STEWART STUART (royal) Y DNA Project- Background





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This DICTIONARY may come in handy. Click on images and links to see sources, and here if you want to read an OLDER VERSION of this web page. If a Wikipedia quote can not be found via a link below, it can still be found via a search of the history of changes made to each article.
DISCLAIMER: The goal and sacred responsibility of the unpaid administrators of this project is to help their trusting kinsmen to make wise choices (not to sell tests from which they will not benefit). The genealogical, cultural and personal agendas and opinions found on the web page at and its links may not be considered appropriate by any DNA testing company, employee, administrator, moderator, preacher, scientist, web site host or member of a DNA project.

To change your privacy settings, log into your account, select MANAGE PERSONAL INFORMATION> PRIVACY & SHARING> MY DNA RESULTS> WHO CAN VIEW MY DNA RESULTS, etc.

Column # 1 (row # 1)

Welcome to FTDNA's exclusive project for y-DNA tested (R-L744, R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a) descendants of the first

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371                      

We thank Family Tree DNA's President and CEO Bennett Greenspan for creating this project for the patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland on October 29, 2010. His video about DNA testing and genetic genealogy is at

You may JOIN THIS PROJECT no matter what your surname is. Family Tree DNA imposes NO LIMIT to the number of projects that one may join. Ask your project administrators for advice in order to avoid ordering a useless test and requesting a refund.

The following videos explain:

The more you learn about your ancestry via DNA tests the better you will be able to answer your children's questions (DNA never lies). A family, race or civilization that has a genetic identity is more likely to survive. According to research at Emory University:

  • Children who know more about their family history can turn out to be more emotionally resilient than children who don’t.
  • By anchoring oneself in family history, one has a sense of place and security that may facilitate self-confidence and self-competence.

A Y-DNA test of a Scotsman's SALIVA may help him to identify his patrilineal ancestors all the way back to the:

Don't wait until your last male relatives who are willing to have their DNA tested die (the closer to death, the less cooperative some become). No one but you is likely to pay for your relatives' DNA tests.

Which Test Should You Order?

$575 Big Y tests are by far the best way to learn about a man's Y-DNA no matter what his surname. More information about them is at and at

Big Y tests are Family Tree DNA's ONLY tests that:

  • Include all Y-DNA111 (a $359 DNA test) plus 387 other STR markers free of charge.
  • Provide a man's deepest ancestral origins.
  • Uncover new branches (SNPs) on the paternal tree.
  • Find recent branches (SNPs) unique to a man's direct paternal line, his family, and even to himself (this is extremely important).
  • Allow us to construct phylogenetic trees that show exactly how each member of this family is kin to the others (see below).
  • Cover 10 million base-pairs.
  • Test nearly 25,000 known SNPs.

There is about a 50% probability that descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland will be assigned to a branch that has already been discovered if they order a Big Y test during FTDNA's upcoming holiday sales (possibly for not much more than the full cost of a Y-DNA111 test). More than one member of our family is now included in about half of the dozens of branches that have been discovered via Big Y tests. Some of them (e.g., branches S781 and Y14198) now include aristocrats who have impeccable lineages.

Unfortunately, FTDNA does not allow men to order Big Y and other SNP tests unless they first purchase a $59.00 Y-DNA12 or other STR (Short Tandem Repeat) test, e.g., by scrolling down at this link or by telephoning FTDNA at 713-868-1438 Monday - Thursday 9 am to 4:30 pm CST and Friday 9 am to noon. A Big Y test can not be ordered until one's STR test has been batched (possibly a couple weeks after it was ordered, hopefully in time to benefit from a sale).

Your STR results will be displayed next to your kit number in the "Ungrouped" category at the bottom of the "Y-DNA Results" web page at initially, and be assigned to a different category if you test positive for SNP S310 (a.k.a. R-L746) or at a high enough STR level to prove that you are a patrilineal descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland.

Tests for SNP S310 are the cheapest and most reliable way for men to prove with 100% certainty whether or not they are patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland. Those who test positive for SNP S310 can determine to which L746 branch (e.g., S781 or Y14198) of this family they belong via a Big Y (or individual SNP) tests. All of the issue of one of your great-great-great-great-grandmothers descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll if one of her patrilineal cousins tests positive for S781.

Alex Williamson's web page at and the L746 phylogenetic trees that Administrators Larry and Desideriu maintain below are based on their analysis of Big Y test results, and show SNPs that distinguish the branches to which some members of this Stewart family belong.

The results of the SNP tests that are sold to first time customers by other companies are not displayed at unless you add them as a suffix to your surname, e.g., Stewart (781+), or Stewart (781-).

SNP vs. STR Tests

According to the toggled answer to a question at "Unlike Geno 2.0 and related technologies, Big Y is able to detect new branch markers that are unique to your paternal lineage, surname, or even you". Y-DNA 111 test results (plus about four times as many STR markers that may be even more useful) are included free of charge in the results of a Big Y test!

Since Y-DNA111, etc. STR marker values are far too unstable (mutate back and forth too frequently) to provide much useful information about the branches to which very distantly related cousins belong (click here for more details and actual proof), you may never benefit from them.

Patrilineal cousins who are related to each other closely enough to trace their kinship genealogically without the help of a DNA test usually have almost identical STR test results. This project's STR results pages allow you to compare your STR results to those of each L746+ Big Y tester.

You can order tests for a Big Y tester's unique SNPs (i.e., novel variants) if you think that you and he belong to the same branch, e.g., because you and he have some of the same off-modal STR marker values. At least one DNA testing company will be willing to create a test for any newly discovered SNP.

How May We Benefit From Our SNP Test Results?

This ~6 minute VIDEO explains how experts can use the results of Big Y and other Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) tests to scientifically prove exactly how all of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.

Read column # 7 below about what to do after your Big Y test results are delivered.

How To Order Individual SNP Tests From FTDNA

If you want to order an individual SNP test, login to your MyFTDNA account and:

  • Click ORDER AN UPGRADE in the upper right corner.
  • Click ORDER AN ADVANCED TEST, select SNP from the Test Type menu and type the name of the SNP, e.g., S781.
  • Click FIND, ADD, ORDER NOW, etc.

Autosomal DNA

One may be able to find a Stewart cousin via genealogical research or via an autosomal test (e.g., Family Finder) of one's own DNA. Identifying the common ancestor of distantly related cousins via shared autosomal DNA segments can be frustrating. Cousins may or may not inherit enough of the same DNA to show that they have a common ancestor.

  • A child randomly receives half of his autosomal DNA from his mother and half from his father.
  • First Cousins may inherit a quarter of their DNA from one of their common grandparents.
  • Second Cousins may inherit an eighth of their DNA from their common great-Gparents.
  • Third Cousins may inherit a sixteenth of their DNA from their common ggGparents.
  • Fourth Cousins may inherit a 32nd of their DNA from their common gggGparents.
  • Fifth Cousins may inherit a 64th of their DNA from their common ggggGparents.
  • Sixth Cousins may inherit 128th of their DNA from their common gggggGparents - segments of DNA become so small at this level and beyond that accurate comparisons may not be possible.


