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When Some Research Notes was compiled and published, we lacked the
more recent Y-DNA discoveries that have since confirmed an "out of India
or South Asia" origin for the patrilineal ancestors of Peter Arterburn.  In   
that earlier book, I proposed a "dark German" origin for Peter because that 
seemed the best interpretation overall of the evidence at the time.  I also
suggested that "Arterburn" could have been our original surname— as a 
compound of "Arter" and "Bern" or "Berner" perhaps, even if of very recent 
origin since there is no history for "Arterbern/er" or a similar spelling in

While taking seriously John Elsea's testimony that "James Arterburn's father
was a very dark skin man, as dark as a Cherokee Indian," who "came from
the East India," the dark German scenario presumed an interlude for Peter
of travel to and from the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia, today), or possibly
to and from the trading posts of the Dutch or the English on the Indian
subcontinent.  Either is conceivable, but both seem incredibly exceptional. 
Given all that we have since learned, it's clear now that the dark German
scenario is not supported by the facts.  With the discovery of "East Indians"
from India or South Asia in the public records of colonial Maryland and
Virginia, Peter's "alias Williams" connection, and the new Y-DNA evidence,
John Elsea's meaning is no longer in doubt.  

The single most compelling research question for ARTERBURN descendants 
that remains unanswered:  If Peter Arterburn was of "East Indian" or South
Asian (patrilineal) descent as historical sources attest and Y-DNA testing 
clearly supportsas opposed to Native American or African or European
descent, then how did Peter come by the "Atterburn/Arterburn" surname?
Since there is no apparent history for "Atterburn" or "Arterburn" in Europe
or the British Isles, it's unlikely that either spelling could have been the
actual form of an Old World surname.

And these corollary questions:   Was "Peter Atterburn alias Williams" the 
son of the East Indian indentured servant, "John William/Williams?" 
Was Peter the son of the (East) Indian, "William,"  the father of George

Was William and John William/Williams related, or were they both East
Indians who happened to share a common English given name that was
converted into a common English surname, "Williams?"  

Did "Atterburn" or "Otterburn" represent the ancestral surname of Peter's 

mother— perhaps spelled differently, or did Peter adopt a new surname

in Maryland for a reason unknown to us?  

Could "Elizabeth," a "Pamunkey Indian Queen" and mother of George

Williams who intermarried with the (East) Indian, William, have been the

mother of Peter, which might confirm a local Shenandoah (Warren) County

tradition in which the family of "Peter Otterburn" was remembered as a

"tribe of Indians?"   Could William's Elizabeth instead of William's Nancy

have been the "full-blooded Indian" remembered in another family


If Elizabeth was Peter's mother, could "Atterburn" or "Otterburn" have

been an English sounding surname adapted from an Indian name given

to Peter by his mother?


   Arterburn, Atterburn, Otterburn, ____?____


   The pronunciation of the "Otterburn" surname with its anomalous

   variations of spelling found in 19th-century English census records 

   are remarkably similar to the variations in spelling of Peter's name

   as recorded in 18th-century public records of Maryland and Virginia.

   In 19th-century England, "ar" was often pronounced with broad A 

   (as in "father")  while the  "r"  sound was dropped or diminished

   (non-rhotic)  but retained in the spelling of many common words 

   of ordinary speech (e.g., "card," "arse," etc.). This speech sound of

   broad A could be confused with the sound of short O, and vice versa,

   when names were spelled only from vocalization,  as illustrated 

   by anomalous renderings of "Arterburn" for "Otterburn" names in

   England (see Some Research Notes (7th ed.), pp. 29-46; pp. 61-70).

   The "Great Vowel Shift" that resulted in the emergence of broad A 

   (/a:/) and non-rhotic pronunciation from Middle English and Early

   Modern English had begun in the 15th century, and also impacted

   evolving American English in 18th-century Maryland and Virginia.


