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The single most compelling research question for ARTERBURN descendants that

remains unanswered:  If Peter Arterburn was of "East Indian" or South Asian

(patrilineal) descentas historical sources attest and Y-DNA testing clearly

supports, then who was the source of the "Atterburn/Arterburn" surname?

And a corollary question:  If Peter was the son of the East Indian indentured

servant, John Williamsas the name of  "Peter Atterburn alias Williams" 

recorded in Charles County Court suggests, could "Atterburn/Arterburn" have

been a maternal ancestral surname, or was it just a name that Peter adopted?

DNA testing probably cannot help us find answers to these remaining questions,
but there may yet be clues to be found in the public records of Maryland and
Virginia or in family records.

Below are listed some resources that may assist further research:

John Williams in Charles County Court  (12 November 1706,

14 January 1706/7)

Who exactly was the "William Davis" who provided "security" for
Peter Arterburn's credit in Prince William County —landlord, employer,
benefactor, relative/in-law, or some combination of these?

"William Davis" in Colonial Maryland  (RootsWeb/Marshall)

"William Davis" in the census of Dunmore County (1775)
in district #4 adjacent to that (#3) of Peter and William
(see Supplemental Notes, Appendix #7, p. 598)

"William Davis Arterburn" (see
Cousins, p. 380)

What connection if any between "Presley Davis" and Peter's "William
Davis" and "Presley Arterburn?"

Jesse Davis (1751-1818), b. Prince William County, VA  d. Nelson
County, KY. (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I051076)

Jesse Davis (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I046252)

                      Might Peter Arterburn's distinctive personal mark of three wavy
                      lines have reflected a youthful memory of sailing or fishing, or  
                      just nostalgia for living along the coastal waters of the Chesapeake?

                             John Gardiner (1658-1742) of Nonesuch  

                                (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I047926)

                             Captain John Gardiner (ca.1709-1743) "mariner"
                                (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I053395)

Family Search:  Charles County, Maryland Genealogy

Family Search:  Talbot County, Maryland Genealogy

MSA:  County (Jurisdiction) Government Records

MSA:  Search the Maryland State Archives Online

Wikipedia:  Haplogroup R-M17

National Geographic Society:  Genographic Project

Smithsonian/NMNH:  Beyond Bollywood: Indian Americans Shape the Nation

Native Heritage Project:  East Indians in Early Colonial Records

Miss America 2014:  Nina Davuluri

ABC News:  Indian Ancestry of Princess Diana