For security reasons we want to make sure that only members of this family and their closest DF41 cousins have access to this project. Administrators may allow members who have not had Y-DNA tests to remain in this project if they post genealogical evidence that they qualify. The Y-DNA test results of most of its members prove that they do. Please remove yourself from this project if you do not, e.g., if:

  • The majority of your matches at the Y-37 level or higher do not have a version of the surname Stewart.
  • The name of your haplogroup does not begin with the letter "R-".
  • At the Y-DNA67 level, over nine of your STR marker values differ from 181994's at the bottom of the "Y-DNA Results" web page.
  • Your completed Y-DNA37 or higher test results remain in the "Ungrouped" category for more than one week.
  • You test negative for SNP S310 (a.k.a. R-L746).

Those who are mistakenly removed from this project may contact an administrator.

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 2.

Column # 2 claims that: "About 20% of all men who carry the famous surname Stewart share Sir John of Bonkyll’s lineage while 30% are descended from Sir John’s brother, James Stewart, the 5th High Steward of Scotland (died 16 July 1309)." See the genealogical chart at

The claim that about 50% of the Stewarts in Scotland are patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland may not be true. Less than 25% of the Stewarts in FTDNA's database (and the Stewarts in the UK for whose tests the General Fund of this project paid) do.

Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (S781)

About 50 members of this project had been tested for SNP S781 (R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a1) by FTDNA or one of its competitors by Feb/4/2015. About 40% tested positive and about a third added their test results to their surnames as a suffix in order to facilitate subgrouping, etc.

The Stewarts of Appin, the Duke of Buccleuch and everyone who tests positive for SNP S781 descends from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (died 22 July 1298 at the Battle of Falkirk). FTDNA's project for Sir John's patrilineal descendants is at Some of their Big Y test results are posted in the S781 Phylogenetic Tree below and at All or part of Sir John's patrilineal descendants via the Lennox line (e.g. King James I of England) test positive for both S781 and S768. Sir John's patrilineal descendants via other lines test S781+ and S768-.

a flat stone which is said to mark the grave of Sir John Stewart

Sir John Stewart, Sheriff of Bute (Y14198)

Members of this project's A1e group belong to the Stewart-Bute branch of our family according to the results of their Big Y tests (all of them descend from Scottish King Robert II via Sir John Stewart, sheriff of Bute, and test positive for SNP Y14198)! FTDNA created a project that is exclusively for them at, where those who are interested can learn more about their goals, FREE DNA TEST offers, etc.

Sir John Stewart Baron of Auchingoun & Blackhall (ZZ52)

Members of this project's A1h group belong to the branch of our family that descends from Scottish King Robert III via his son Sir John Stewart, Baron of Auchingoun and Blackhall. Some of his descendants tested positive for SNP ZZ52). FTDNA may create a project that is exclusively for this branch if one of its members is willing to administer it.

The Big Y test results of Earl Castle Stewart (Y15896+) confirmed his descent from Robert Stewart, the first Duke of Albany, according to this Bannockburn web page.

English Imperialism

According to Wikipedia, "When the Scottish revolt against Edward I broke out in July 1297, James Stewart the 5th High Steward of Scotland led into rebellion a further group of disaffected Scots, including: Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, MacDuff, the son of the earl of Fife, and the young Robert the Bruce. The future king was now twenty-two, and in joining the rebels he seems to have been acting independently of his father, who took no part in the rebellion and appears to have abandoned Annandale once more for the safety of Carlisle. It appears that Robert Bruce had fallen under the influence of his grandfather’s friends, Wishart and Stewart, who had inspired him to patriotic resistance. With the outbreak of the revolt, Robert left Carlisle and made his way to Annandale, where he called together the knights of his ancestral lands and, according to the English chronicler Walter of Guisborough, addressed them thus: 'No man holds his flesh and blood in hatred, and I am no exception. I must join my own people and the nation in whom I was born'." Would Scots heed his call today?

Bannockburn Live is a two day event marking the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn, on Saturday 28 and Sunday 29 June 2014 from 10am - 7pm.

A translation of the Latin on the plaque above: "My Son, Freedom is best, I tell thee true, of all things to be won. Then never live within the Bond of Slavery." "Bas Agus Buaidh" (Death and Victory). Some Celts think that their only nation is people of their own race and ancestry, that to rule or be ruled by anyone else is imperialism and slavery, and that a member of another nation is a foreigner regardless of where he was born and what government issued his passport. They would rather govern themselves than to be ruled by the Houses of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Hanover, by the U.S., and by any regime whose policy is to obliterate all racial and national identities except their own, e.g., via the Anglo-Saxon's American and "British" empires and religions.

James' son Walter fought at Bannockburn and helped separatist William Wallace to win Scotland's independence. Walter married the daughter of Robert Bruce I (died on 7 June 1329). Their son became Robert II, the first Stewart king.

How May We Help Each Other?

The more members of a project and its unpaid administrators cooperate, e.g., by ordering Big Y tests and following Big Y analyst Larry's suggestions, the more likely their test results will continue to be analyzed and included in their tables and phylogenetic trees, the easier, faster, better and less expensive their genealogical progress will be, the later they may retire, and the more they may suffer by working themselves to death at computers. So why impede genetic genealogists whom one wants to punish, e.g. by not providing a sample of one's DNA, or participating in their research projects?

The only way to discover your branch and terminal SNPs is probably via a Big Y test. Knowing who belongs to your branch may help you to achieve your genealogical goals, e.g., by collaborating with your nearest Big Y matches.

For you to add the terminal SNP of the branch to which you belong as a suffix (generational title) to your surname, e.g., Stewart (L745+), Stewart (S781+) or Stewart (Y14198+), may be helpful. Just:

1) Log in to your FTDNA account.
4) Add a suffix (generational title) to your surname, e.g., STEWART (L745+)

If you want to help and be helped, please join these projects:

  • STUART project (if you descend from the first High Steward of Scotland).
  • R-S781 project (if you descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll).
  • Stewart-Bute project (if you descend from Sir John Stewart, Sheriff of Bute).
  • R-DF41 project (L746 is downstream of Haplogroup DF41).

The more members of your branch order Big Y and other SNP tests the more likely we will be able to create pedigrees that show exactly how all of them are related to each other. Don't expect anyone but a genealogist to pay for his own tests and to contribute a sample of his DNA (especially to a stranger), no matter how much you need it.

Diana Gale Matthiesen stated: "Genealogy is like a jigsaw puzzle... If everyone hides their piece of the puzzle, none of us will get anywhere ... there are some serious practical considerations relevant to DNA projects that make lineage-sharing imperative." The fewer make their test results and the name, etc. of their earliest genealogically traced patrilineal ancestor private, the sooner we may determine exactly how all of us are related to each other.

Some of the goals of FTDNA's Royal Stewart project are to:

  • Recruit as many patrilineal descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland as possible, no matter what their surnames and geographic locations may be.
  • Help them to have their DNA tested for genealogical purposes by providing information and financial assistance to those who request it (please help us to recruit more European volunteers for FREE DNA TESTS).
  • Use their test results and pedigrees to determine exactly how they are related to each other and to which branch (sept or stirpes) of this GENS they belong.

Compare our DF13 Clan Colla cousins' FTDNA project administrators' achievements and Big Y test results to this family's if you want to see what could be better.

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Column # 3

Who Were the First Farmers?