   The earliest spelling (May, 1773) we have in Shenandoah County is 

   of "Peter Otterburn" in Henry's record of baptism, which agrees with  

   the broad A sound heard in "Arterburn."    Some transcriptions of

   "Atterburn" (e.g., when not in an alphabetical list, originally) could

   arguably have been transcribed as "Otterburn,"  since examples

   of upper-case cursive "A" and "O" (without an upper loop) can be

   found that are virtually indistinguishable.  (For an example of Peter's

   name transcribed as "Otterburn" in Prince William County, see "Prince

   William County People," then compare this to the actual facsimile

   image of the "Tithables List of 1765," in Appendix #5 of Supplemental


   The broad A sound heard in "Arter-" and the similar sound of short O

   in "Otter-" suggest that broad A (not short A as in "cat") was probably

   represented in renderings of  "Atterburn,"  in those instances where

   cursive "A" was originally rendered, although this appears to us a

   deviation in spelling since a short vowel typically precedes double

   consonants in English, today.  "Atterburn" (as transcribed) is found

   exclusively for Peter in Maryland, and occurs predominantly for both

   Peter and William in Prince William County, which suggests that

   "r" may not have been distinctly heard in the first syllable of Peter's

   pronunciation, originally (as suggested by "Peter Otterburn," also).

      Could there have been an unconscious bias that favored 

      "A" instead of "O" when personal names were spelled 

      from vocalization, simply because the sound of broad A

      may have been more commonly heard in speech in the

      Tidewater of Maryland and Virginia, and also written or

      spelled more often than "O" especially at the beginning

      of names, by those who heard Peter and recorded his

      surname?   What name was Peter actually vocalizing?


   The evidence is clear that Peter's patrilineal ancestors could not have

   been English (or Scottish) "Otterburns."  Could Peter's mother have been

   an "Otterburn?"  There is no history of "Otterburns" in colonial Maryland

   or Virginia.     We must seriously consider that Peter may have simply

   adopted a surname similar in sound to one or more other European

   names so to identify more fully with the dominant culture of white

   Europeans in Maryland.  

   In his monumental work of research, Paul Heinegg's summary statement

   that   "East Indians apparently blended into the free African American

   population" clearly does not describe the ARTERBURNS.  In his foreword

   to Heinegg's book, Maryland historian Ira Berlin notes that  "Heinegg's

   genealogical excavations reveal that many free people of color passed

   as whitessometimes by choosing ever lighter spouses over succeeding

   generations."    Peter was always listed as "white" in the tax lists and

   censuses, apparently a clue that he was accepted as such among his

   peers.   We have no solid clues about the identity of William's mother

   Peter's first wife, but Peter's marriage to Sarah, who was described by

   John Elsea as a "fair skin woman," suggests a decided preference for an

   Anglo-European identity, as do the intermarriages of their children and

   descendants (and of those of Peter's son, William) with Germans, English,

   Scots, and Scotch-Irish.    Peter's early and apparently enduring ties 

   with William Davis and the Davis family— presumably European, also

   suggest this.    

   What are we to make of the tradition of German ancestry reported

   by a majority of the descendants interviewed by Art & Jan Arterburn,

   or of the related claim of Swiss ancestry for the ARTERBURNS by a

   Shenandoah County genealogist?   Could Peter's wife, Sarah, have

   been the source of this tradition?   Germans were by far the majority

   population in Shenandoah County, and Peter clearly associated with

   English-speaking Germans and Swiss (e.g., Henry Spillmann, John Wolf,

   Samuel Stover/Stauffer).   Some of the children of Peter and William

   and their descendants intermarried with Germans and Swiss  (e.g.,

   Booker/Bucher, Carrier/Karrier, Houn, Smoote/Smootz, Wey, Wolfe)

   in Virginia and Kentucky. 


