Nordtvedt's "Story of I2a (P37.2)". Our thanks to Ken for allowing us access and reference to his works."The Story of I1b1 P37.2+" Those wishing to find estimated ages back to Clade MRCAs in I2a subgroups/subclades can access Ken Nordtvedt's website:Estimated Ages Back to Clade MRCAs (Most Recent Common Ancestor) note: this website currently not available.

Below is a link to Diana Matthiesen's chart showing defining SNP's of subclades of Hg I thru I2a2b, per Nordtvedt, ISOGG, and FTDNA. Further down the chart is Ken's Modals of each subclade in FTDNA order. Our thanks to Diana for allowing this link. defining SNPs; and Hg I modals in FTDNA order 

The visitor counter below was installed June 10, 2009 and the count set at zero.

Dec 31, 2009 = 8479; Dec 31, 2010 = 18,914; Dec 31, 2011 = 29,661. Ave daily count for 2010 = 29; ave daily count for 2011 = 29;

 Jan 31, 2012 = 30,530 total count. Ave daily count for Jan = 28; Feb 29 = 31,435. Aveage daily count for Feb = 31. Mar 31 = 32,700. Ave daily count for March = 41. April 30 = 33,614. Ave daily count for April = 30. May 31 = 34,787. Ave daily count for May = 38; June 30 = 35,722. Ave daily count for June = 31; July 31 =  36,627. Ave daily count for July = 29; Aug 31 = 37,506. Ave daily count for Aug = 28. Sept = 38,382. Ave daily count for Sept = 29. Oct = 39,236. Ave daily count for Oct = 28. Nov = 40351; ave daily count for Nov = 37. Dec 31 = 41247; ave daily count for Dec = 29.

Feb 28, 2013 = 43,565; Jan 01, 2013 to Feb 28, 2013 = total count 2318; ave daily count for Jan and Feb = 41;Mar 31 = 45056; ave daily count for Mar = 48. April 30 = 45428; ave daily count for April = 46. May 31 = 47864; ave daily count for May = 79. July 31 = 50436; ave daily count for July = 41; Aug 31 = 51692; ave daily count for Aug = 41. Sept 30 = 52915; ave daily count for Sept = 41; Oct 31 = 54115; ave daily count for Oct = 39; Nov 30 = 55,535; ave daily count for Nov = 47; Dec 31 = 56877; ave daily count for Dec = 43. Jan 31, 2014 = 58135 = 41 ave daily visits for Jan; Feb 28 = 59,358; ave daily count for Feb = 44; Mar 31 = 60,730 = 44 ave daily visits for March.

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