A collection of nine stone masks found in Israel’s Judean hills are believed to be close to 9,000 years old. The masks are typically between 11 and 12 inches in height and are thought to have been used by early farmers in important ancestral rituals.

Balaresque et al. state: "The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men... The distribution of this lineage, the diversity within it, and estimates of its age all suggest that it spread with farming from the Near East. Taken with evidence on the origins of other lineages, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes descend from Near Eastern farmers... Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic ... in contrast, most maternal lineages descend from hunter-gatherers ..." i.e. most Europeans have Crô-Magnon mitochondrial DNA.

According to this Wikipedia article about haplogroup (HG) R1b1a2 (a.k.a. R-M269), "the distribution of R1b STR variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming... "The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%."

Image # 9 above from a 1350 BC seal shows gangly Fertile Crescent farmers with the physical characteristics of Northern Europeans, not those of Crô-Magnon hunter-gatherers and Semitic herdsmen. If you want more evidence, click on the picture and read the book from which it came. The oval in the sky symbolizes the moon, which regulated plantings. The cross represents the Sun, a Celtic symbol for Life and God (Abrahamic faiths repurposed Celtic holidays too, e.g., Easter).

The ancestors of Northern Europeans, e.g., Celts, were the first farmers. They emigrated from the Sahel to the Fertile Crescent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and into Europe after the end of the last glacial period.

"Migration from Arabia into the Fertile Crescent has been a constant pattern of human movement in the Middle East since antiquity. As such, the Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original Semitic Urheimat by a majority of scholars. Older theories positing Mesopotamia as the Semitic homeland were severely undermined by the identification of the non-Semitic Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia in the late 19th century..."

Quote from Compare this version to the revision at if you want to see a fine example of how Wikipedia's biased censors distort the truth.

The Unger's Bible Dictionary (1957) explanation of why Phoenicians are considered Semitic by anthropologists and ethnologists is that Phoenicians "must have succumbed to the pressure of racial and linguistic intermixture with Semites with the loss of their own ethnic predominance " because Canaan "was like a bridge between Egypt and great Semitic empires". Are the Amorites and other Hamitic farming nations of Canaan called Semitic despite genetic, biblical, etc. evidence to the contrary because their Indo-Hittite speaking ancestors had to adopt a Semitic written language? HG J is found in greatest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula (not in the Fertile Crescent).

More information about this subject is at

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Column # 4

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 5 (row # 2).

Column # 5 (row # 2)

YFull Experimental YTree v3.18 at 09 December 2015

  • R-L744 A475 * S797 * S790 ... 25 SNPs formed 3900 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp info
    • R-L744*
      • id:YF04357
      • id:YF03673 SCT
      • id:YF03554 SCT
      • id:YF02447
      • id:YF02086 GBR [GB-DBY]
      • id:YF02025
      • id:YF01975
    • R-Y14197 Y14197 * Y14198 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp info
      • id:YF03214
      • id:YF02294 SCT
    • R-Y4954 Z17581/Y4954 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp info
    • R-S781 S781 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 600 ybp info
      • R-S781*
        • id:YF05289
        • id:YF03473
        • id:YF02955
        • id:YF02682
        • id:YF02561
        • id:YF02406
        • id:YF02381 GBR [GB-ANT]
        • id:YF02313
        • id:YF02184
      • R-A306 A307 * A308 * A306 ... 1 SNPs formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 200 ybp info
        • id:YF03362
        • id:YF01691
      • R-Y11635 A889/Y11635 formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp info
        • id:YF02698
        • id:YF02080
      • R-A922 A922 formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp info
        • R-A922*
          • id:YF02972
        • R-Y14048 Y14048 * A921/Y14230 formed 300 ybp, TMRCA 125 ybp info
          • id:YF03242
          • id:YF02179

YFULL's phylogenetic tree above shows:

  • The names of the SNPs via which some branches of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland can be identified.
  • Estimates of how long ago:
    • Those branch mutations occurred.
    • The common ancestor of some branches of this family lived.

Age estimation algorithm presented in article Defining a New Rate Constant for Y-Chromosome SNPs based on Full Sequencing Data by Adamov, Guryanov, Korzhavin, Tagankin, Urasin (2015).

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Column # 6

Our Phylogenetic Tree's Foundation Is Under Construction

QUESTION: "Isn't it strange that none of the testers have any SNPs in common? I would have thought some type of pattern would have emerged by now."

ANSWER: "Most of it was planned that way.

A few months ago we developed a strategy to try to get as many branches identified through BigY as we could to develop a framework. Most of the kits that have tested so far were targeted under that strategy which, if successful, would result in one kit per branch. We still have a few of the targeted kits pending which may identify yet more branches.

But, now that we have a relatively comprehensive framework, additional tests that were not in our targeted set should start the pairing process.

Larry Walker"

Note: About half of our current NGS Testers have already been coupled with members of their own branch of our R-L746 Gens according to Graph # 1 below. Larry's June, 2014 recommendations for Big Y tests were based on genetic distance (shared off-modal branch marker values and SNPs indicate kinship more reliably).

An Analysis of the Big Y Results of some R-S781 Testers

We thank FTDNA's brilliant and hard working Stuart project administrator Desideriu for his "S781 Phylogenetic Tree" below and for his Analysis of the Big Y Test Results of ALL descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland. The lastest versions of his working drafts are at:

If you want your Big Y results to be added to Desideriu's tables:

  • Download and store your .bam files on Google Drive (see the instructions near the bottom of this web page).
  • Send the link needed to access them to Desideriu.

You may:

  • Order a book in French (profits are donated to the General Funds of FTDNA's Stewart projects as needed) about the well-documented and exciting military, etc. history of Desideriu's ancestors in Corsica, etc.
  • Click here to download a free .pdf version thereof.

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Column # 7 (row # 3)

What a Big Y tester can do in order to benefit from his Big Y results after FTDNA delivers them:

We are fortunate that NGS expert Larry Walker analyzes the Big Y test results of descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland, discovers terminal SNPs via which their branches can be identified, and lists them in Graph # 1 above so that those who did not order an NGS test can prove to which branches they belong (and thereby facilitate their genealogical research) via à la carte SNP tests that cost between $15 and $40.

FTDNA's Big Y Novel Variants report and VCF file only show the markers that meet FTDNA's quality threshold. This means that we cannot assume that any potential SNP is negative if it is shown as “rejected”, or if it is not shown on the Novel Variants report in the VCF file.