   The anomalous rendering of "Peter Arturberner" in Shenandoah

   County appears more likely a case of an identity imputed than of

   a surname revealed, given what we now know.   "Arter,"  "Bern,"

   "Berner," and "Burner" were Swiss/German surnames.  ("Burner"

   can be found in the 1789 tax list of Shenandoah County.)  But

   the compound rendering of "Arturberner" apparently cobbled 

   from the sound of Peter's name has no history in either Germany  

   or Switzerland.  Germans of dark complexion (e.g., "Black-Dutch")

   from the south of Germany and neighboring Switzerland were

   present in the Middle Colonies, including northern Virginia.  Peter's

   physical appearance and the fact that he was in court supporting

   a German, "Henry Speelman," when this early spelling was rendered

   in 1774  (and only once, except for John Netherton's anomalous

   spelling of "Peter Arterbern" in a Shenandoah County census, in 

   1785)  might have suggested such an identity to the clerk who

   heard Peter and recorded his name.    Peter may have tacitly

   approved of such a presumptive identity, the better to fit in.

   The evidence is clear that Peter's patrilineal ancestors were not

   dark Germans or Swiss.  However, Peter's support of Speelman

   and apparent connections with other Germans, together with

   intermarriages and a family tradition all suggest some kind of 

   familial or cultural relationship, very possibly derived from Sarah.

   William's wife, Nancy, might have been German, too, or even

   English or Scottish, instead of the "full-blooded Indian" of family

   tradition (see "George Williams in Charles County Court," below).

   "Arturberner" probably does not tell us anything about the origin

   of our surname, but does mark the emergence of "Arterburn" as the

   predominant spelling found in public records of Shenandoah County.

   "Arterburn" occurs only twice in Prince William County (PWC), in

   John Glassford's Dumfries Stores accountsfor Peter, compared to   

   ten entries of "Atterburn" (as transcribed) for Peter and William in

   these same accounts, not including extant PWC court records for

   "Peter Atterburn."  These two anomalous "Arterburn" spellings in

   Prince William County appear to be instances of interpolating "ar"

   in rendering Peter's pronunciation, interpreted as English broad A 

   with non-rhotic or diminished "r," similar to anomalous renderings

   of "Arterburn" for "Otterburn" in England.  (The singular instance

   of "William Arterburn" in London is probably an example of same.)

       John Walker used "ar" to indicate the sound of long (broad) A

       for pronouncing "aunt"— a word not spelled with "r"— in his

       London dictionary in 1775.  Walker's example seems remarkably

       revealing of the extent to which "ar" had become identified

       during Peter's time (e.g., Tidewater Englishwith the speech

       sound of English broad A paired with non-rhotic "r." 

      Whether the "Arterburn" spelling became the final form of our

      surname as a result of the intersection of German and English

      cultures and languages in 18th-century Shenandoah County, 

      aided perhaps by our family's embrace of a German-American

      identity the better to fit in, may be impossible to prove but seems

      likely.    The origin of the tradition of our German ancestry and

      the origin of our surname are probably not related, otherwise.

      As American English continued to evolve and as rhotic pronun-

      ciation became the norm, and as literacy improved, the spelling

      of "Arterburn" was established beyond Shenandoah County in

      family and public records.    However, spelling variations of our

      surname can be found in public records throughout the 19th

      century.  Most of us have also heard others pronounce "ar" in

      "Arterburn" as broad A with and without the sound of "r," even




   "Peter Atterburn alias Williams"



   The formulation, "Peter Atterburn alias Williams," has not been

   found subsequently in Charles County Court records.  Although

   earlier records that are available have not been searched, this

   entry (1736) may reflect Peter's (b. 1711, age 25) first court 

   appearance and a statement of Peter's bona fides as a free man

   with standing before the court.  "[A]lias Williams" suggests the

   court might have relied on the previously adjudicated status of 

   John Williams in this court (1706/7), during which John Williams
   was declared free of his indenture, as surety for Peter's status. 
   Once Peter's credentials were established before the court,
   there may have been no further need to declare this extended
   formulation in subsequent court records, which could explain
   its singular occurrence.

