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The single most compelling research question for ARTERBURN descendants that
remains unanswered:  If Peter Arterburn was of "East Indian" or South Asian
(patrilineal) descentas historical sources attest and Y-DNA testing clearly
supports, then how did Peter come by the "Arterburn/Atterburn" surname?

And a corollary question:  If Peter was the son of the East Indian indentured
servant, John Williamsas the name of  "Peter Atterburn alias Williams"
recorded in Charles County Court (1736) suggests, could "Atterburn/Arterburn"
represent a maternal ancestral surname— in whole or in part or possibly
spelled differently, or was it simply a name that Peter adopted for a new
       The formulation, "Peter Atterburn alias Williams," has not been
       found subsequently in Charles County Court records.  Although
       earlier records that are available have not been searched, this
       entry (1736) may reflect Peter's (b. 1711, age 25) first court 
       appearance and a statement of Peter's bona fides as a free man 
       with standing before the court.  "[A]lias Williams" suggests that  
       the court may have relied on the previously adjudicated status  
       (1706/7) of John Williams in this same court as surety for  
       Peter's status.
       We also have the account of John Gardiner pointing out his 
       (Nonesuch) property boundaries to Peter (1737) around this
       same time, as attested in Peter's later court deposition (1748).  
       This certainly seems a clue that Peter may have been new to
       Nonesuchpossibly even to farming.   
       Johannah Hodgson had purchased John Williams' contract of
       indenture from "Mr. [Edward] Mann," who appears in court
       records of Talbot County, MD (search MSA online; also, cf.
       "Benjamin Guy alias Williams ... a freeman" in Talbot County
       Court, March 1730/1).  Might these be clues that Peter had 
       recently arrived in or returned to Charles County, and/or 
       that he might have had family ties in Talbot County?

DNA testing probably cannot help us find definitive answers to these remaining
questions, but clues may yet be found in the public records of Maryland and
Virginia, or in family records.

Listed below are some resources that may assist further research:

14 January 1706/7)

 Northern Neck Counties" (continually updated)

Who exactly was the "William Davis" who provided "security"
for Peter Arterburn's credit in Prince William County —landlord,   
employer, benefactor, relative/in-law, or some combination
of these?

"William Davis" in Colonial Maryland and Virginia 

"William Davis" in the census of Dunmore County (1775)
in district #4 adjacent to that (#3) of Peter and William
(see Supplemental Notes, Appendix #7, p. 598)

"Henry Tanner" and "William Davis" in Charles County
                Court Records, March 1738/9 Court, Liber T#2, Page 537.

                    "Henry Tanner, age about 89, declares that about 
                     30 years ago, he lived on the Plantation now in the
                     possession of Thomas Stone ...."
                   "William Davis, age about 70, declares that about 
                    40 years past, he remembers a bounded white oak 
                    which stood very near the place mentioned in Henry
                    Tanner's deposition ...."
                (RootsWeb/Marshall ID:   I012916 and I009797)

"William Davis Arterburn" (1855-1931)   (Cousins, p. 380)

What connection if any between
"Presley Davis" and 
"Presley Arterburn," or "Elijah Davis" and "Elijah
        Arterburn," and Peter's "William Davis?

                      "Jesse Davis"  (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I051076)

                      "Jesse Davis"  (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I046252)

                         w.p. Nelson County, KY (adjacent to Jefferson County)


                      Might Peter Arterburn's distinctive personal mark of three wavy 
                      lines have reflected memories of his youth working as a sailor 
                      or fisherman (before 1736?), or just nostalgia for his earlier life  
                      near the coastal waters of the Chesapeake in Maryland?

                              "The wavy line is a common sign for water,
                              watercourse, water surface, and the sea."                             
                                (Symbols: Encyclopedia of Western Signs
                                and Ideograms / Carl G Liungman)

                              Tobacco Coast:  A Maritime History of Chesapeake

                             "John Gardiner" (of "Nonesuch")  

                                (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I047926)

                             "Captain John Gardiner," "mariner"
                                (RootsWeb/Marshall ID: I053395)                          



Family Search:  Charles County, Maryland Genealogy

Family Search:  Talbot County, Maryland Genealogy

MSA:  County (Jurisdiction) Government Records

MSA:  Search the Maryland State Archives Online

Wikipedia:  Haplogroup R-M17

National Geographic Society:  Genographic Project

Smithsonian/NMNH:  Beyond Bollywood: Indian Americans Shape the Nation

Native Heritage Project:  East Indians in Early Colonial Records

Miss America 2014:  Nina Davuluri

ABC News:  Indian Ancestry of Princess Diana