Yfull will help us to obtain full utility from your Big Y test by analysing and permanently storing your results for $49 if you:

  1. Telephone FTDNA at (713) 868-1438 or email and request that a DOWNLOAD.BAM FILE button be added to your Big Y Results web page as soon as possible.
  2. Login to your FTDNA account about six weeks later (if FTDNA says two days or months it may take five).
  3. Click on the “BigY Results” button near the bottom of the page.
  4. Click on the blue “Download Raw Data” button (not the “Export CSV" button).
  5. A pop-up should appear. Click on the green “Download BAM” button (NOT the “Download VCF” button). Contact the FTDNA help desk and ask for one if you do not see one. A Chrome browser user reported that it took about ten minutes to download a ~750 MB file named "" and about an hour to upload it to YFull. More info about the BAM specification is at
  6. Temporarily save your .BAM file on your Desktop or in a directory that you can remember.
  7. Click the “Order Now” button near the bottom of the web page at Some people confuse YFULL with a different business named Full Genomes Corporation (FGC) that markets a product frequently referred to as ‘Full Y’.
  8. Fill out the form. For “Source of raw data”, select “Upload .BAM file from my computer” (the first option). Click on the temporary link that Yfull immediately emails to you, add your .bam file to the upload queue and click the START button.
  9. Solve the anti-spam puzzle and click the “Order Now” button.
  10. You may delete FTDNA's .zip file from your computer after YFull emails your YFull ID and temporary password to you, or store it on Google Drive in case you need it later.
  11. YFull will bill you $49 after it completes its interpretation of your Y-Chr Sequence about three weeks later. You may then join Yfull's "R-L746, "R-S781, R-DF41" and "R-L21" Groups so that their administrators can compare your ~500 off-modal STR marker values to the modes of all of the Yfull Groups that you join, and see your raw data (ChrY positions, "private" variants, known SNPs, STRs, etc.).

Note: This will give direct access to your YFull analysis to administrators of FTDNA's exclusive projects for descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland.

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Column # 8.

Administrator Larry's Recommenations

From: A Big Y Tester

Dear Larry Walker,

Thank you for your preliminary analysis.
I assume you already have access to the data.
Is there anything more I need to provide anyone with?

From: Larry Walker
RE: Congratulations on Big Y results

Dear Big Y Tester,

Your valuable Big Y test results will be used to develop the phylogenetic map of mankind if you join the:

After joining, you should receive a request from an admin or co-admin of each project (I am CCing them) telling you what raw data they would like for you to provide and requesting your permission to use it. That will get you into:

From my end, I recommend that you join which will cost another $49, but IMHO is well worth it.

Over time (I have a large backlog) I will eventually browse your BAM data at Yfull to confirm the status (+ or -) and read quality of over 700 novel variants. Several good reasons to join YFull that do not include anything that I might do are:

  • Other than YFull, everything above is being done by individual volunteers. If any of us gets run over by a truck, then whatever we are providing goes Kaput. YFull is run as a business by a team, so is not vulnerable to the individual casualty risk.
  • YFull provides complete BAM file analysis including Y-STRs and mtDNA (what you get from the rest of us is partial) with a great set of on-line reports and tools. See for examples, or go to and login as email “”, password “yfull” for a hands-on sample.
  • YFull's experimental tree for our R-DF41/CTS2501/ subclade includes private as well as public SNPs, and is updated every 2 to 4 weeks.

I hope that FTDNA and/or FGC will eventually evolve to providing a similar level of analysis and access, but YFull is the only game in town that I know of for now.

That is probably enough for now.

Larry Walker

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Column # 9.

Administrator Larry's Request

NGS expert Larry Walker Larry prefers that your .BAM file be interpreted by YFULL: "ANYBODY WHO HAS BIGY (or FGC) SHOULD PLEASE-PLEASE-PLEASE JOIN YFULL!!!... While processing new YFull data in preparation for the diagram at for kit 52062 Miller, I found it positive for 17326894CA and 7311229CT which had not been called in the FTDNA reports. And, I found kit 82890 Morrison positive for 7311229CT which had not been called in the FTDNA reports. So, I developed the SPECULATIVE diagram on the ASSUMPTION that all Q’s might be positive (but not called by FTDNA) for those two novel variants. IF CONFIRMED for all of the remaining kits through YFull, it rectifies the problems contained in the online diagram." See FORUM.

Shall We Take the Next Step?

The results of your Y-DNA67 test would be useless if you were the only descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland who ordered it. More descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland have ordered Big Y and Y-DNA111 STR tests than the average Stewart family because of their extraordinary family spirit and because FTDNA created an exclusive project for them.

Shall we take the next step? 148478 Thomas (S781-) tried to get the ball rolling by being the first to order an FGC test. S781+ Administrator Desideriu ordered an FGC test on Nov/04/2014. Were their efforts in vain?

A $575 Big Y test covers about 75% of the SNPs in ISOGG's database, and about 70% of the private SNPs that an $775 Y Elite 2 test covers. A test that covers all 14.6 million bases costs even more.

SNP L746 a.k.a. S310

"We are phasing over to favoring the L746 designation for the triad as L744 (adjoins a possible deletion) and L745 (a deletion) can be problematic to identify with next generation sequencing (NGS) and has yielded some false negatives."

"As we are now at a level where identifying branches from STR results appears to be just about impossible, that makes everybody who is willing to invest in a Big Y test a 'priority candidate'".

"Big Y analyst Larry also wrote: ". . .we have covered most, or all, readily identifiable high priority candidates for identification of new branches. ANY additional BigY tests now will either help refine the branches that we have identified, or will identify new branches. Any branch or twig on the box diagram in “Graph #1” that has more than 1 novel variant shown would benefit from refinement."

"... there appears to be no clear indicator from either phylogenetic trees or spreadsheet examination of STR results for projecting whether a person can be expected to test either positive or negative for S781." Must the STR haplotypes of all grandsons of Walter the third High Steward have been identical to the Mode of this entire Stewart family therefore?

" ... 148478 Thomas tested S781-, so whatever hope we had that his FGC test would help clarify the S781+ group is gone. After looking at GD’s, I think that he may end up as a third kit in the Pierce-Thompson cluster."

"Anyway, that is just my opinion. Different people will look at the same data and develop different opinions. The way I see things for now are posted at a permalink for whatever it is worth. That Graph is a LOT of work, so I will not update it very often."

Administrator Larry may update Graph # 1 above, and recommend more SNP tests after FTDNA delivers more results. These results may make it easier for some S781+ and S781- Stewarts to determine to which branch they belong by ordering individual SNP tests instead of Big Y tests (~$500).

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 10.

Column # 10.

Our Big Y Analyst's Important Suggestions

I thank FTDNA's DF41 project co-administrator Larry Walker for writing on Dec 29, 2015:

"Dear XXXX Stewart,

I see from our BigY match that you are DF41+ CTS2501+. In order to get the most out of your BigY data, I have three suggestions:

First, join FTDNA’s R-DF41/R-CTS2501 Project at It is free.

Second, join The Big Tree at See tab at top of page for instructions. It is also free.

Third, join See FAQ for instructions. It has a one-time cost of $49 US. After your account is fully active (you have paid), please join YFull’s R-L21 and R-DF41/CTS2501 Groups. See examples of what you get at

Both The Big Tree and YFull maintain similar Trees, but there are some interpretation differences and each includes features that are not included in the other. See Therefore, I recommend that you join both.

Larry Walker, FTDNA kit 240201
FTDNA R-DF41/CTS2501 co-admin"

Branches of the R-S781 family

The left column of Administrator Larry's Graph # 1 below shows exactly how some descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.
All of them belong to the R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a branch of an ISOGG tree that includes all of the descendants of the y-LCA of every living race.
Click on the DF41 phylogenetic tree below if you want to see only the Stewart (S310/R-L746) part of it.

Branches of the DF41 family

Column # 11 (row # 4)

Group: R-S781 → Y-STR results

FTDNA's servers do not allow the useful background colors of the cells in the tables below to be displayed.

Parts of colorized ~500 STR marker Tables # 1 and # 2 below were copied from a similar table at (login required) on 5/18/2016.