       Another possibility is that "alias Williams" may have referred to
       the family of "George Williams," who might have been Peter's
       older brother or relative.  George Williams had very recently 
       appeared before Charles County Court (1733) claiming title to 
       ancestral Indian land by right of his mother, "Elizabeth," a
       "Pamunkey Indian Queen."    George also claimed that this
       Pamunkey land had been given to his father, "William," who
       appears to have been an East Indian without an inherited
       English surname  (see "George Williams in Charles County
       Court," below). 
   We also have the account of John Gardiner pointing out his 
   (Nonesuch) property boundaries to Peter around this same time
   (1736/7), as attested in Peter's later court deposition (1748). 
   Could this be a clue that Peter had only recently arrived at

                      RootsWeb/Marshall:  "Early Colonial Settlers of Southern Maryland
                         and Northern Neck Counties" (continually updated)

       John Williams in Charles County Court  (12 November 1706,

John Williams' exact age is unknown, but we can
infer from this court record that he was of majority
age (i.e., over 21) in 1706,  since his contract of
indenture had been purchased 14-16 years prior 
by Johannah Hodgson, deceased mother of then
current master, Richard Hodgson.

During his first hearing (p. 272), only "John William"
without the "s"— was recorded by the court as the
petitioner's name, and only once.  Thereafter, he was
referred to only as "East Indian, Indian, Indian boy,"
or "servant."    Several witnesses testified before the
court but no decision was reached.  The court ordered 
"the said East Indian remain in his Masters service"
until "the next Court to be held on the fourteenth
day of January next."

In a second hearing (p. 288) two months later, the
court recorded the petitioner's name as "John Williams." 
The hearing was brief, with testimony from only one
witness, Henry Tanner, who supported Williams' case.
The court then ordered that the "said John Williams
be free from the said Richard Hodgsons service."

Was the recording of his name as "John William" in
the first hearing revealing of an East Indian known
to be without an inherited English surname, or simply
an error by the clerk?    Were two common English
calling or given names, "John William," converted to
the customary English first name and surname by the
court, or by John Williams himself, to reflect his new 
status as a free person in Maryland society?

     George Williams in Charles County Court (13 June 1733): 

" ... George Williams son and heir to William who

intermarried with a Pamunkey Indian Queen named

Elizabeth of Prince George's County  ...  a certain

neck of Land then lying in Charles County .... John

Ward aged 75 deposeth that he has known George

Williams a Native Indian from his infancy ... son of

the Queen of Pamunkey who was wife to an Indian

... called Mc [?] William the father of the said Geo.

Williams ... that 31 years ago [1702] George Williams

and his parents lived where Fran[ci]s Payne now

lives ... John Gar[di]ner deposed the Indians were

forted in Cornwallis' neck about fifty years ago ... "

(Underline, italics, and bracketed contents above

added.  See Heinegg's complete transcription.)  


       The terms "intermarried" and "Native Indian" in contrast with

       "Indian" in this context suggest that George Williams' father

       was probably an Asian or "East Indian" and not an American


            ("Cornwallis' Neck" and the community later named 

               "Pomonkey" are in Charles County, today.)


       John Gardiner (of Nonesuch) here testified apparently in

       support of this claim of George Williams,  whose family

       had also lived in the community around Mattawoman Creek

       (see also "Prince George's Land Records," below).  If Peter

       belonged to the family of George Williams and had had a

       longstanding acquaintance with Gardiner, this could account

       for why we find Peter at Nonesuch, in 1736/7.


       William and Elizabeth are identified in this court record

       only by English calling (given) names.  Complete names

       were typically used to identify individuals in these court

       records.  This appears to be a telling clue that William had

       not inherited an English lineage or surname.   George's

       surname of  "Williams"  very likely was a  "patronym,"

       adapted from his father's name (i.e., son of William),

       probably on the occasion of George's Anglican baptism  

       or when he first attended the College of William and

       Mary (see below).     Elizabeth, a "Pamunkey Indian

       Queen," appears to have been "Mrs. Betty, the Queen

       ("Betty" was a common nickname for "Elizabeth"), who

       succeeded her aunt, "Cockacoeske," as "weroansqua

       or female chief of the Pamunkey upon the death of her

       aunt, in 1686.  Betty's age is unknown.    She was

       referred to in an official document only as the "niece,"

       in 1686.  This and the fact that "Mrs. Betty, the Queen"

       appears as her name on a document only once and 

       much later, in 1701, suggests that Betty might have

       been a young maiden or even a child, in 1686. 