In Tables # 1 and # 2 below:

  • Colored cells in rows with ID numbers contain off-modal marker values.
  • The five cell colors in the row that displays the names of STR markers indicate to which of five Y-DNA111 panels each marker belongs.
  • Marker values positioned on the left side of a cell indicate low confidence or that there are alternative allele/alleles.
  • That YF02561, YF02313 and YF02698 have the off-modal value of 9 instead of the modal value 13 for marker DYR 68.3 is interesting (see column 201 in Table # 1).

That STR marker values are included in Big Y results is a coincidence as far as FTDNA is concerned. Y-DNA111 tests provide more reliable readings of some marker values, e.g., red font in the top row of Table # 1 indicates four markers (DYS 447, DYS 490, DYS 572 and DYS 617) whose values may be included in Y-DNA111 but not in Big Y test results (see columns # 262, 302, 374 and 409).

"A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y-chromosome. Y-STRs are often used in forensics, paternity, and genealogical DNA testing. Y-STRs are taken specifically from the male Y chromosome. These Y-STRs provide a weaker analysis than autosomal STRs because the Y chromosome is only found in males, which are only passed down by the father, making the Y chromosome in any paternal line practically identical. This causes a significantly smaller amount of distinction between Y-STR samples. © Wikipedia"

STR marker values can not indicate to which branches distantly related cousins belong as well as SNPs can, e.g., in Desideriu's table at

Column # 12

Are the Results of FTDNA's STR Tests Worth What They Cost?

Written 16E17 by Stewart (143035 YF02381 S781 Bonkyll branch)

The attached 35KB file named may not be displayed correctly unless downloaded (always download and scan attachments before opening them).

I created Table # 1 below because I want to know whether or not the results of FTDNA's Y-DNA111, etc. STR tests are useful enough to justify their cost (~$359 each) to Big Y testers. A similar table may never have been created by anyone else. I hope that others will produce better tables and improve mine, which may contain human errors (I manually processed some of the information in it).

The STR marker values displayed in Table # 1 below came from:

The background colors of the cells in the third row of Table # 1 below (or attached) indicate to which FTDNA Y-111 category some of these markers were assigned.

Column # 13

The unnumbered cells with red backgrounds in row # 2 below indicate columns whose marker values were imported from FTDNA's Y-DNA111 tables because they may be more reliable than YFULL's.

Off-modal STR marker values are shown in Table # 1 only if they are shared by one or more of those whose ID numbers are listed below. I tentatively grouped them according to my interpretation of their SNP and STR marker values. I hope that greater men than I can group them better.

Can the analytical software that is used by Alex Williamson, etc. process the 60 (out of ~500) YFULL STR marker values shown in Table # 1 as well as it can process the results of FTDNA's Y-DNA111, etc. STR tests?

A ~$60 Y-DNA12 test must be bought before FTDNA allows one to buy a Big Y test. I recommend that no other STR test be bought until after one has had a Big Y test (which includes ~500 STR markers).

1Column # >123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960
2Table # 1 compares the off modal STR Marker Values of members of YFULL's S781 YFull Group.Marker # >23 1521233347485660638085889899113125127130131159205214217220226229242 245246274277287291300309315329330331340359367402408410445461475476477 478479480485489
3Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTerminal SNPs (Unique Variants)CountryHaplogroup columnCDY .1CDY .2CDY y111DYF 383.2DYF 386.2DYF 386.4DYF 393DYF 401.2DYF 403.1DYF 407.2DYF 409.2DYF 411.1DYR 112DYR 117DYR 12DYR 125.1DYR 125.2DYR 139DYR 159DYR 161DYR 164DYR 165DYR 33DYR 68.3DYR 76DYR 79DYR 81DYR 88.1DYR 90DYS 385.2DYS 385.2 y111DYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 456DYS 459.2DYS 467DYS 471DYS 481DYS 493DYS 500DYS 516DYS 517DYS 518DYS 527.2DYS 547DYS 557DYS 599DYS 612DYS 614DYS 656n/aDYS 685DYS 708DYS 709DYS 710DYS 710 y111DYS 711DYS 712DYS 713DYS 718DYS 722
4MIN 37 91114251425121291361024261714152240149121634171413 29241591226229131313313342152231183439282135356420421420
5MODE 37 9141426162612131114710262718151623411413131634181514 2924151013272210131314323542162233183539282136366521421521
6MAX 38 10141527172713131114711262718151623411513141735191614 3025161013282210141415333643162234193742292236376821451522
7A1a01E16164YF016917983139 GA / A309, 9108372 AT / A308, 23963147 AG / A306, 23998732 GA / A307 R-A306363736-3691115261726131311147102627181516xx141313163418x14142924151013272210x1414323642152233183439282235.2366521421521
8A1a01E15052YF03362A309, FGC34911, A308, FGC34912, FGC34914, FGC34917, A306, A307 R-A306xx36-379141526172613131114710xx1815162341149121634181614142925151013272210141414x334215223118x392922x36x21421521
9A1a02251918YF02184A5026, 2903315 CT, 8675792 GA, 15817682 AG, 17286590 CT, 18729831 AG, 21628621 AG R-S781373737-3791414261626121311147102526181416xx1413131634181515152925151013272310131314323542162331183539292135.2356521421521
10A1a03315522YF0208019061777 CA / A888, 20806568 AG / A889 R-Y11635363736-3891414261626121311137102627181516xx141314x35171514142924151012272291313153235421622331836392821x36x21421422
11A1a03a349908YF026987395675 CG, 15476784 AG, 17191410 TC, A889 R-Y11635xx36-37101415261627121311137102627181515234114914x3518151414292415101227229131315323542162233183539282136366721421522
12A1a12183344YF0347315016482 CG R-S781363736-37914142616271213111371026271815x2341141314163518151414292415101327229x131432354216223318343928213636x20421521
13A1a05a187778YF021798439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922 R-Y14048xx36-36x141425162612139146112527171516xx141314163417141313292415101326229x131432354316223318xx2821x37x21xx21
14A1a05a329057YF032428439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922 R-Y14048xx36-37914142514261313914611262717151623401413141634181414142924151013262291413143233431622341835392821x376821421521
15A1a05b272860YF02972A1a05b - 9647644 GA, A922 R-Y14048363736-379141427162612139147102627171516234014131416341814141429241510132822913131431354316223318353928213636672042x21
16A1a06143035YF023816188606 AG, 7538242 CT, 7699499 CT, 9146901 GA, 9511177 CT, 14005493 GA, 14200031 AG, 15861256 CT, 22461955 CGN. IreR-S781353735-3791114271625121311147102527181516xx151313x34x161414292415913282210141314323542162232xx3928213535x21421521
17A1a04128499YF0231317423425 CT / A919, 19093413 CT / A920 R-S781363836-3891414261526121211147102526181515xx141313x341716141430241610132722101413143234421522331835402821x35662143x21
18A1a0849412YF025616898539 CG, A2509, 9146656 GA, 16676179 GA, 16906723 TC, A2510, A2511, 23823495 TC R-S781363836-3891115261626121211147102426181516234114913173419141414302415913272210x13133135421522331837x2821x x21x1520
19A1a1148694YF05289A5027, A5031, 23050176 TC R-S781363636-3691114261626121311147102626181415224114131417x17151414292415101327239x1314323542152334183440282135.235662043x21
20A1a09115205YF02682A5023, 15711277 CT, A5025 R-S781363736-3710141426162612131114710262718141622411510.113173419161313292415101327221013131432354216223119363928213636642042x21
21A1a10248425YF0295514692639 AG, A5024, 16775043 AG, 17355378 AG, A5028, A5032 R-S781363936-399111526162612121114710262718151623411413131634181514143025161013272210131314313542152231193442292135.2 6521451521
22A1a07235915YF024062682514 AT, 13135747 GT, 15858709 GA, 19003150 GA, 22458222 AG, 22461696 GC R-S781363736-3791314261626121211147102527181516xx1413131634181514142924151013272210x131433354216223318x4028213636x21431421

This Table # 2 compares the ~500 STR Marker Values of some descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll who belong to this S781 YFull Group.Marker # >123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503
Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTerminal SNPs (Unique Variants)CountryHaplogroup columnATA 71D03CDY .1CDY .2DXY S156DYF 371.1DYF 371.2DYF 371.3DYF 371.4DYF 380.1DYF 380.2DYF 381.1DYF 381.2DYF 382DYF 383.1DYF 383.2DYF 384.1DYF 384.2DYF 385.1DYF 385.2DYF 386.1DYF 386.2DYF 386.3DYF 386.4DYF 387.1DYF 387.2DYF 389DYF 390DYF 390.1DYF 390.2DYF 391.1DYF 391.2DYF 392DYF 393DYF 394DYF 395.1DYF 395.2DYF 396.1DYF 396.2DYF 398.1DYF 398.2DYF 399.1DYF 399.2DYF 399.3DYF 400.1DYF 400.2DYF 401.1DYF 401.2DYF 403.1DYF 403.2DYF 404.1DYF 404.2DYF 405.1DYF 405.2DYF 406DYF 407.1DYF 407.2DYF 408.1DYF 408.2DYF 409.1DYF 409.2DYF 410.1DYF 410.2DYF 411.1DYF 411.2DYF 412.1DYF 412.2DYR 1DYR 10DYR 100DYR 101DYR 102DYR 103DYR 104DYR 105DYR 106DYR 107DYR 108DYR 110DYR 111DYR 112DYR 113DYR 114DYR 115DYR 116DYR 117DYR 118DYR 119DYR 12DYR 120DYR 121.1DYR 121.2DYR 122.1DYR 122.2DYR 123DYR 124.1DYR 124.2DYR 124.3DYR 125.1DYR 125.2DYR 126DYR 127DYR 128.1DYR 128.2DYR 13DYR 130DYR 131DYR 132.1DYR 132.2DYR 135DYR 136DYR 137DYR 138DYR 139DYR 14DYR 143DYR 144DYR 146DYR 15DYR 150DYR 152DYR 154DYR 156DYR 157DYR 158DYR 159DYR 160DYR 161DYR 162DYR 163DYR 164DYR 165DYR 166DYR 167DYR 168DYR 169DYR 170DYR 171DYR 17.1DYR 172DYR 17.2DYR 173DYR 17.3DYR 174DYR 175DYR 18.1DYR 18.2DYR 19DYR 2DYR 20DYR 23DYR 26DYR 27DYR 28DYR 29DYR 3DYR 30DYR 31DYR 32DYR 33DYR 35.1DYR 35.2DYR 36.1DYR 36.2DYR 38.1DYR 38.2DYR 39DYR 40DYR 41DYR 43DYR 44DYR 45.1DYR 45.2DYR 45.3DYR 46DYR 47DYR 48DYR 49DYR 5DYR 51DYR 52DYR 54DYR 55DYR 56DYR 57DYR 58.1DYR 58.2DYR 59DYR 6DYR 60DYR 61DYR 62DYR 63.1DYR 63.2DYR 64.1DYR 64.2DYR 65DYR 66.1DYR 66.2DYR 67.1DYR 67.2DYR 67.3DYR 67.4DYR 68.1DYR 68.2DYR 68.3DYR 68.4DYR 69DYR 7DYR 70DYR 71DYR 73DYR 74DYR 75DYR 76DYR 77DYR 78DYR 79DYR 8DYR 80DYR 81DYR 82DYR 83DYR 84DYR 85DYR 87DYR 88.1DYR 88.2DYR 89DYR 90DYR 91DYR 9.1DYR 92DYR 9.2DYR 93DYR 94DYR 95DYR 96DYR 97DYR 99DYS 19/394DYS 385.1DYS 385.2DYS 388DYS 389IDYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 391DYS 392DYS 393DYS 413.1DYS 413.2DYS 425DYS 426DYS 434DYS 435DYS 436DYS 437DYS 438DYS 439DYS 441DYS 442DYS 443DYS 444DYS 445DYS 446DYS 447DYS 448DYS 449DYS 450DYS 452DYS 453DYS 454DYS 455DYS 456DYS 458DYS 459.1DYS 459.2DYS 460DYS 461DYS 462DYS 463DYS 464.1DYS 464.2DYS 464.3DYS 464.4DYS 466DYS 467DYS 468DYS 469DYS 470DYS 471DYS 472DYS 473DYS 474DYS 475DYS 476DYS 477DYSDYS 480DYS 481DYS 484DYS 485DYS 487DYS 488DYS 489DYS 490DYS 491DYS 492DYS 493DYS 494DYS 495DYS 496DYS 497DYS 499DYS 500DYS 501DYS 502DYS 504DYS 505DYS 506DYS 507DYS 508DYS 509DYS 510DYS 511DYS 512DYS 513DYS 514DYS 516DYS 517DYS 518DYS 520DYS 521DYS 522DYS 523DYS 525DYS 526ADYS 526BDYS 527.1DYS 527.2DYS 528.1DYS 528.2DYS 530DYS 531DYS 532DYS 533DYS 534DYS 536DYS 537DYS 538DYS 539DYS 540DYS 541DYS 542DYS 543DYS 544DYS 545DYS 546DYS 547DYS 548DYS 549DYS 550DYS 551DYS 552DYS 554DYS 556DYS 557DYS 558DYS 559DYS 561DYS 562DYS 565DYS 567DYS 568DYS 569DYS 570DYS 571DYS 572DYS 573DYS 574DYS 575DYS 576DYS 577DYS 578DYS 579DYS 580DYS 581DYS 582DYS 583DYS 584DYS 585DYS 587DYS 588DYS 589DYS 590DYS 592DYS 593DYS 594DYS 595DYS 596DYS 598DYS 599DYS 600DYS 607DYS 608DYS 609DYS 611DYS 612DYS 613DYS 614DYS 615DYS 616DYS 617618DYS 619DYS 620DYS 621DYS 622DYS 623DYS 624DYS 625DYS 626DYS 627DYS 629DYS 630DYS 631DYS 632DYS 633DYS 634DYS 635DYS 636DYS 637DYS 638DYS 639DYS 640DYS 641DYS 642DYS 643DYS 644DYS 645DYS 649DYS 650DYS 651DYS 655DYS 656n/aDYS 662DYS 664DYS 666DYS 667DYS 668DYS 672DYS 673DYS 675DYS 676DYS 677DYS 678DYS 679DYS 681DYS 683DYS 684DYS 685DYS 686DYS 687DYS 688DYS 692DYS 694DYS 695DYS 696DYS 701DYS 702DYS 703DYS 705DYS 706DYS 707DYS 708DYS 709DYS 710DYS 711DYS 712DYS 713DYS 714DYS 715DYS 716DYS 717DYS 718DYS 719DYS 720DYS 721DYS 722DYS 723DYS 725.1DYS 725.2DYS 725.3DYS 725.4DYS 726G09 411L13 13L14YCA II.1YCA II.2Y-GATA-A10Y-GATA-H4Y-GGAAT-1B07
A1a01E16164YF016917983139 GA / A309, 9108372 AT / A308, 23963147 AG / A306, 23998732 GA / A307R-A306x36371310121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x15168881724.1252722231417262915156111112138151213101011111113171010127x10x889511146x29471012106xxxx1691012262712x81010137xx116416181111991313101321131115131615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10x71714994712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911x1417xx1212xxx1010991111991313x14971011151312x161163410131687181911x612121413107712714111412132924111313xx121291112151213131213121214x19298301111111517910111211x14151617713171611278x88118x8221316131311x121210916x148xx131612131011x171011122014143221911131013363336181991113131510101010x1315181410164212128132591115x81519111111111810x1010x179999888810181212811151081072211159x1833818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810x8818xx34x5077591161111111451057392134x783275291051523282235.26521422524x19151232192119xxxx121134xx141010
A1a01E15052YF03362A309, FGC34911, A308, FGC34912, FGC34914, FGC34917, A306, A307 R-A306xxx1210121314101088139978101111141415303011x10x998268151688817252525.12223141726291515611111213815121310101111111317101012710105889511146x29471012106141577x91012xx12x810101371111.3116416181111991213913x131115x16x302341xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x111110157x14994712121112119111011159411x8691011x119111414179412127781010991111999136149710x15121211161163410131587181911166121214131077127141114121329251113132324121291112151212131213121214x192983011111115x910111211x14151617713x1611278108811813822xx13131112121210916x14814813x1213101110x101112201414x21911131013363333181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591115981519111111111710111010101799998888101812128111510810722111598183181881412128881810933xx11.g21109882312x11x1110810x88xxxx8x77591161111111451057392134x78x752910515232922xx2142x24x191512x192118xxxx1211341923141010
$359.00 Y-DNA111 tests did not reveal the 5 off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that members of our A1a01 branch have in common according to the 2 rows above. Scroll right, e.g., to Column # 47, if you want to see some of them.
A1a02251918YF02184A5026, 2903315 CT, 8675792 GA, 15817682 AG, 17286590 CT, 18729831 AG, 21628621 AG R-S781251918 may join YFULL's S781 group by clicking here:, and thereby benefit himself and all other descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland (and help its run down administrator to accomplish more far more easily).
A1a03315522YF0208019061777 CA / A888, 20806568 AG / A889 R-Y11635x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172325.12622231416262915156111112128151213101011111113171010127xx58x951113xx294710121061415xx1691012262712x81010x7xx116416181111991213101321131115131615xxxxxxxxx12x14x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10157x14994712121112x9111011158411xx6910111611911x1416xx1212xx81010991111991313x1497x11151412xx116351013158717191115612121413107x12714111412132924111313xx121291112151211131213121214x19298301111x1517910111211x14151717712171611278x88118x8221315x1311x12129916x148138131612131011x1710111220131532219111310133633351819911131315x1010101313151814101642x128132591116x81519x1111111710x10101017999988881018x12811151081072211159x1833818814x12x8x181093326xx21109x823121111101110810178818xx368517759x611111114510x392034x78x752910515x2821xx21422524xx141232192219xxxx121134xx141010
A1a03a349908YF026987395675 CG, 15476784 AG, 17191410 TC, A889 R-Y11635xxx1210121314101088x91078101111141415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416272915156111112128151213101011111113171010127111058x9511136x294710121061415xx1691012262712x81010137xx11641618111199121310x21131115131515302341xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x101671714994712121112119111011159411x86910111611911x1417xx1212xx8101099111199913x14971011151412xx116351013158718191115612121413107712714111412132924111313xx12129111215121213121312x14x19288301111111517910111211x14151717712171611278x88118x8221315x1311x12129916x148138131612131011x171011122013153221911131013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x81519x1111111710x101010179999888810181212811151081072211159x1833818814x12x88181093326xx21109x823121111101110810178818xx35850775911611111114510x3921348178x752910515x2821366721422524x19151232192219xxxx1211341923141010
$359.00 Y-DNA111 tests did not reveal the 7 off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that members of our A1a03 branch have in common according to the 2 rows above. Scroll right, e.g., to Column # 80, if you want to see some of them.Y-DNA111 Panel colors:Y-12 PanelY-25 PanelY-37 PanelY-67 PanelY-111 Panel 