           "Time LineOctober 22, 1701 - A petition

           requesting the confirmation of a sale of

           Pamunkey land to English subjects is

           submitted to the General Court bearing

           the mark and the name, "Mrs. Betty, the

           Queen."     It is thought that Mrs. Betty 

           ..., the niece who succeeded the Pamunkey

           chief Cockacoeske,  [and Ann] are the

           same person."

           (Encyclopedia Virginia. Underline and

            brackets added)

       Betty apparently adopted the name of "Queen Ann"  

       after the royal Queen Anne ascended the throne of

       England (1702), perhaps as a conciliatory gesture

       toward the English at a time when the fortunes of 

       Pamunkey Indians were in decline.  That Betty may

       have been young when she became leader of the 

       Pamunkey is suggested also by the fact that "six

       great men of Pamunkey Town"  co-signed using

       their adopted English names with personal marks

       the first petition bearing the name, "Queen Ann," 

       in 1705/6.    These "great men" may have been 

       Betty's council of trusted advisors from her days

       as a youthful leader of the Pamunkey.


            "Often, Indians held more than one name

            simultaneously, with different names used in

            different situations.


            "Sparse documentation and the Powhatan

            Indians' practice of changing their names on

            important occasions have led to confusion in

            identifying the principal leaders of the


            "Pocahantas  [aka "Amonute," also "Matoaka

            alias Rebecca"],  for instance, had a formal

            given name; a "secret," or highly personal 

            name; and nicknames that were updated 

            throughout her life, sometimes commenting

            on her personality or her position within the


            (Encyclopedia Virginia.   Hyperlinks and

             bracketed content added)


       Since "Elizabeth" and "Betty" and "Ann" were most likely

       one and the same, George may have been the unidentified

       son of "Queen Ann" who was sent to the "Indian school"

       at the College of William and Mary, in 1711.  George's age

       or birth and death dates are not known, but he was living

       with his parents in 1702, and thus was likely a child or

       youth in 1711. 


       George may have used "Elizabeth" instead of "Ann"  

       as his mother's name in this court record because the

       former (as in "Betty") may have been her primary 

       English name.  That Betty probably chose the English

       name,  "Elizabeth,"  also suggests an aspirational

       awareness of English royalty befitting a "Pamunkey

       Queen," since the colony of Virginia was originally

       named for Queen Elizabeth I.  This politic sensibility

       seems evident in choosing as a second English name 

       an honorific of the currently reigning royal, "Queen

       Anne,"  at a time when the Pamunkey Indians 

       undoubtedly were in need of the goodwill of the

       English.    Incidentally, Queen Ann used a unique

       personal mark remarkably similar to an English 

       upper-case cursive "E"  (as in Elizabeth?).   The

       English royal Queen Anne was married to "George,"

       a prince from Denmark  (as in Prince George's

       County).  That Elizabeth— as "Queen Ann," chose

       the name of "George" for her son appears to have

       been an homage to the English royal family, also.


            This court record (p.332) of George's claim includes

            testimony that "Mary Dempsey 58 years deposes she

            knows William ..." (from Heinegg's transcription), so

            William must have still been alive in 1733.   But no

            mention was made of Elizabeth.  This appears to be

            a clue that Elizabeth was already deceased by 1733,

            which would also accommodate the presumptive date

            of Queen Ann's death (1723 or after).

       William must have been recognized as a free man since

       George apparently asserted his lawful claim to this land

       through his father as well as his mother.  George claimed 

       that Charles I (1600-1649) as founder of Maryland had

       "granted" this neck of land to George's "ancestors" the

       Pamunkey Indians, who later by "Mutual agreement of

       the Indians afsd [i.e., aforesigned, or conveyed] their

       part to your petitioners father and his heirs forever." 


       Could "Peter Atterburn alias Williams" have been the

       younger son of William and Elizabeth?   If William did

       not have an inherited English surname, then Peter may

       have had no compelling reason to use the same surname

       as George.  Charles County Court used this extended

       name in this single instance only, apparently— as if "alias

       Williams" was a validation of Peter's legal status and 

       standing as a free person before the court by connecting

       him to William's family.   Peter next appears (1743) in 

       Charles County Court,  and in all subsequent court

       records, as "Peter Atterburn."


           Peter may have had an ulterior reason for choosing

           a different surname.   Peter's desire to identify with

           Europeans and to distance himself from his Native

           American or Asian roots or from African Americans

           in Maryland bearing the "Williams" surname— one

           or more of these could have been a factor.    This

           dispute over land rights on Cornwallis' Neck may

           have even played a role;   we don't know exactly

           when Peter first used the surname that we first

           find recorded as "Atterburn," in 1736.   George's

           status as "heir" might possibly have been a factor,

           although this court record does not make clear 

           whether George's ancestral claim to this land was

           upheld.    Further research is needed to identify

           and locate, if possible, this "George Williams" in

           extant public records of colonial Maryland, which

           might reveal more about his siblings and family. 

           Also, George's father,  William,  might possibly

           have left a recorded Will.


       If William was Peter's father, this could be reflected

       in the naming of Peter's son, "William," apparently

       born to Peter's previous wife in Maryland.

      If Elizabeth was Peter's mother, this could explain the 

       naming of the early 20th-century  "Otterburn School"

       (in "Otterburn Precinct," today) for a "tribe of Indians"

       that once had lived there.  The school was located where

       Peter is known to have lived in Shenandoah County (in

       Warren County, Virginia, today).  No Native American

       tribe in Virginia was known by this or a similar name; 

       "Peter Otterburn" was the obvious referent. 


           We must consider the possibility that, if Peter 

           was the son of William and Elizabeth, whatever

           he initially vocalized in Maryland as a surname 

           could have been based on an Indian name given

           to him by his mother, whether adapted by Peter

           himself to sound more like an English name or

           by those who initially rendered "Atterburn" in



                 "Virginia Indians began adopting English first

                 names after the middle of the seventeenth

                 century.    In the 1680s, a small number of 

                 Indian children who went to work for English

                 farmers were given English first names, and

                 in some county records both names were

                 recorded.  By 1700 some Indian elders took

                 on English first names, sometimes paired with

                 shortened Indian surnames, to be used when

                 dealing with non-Indians and possibly even

                 among themselves.     By 1750,  ...  most

                 Powhatan people [which would have included

                 the Pamunkey] ... had English first [names]

                 and surnames that they apparently used



                 (Encyclopedia Virginia. Underline, hyperlinks,

                  ellipses, and bracketed contents added)


       A 20th-century contractor's inspiration for the naming of

       "Otterburn  School"  may not have been garbled local

       tradition resulting from a memory of Peter's "East Indian"

       ancestry, but actual if vague local memory of a Native 

       American ancestry for the ARTERBURN family, as well

       If Elizabeth was Peter's mother, our family tradition in

       which William's Nancy was remembered as a "full-blooded 

       Indian" may instead refer back to William and Elizabeth—

       who was almost certainly a "full-blooded" Pamunkey. 

       It seems unlikely that Peter's William (whose wife was

       Nancy) would have diverted from what appears to

       have been a predisposition to intermarry with Anglo-

       Europeans that began with his father (Peter) and that

       was continued, apparently, by all of William's children.  