A1a04128499YF0231317423425 CT / A919, 19093413 CT / A920 R-S781x3638x10121314101088x8978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172224.12622231415262915156111112128151212101011111113x1010127x1058x9511146x29471012106xxxx1691012252612x81010x7xx11x416181111991213101321131115131515xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.tx12x11x10157x14994712121112x911101115x411xx6x101116x911x14xxx1212xxx1010991111991313614971011151312xx116341013158717181116x12121413107x12714111412133024111313xx121291112151212x1213121214x19x83011111116179101112xx14151717713171611278x88118x8221315131311xx1210916x148148131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx33341819911x1315101010101313151814101642x128132591115x81519x11x111710x1010x1799998888x1812128x15108x72211159x1833818814x12x8x18109332628x21109x823121111101110810168818xx35xx7759x611111114510x4021x79783275x10515x2821x6621432524xxxx32192119xxxx12x34xx131010
A1a05a187778YF021798439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922 R-Y14048xxxx10121314101088xxx78101111141414303011x10x99825x1516888172324.12523231416262915156111112128151213xx9111113x101012xx10x8xx511146xx46x12116xx771591012252713x81010x71111.3116417171111991214101321131115131615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.tx12x11x101571714994712121112x911xxx9411xx6910111511911x1417941012xxx1010991111991313x14971011151412x16x6341012158717181114612121413x7xx71411131213292411x13xx12129111215121213x1312x14x19298301111x1517910111211241415171771317x11268x88118x8221315x1311x121299xx148x81316x131011x1710111220131432219111310xx333518199x13131510101010x13151814101643x128132591116x81519xxx111710x1010x1799998x88101812x81115xxx722x159x1833818814x12x8x18109x2628x21109x82312111110x10810x8818xxxx5077591161111111451057xxxx7832752910515x2821xx21x25242619x1232192119xxxx121134xx141010
A1a05a329057YF032428439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922 R-Y14048xxxx10121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99825x1516888172324.12522221414262915156111112138151213101091111131710101271110x8x9511146x294610121161415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416171111991213101321131115131615302340xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10x71714994712121112119111011159411x86910121611911x1517xx1212xx81010991111991313x14971011151412x161163410131587181911146121214131077127141114121329241113132323121291112151212x1213121214x19298311111111517910111211x14151717713171611268x88118x8221315131311x12129916x148148131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx33331718911131415101010101313151814101643x128132591116x81519111111111710x101010179999888810181212811151081072211159x1834818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx35x5077591161111111451057392134827832752910515x2821x6821422524x191512x192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a05b272860YF02972A1a05b - 9647644 GA, A922 R-Y14048x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99827x1516888172324.1252223141626291515611111212815121310109111113171010127x1058x9511146x284710121061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416171111991213101321131115131615302340xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.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
$359.00 Y-DNA111 tests did not reveal the 11 off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that members of our A1a05 branch have in common according to the 3 rows above. Scroll right, e.g., to Column # 63, if you want to see some of them.
A1a06143035YF023816188606 AG, 7538242 CT, 7699499 CT, 9146901 GA, 9511177 CT, 14005493 GA, 14200031 AG, 15861256 CT, 22461955 CGN. IreR-S781x35371210121314101088x9978101111111414303011x10x99827x151688817232325.12223141625291515611111212815121310101111111317101013xx1058x9511146x29471010106xxxx1691012252712x81010137xx116416181111991213101321131115x1615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1013101210.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
A1a07235915YF024062682514 AT, 13135747 GT, 15858709 GA, 19003150 GA, 22458222 AG, 22461696 GC R-S781113637x10121314101088139978101111131414303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416262915156111112128151212101011111113171010127x10x8x9511146x29471012106xxxx1691012252712x810101371111.3116416181111x91213101321131115131615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.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
A1a0849412YF025616898539 CG, A2509, 9146656 GA, 16676179 GA, 16906723 TC, A2510, A2511, 23823495 TC R-S781x3638x10121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.1262122141626291515611111212815121210101111111217101012xx10x8x9511146x294710121061415xx1691012242612x8101013711x116416181111991213101321131115141615x2341xxxxxx12x13x14xxxx101210.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
A1a09115205YF02682A5023, 15711277 CT, A5025 R-S781x36371210121314101088x91078101111141414303011x10x99826x151688817232525.122231416262915156111112128151213101011111113161010127x1058x9511146x294710121061415771691012262712x81010x7xx116416181111991213101321141114131615302241xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10157x15994712121112x91110111594xxx69101116x911x1417xx1212xxx10109911119910.113614971011151312x17116341013158719211116612121413107712714111312132924111313xx121291112151212131213121214x19298x1111111517910111211x151515.317713171611278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx3335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x81519x11x111710x1010101799998888918x12811151081072211159x1831819814x12x8x18109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx36850775911611111113510573921x787832752910515x2821366420422624xxx1232192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a10248425YF0295514692639 AG, A5024, 16775043 AG, 17355378 AG, A5028, A5032 R-S781x3639x10121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12521221416262915156111012128151212101011111113171010127x1058x9511146x294710131061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416181111991113101321131115131615312341xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10157x14994712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911x1417941212xx81010991111991313x14971011151312x161163410131587181911156121214131077127141114121330251013132223121291112151212131213121214x193083011111116189101112112414151717713171711278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612131011x171011122013143121911141013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591115x81519111111111710x1010x179999888810181212811151081072211159x1831819814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx34x507759116111111145105742213479783275291051521292135.265214524242619151232192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a1148694YF05289A5027, A5031, 23050176 TC R-S781Pending Analysis
A1a12183344YF0347315016482 CG R-S781x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12721231416272915156111112128151213101011111113171010x7x105889511136x29471012106xxxx1691012262712x810101371111.31164161811119912131013x13111513x15302341xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10157x14994712121112x91110111594xx86910111611911x1415941212xx81010991111991313x14971011151412x161163510131587181911156121214131077127141114121329241113132323121291112151212131213121214x19298301111111517910111211x14151717713181611278x88118x8221315x1311x12129916x148x8131612131011x171011122013143221911131013x3335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x815191111x111710x1010101799998888101812128x151081072211159xx33818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx34x5077591161111111451057392134x7832752910515x282136x20422524x19151231182119xxxx1211341923141010
A1J305358YF04357 Tested S781- (included in this table for comparison until enough members join the Yfull Group at to create a reliable ~500 marker mode for SNP 781-/L746+ Stewarts. R-L744x3437x10121314101088x9978101111141415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416262915156111112128141213101111111113171010127x10x8x9511146x294710121061415771691012262712x810101371111.31164171711119913131013211311141316163023411112.t683744.g12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x101471714994712121112x9111011159411xx69101116x911x1417xx1212xxx101099111199913x141071011151312x16116341013158718191115613121413107712714111412132924111313xx121291112151212131213121214x19308x1111x1516910111211x14151717713171611278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612141011x171011122013143221911131013x333518199x13131610101010x1315181410164313128132591116x81519xx11111810x1010101799998888101812128111510x10722x159x1833818814x12x8x18109332626x21109x823121111101110810178819xxx8507759x61111x14510xx2134x783075x10515x282136x21422524x19x1232192119xxxx121134xx141010
Distance from reference:ZeroMinus OnePlus OneMinus TwoPlus TwoMinus Three or morePlus Three or moreY-DNA111 Panel colors:Y-12 PanelY-25 PanelY-37 PanelY-67 PanelY-111 Panel 