            (According to Merriam-Webster, the pronunciation

             is "Pa·mun·key: \pə' məŋkē\," with the accent on

             on the first syllable.  I have not been able to verify

             whether this is truly the native pronunciation.)


       Testing the Y-DNA of a patrilineal (male) descendant— 

       if one could be found— of George Williams would show

       whether George's father was also likely to have been 

       Peter's father.  Aside from the prospect of DNA evidence,

       we may yet find additional clues in historical records that

       will corroborate this likely scenario of Peter's parents in

       Maryland.   Whether the story of William and Elizabeth

       is also our story poses a very interesting prospect for the

       future of ARTERBURN family research.   We invite you

       to join in the search and help extend the ARTERBURN


   "Received from Francis Payn[e], Peter Atterburn" (1744)
                "John Gardiner, age ca 72; mentions he has known
                Mattawoman 40 years then called St. Thomas' Fresh;
                mentions Old Indian Field ..." 

Francis Pain, age 29 years; mentions Henry Ward ..."

John Ward ... mentions his father, John Ward, Sr.,
                 dec'd, his Pamunkey land ..."

                      Who exactly was the "William Davis" who provided "security"
                      for credit with Glassford (see Dumfries Stores Index) for "Peter     
                      Atterbirn"— landlord, employer, benefactor, relative/in-law,
                      or some combination of these?

"William Davis" in Colonial Maryland and Virginia 

"William Davis" in IGI:  Search With a Life Event/ 
Birth:  Birthplace:  "Germany" 

"William Davis" in the census of Dunmore County (1775)
in district #4 adjacent to that (#3) of Peter and William
(see Supplemental Notes, Appendix #7, p. 598)

"Henry Tanner" and "William Davis" in Charles County
                Court Records, March 1738/9 Court, Liber T#2, Page 537.

                    "Henry Tanner, age about 89, declares that about 
                     30 years ago, he lived on the Plantation now in the
                     possession of Thomas Stone ...."
                   "William Davis, age about 70, declares that about 
                    40 years past, he remembers a bounded white oak 
                    which stood very near the place mentioned in Henry
                    Tanner's deposition ...."
                   (RootsWeb/Marshall ID:   I012916 and I009797)
     (Family Search)

"William Davis Arterburn" (1855-1931) 
    (see Cousins, p. 380)

What connection if any between "Presley Davis" and 
"Presley Arterburn," or "Elijah Davis" and "Elijah
       Arterburn," and Peter's "William Davis?

                      "Jesse Davis"  (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I051076)

                      "Jesse Davis"  (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I046252)

                         w.p. Nelson County, KY (adjacent to Jefferson County)



               Might Peter Arterburn's distinctive personal mark of three wavy 
               lines have reflected memories of his youth working as a sailor 
               or fisherman, or just nostalgia for an earlier life near the coastal  
               waters of the Chesapeake in Maryland, or of something else?

                              "The wavy line is a common sign for water,
                              watercourse, water surface, and the sea."                             
                                (Symbols: Encyclopedia of Western Signs
                                and Ideograms / Carl G. Liungman)

                              Tobacco Coast:  A Maritime History of Chesapeake
                                Bay in the Colonial Era / Arthur Pierce Middleton

                             "John Gardiner" (of "Nonesuch")  

                                (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I047926)

Captain John Gardiner," "mariner"
                                (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I053395)                          



Family Search:  Charles County, Maryland Genealogy

Family Search:  Prince George's County, Maryland Genealogy

MSA:  Charles County Court Records

MSA:  Maryland Government Records  (Jurisdiction:  Search by County)

MSA:  Search the Maryland State Archives Online

Wikipedia:  Haplogroup R1a1  (Y-DNA)

Eupedia:  Haplogroup R1a  (Y-DNA)

National Geographic Society:  Genographic Project

Smithsonian/NMNH:  Beyond Bollywood: Indian Americans Shape the Nation

Miss America 2014:  Nina Davuluri

ABC News:  Indian Ancestry of Princess Diana

Native Heritage Project:  Pamunkey Indians