Row # 5

GD between racial haplotypes is greater than indicated due to haplotype convergence.
Table # 2M
Stewart Mode-2917759142
39568 Stewart Duke2-51456067
89163 Australoid59605971-88
N50900 Mongoloid7745105-71139
9 Israelite9151-10559164
215865 Negroid1426716413988-
Related- Hybrid mutation model is used
Table # 3 - Grey cells indicate the 12 ($59), 25, 37 ($169), 67 ($268) and 111 ($339) marker levelsDYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
Modal STR Haplotype of all Descendants of High Stewards of Scotland tested by FTDNA ==> 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
Haplotype of ducal descendant #39568 of Charles II according to Roger S. Powell, MA1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # 9 (J1c3d. The y-MRCA of HG R & Semitic J-L147 lived ~45 KYA.1223141014-17111712131129178-811112514202514-14-16-16111021-221514181831-31131011815-168111181191221-22191012121781325211312111312121211321581512242720121213111291112101111301113221511112015191023151116241220189151791111
Haplotype of N50900 (China). The y-MRCA of HG O & R lived ~70 KYA.1225161112-12111212121328179-911112414203112-15-15-15111219-231415171832-36111011815-178117811101217-1716111212167132419121211151011121138158161225282011111312129111110111231111223139921162012221613152512231910141891212
Haplotype of Australoid89163 (GD=59@67). The y-MRCA of HG K & R lived ~106 KYA.1323161013-13111012141429189-91182815192714-14-15-15101119-221514172231-34131013816-169111081110019-21191012121691126221511111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # N64496 & 215865 (GD=68@67, HG A00 descendants of Dixie's Carolinian slaves)1319161016-17131112131230168-910112412213213-15-15-1811916-181515141836-36121610914-1481088117923-23171211121681226230121214101111123915913122228191011111012101110810133101220010927151213261713142415152013151491211
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+The Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor of all men who belong to HG R lived ~27 KYA. The Y chromosomes of men in R have no known SNP mutations in common with men in A00 & Neanderthals. According to Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona & Dr. Thomas Krahn, the theoretical y-MRCA of all men who belong to HG R & men who belong to HG A00 lived ~338,000 years ago (95% confidence interval 237 - 581 KYA). Some scientists claim that miscegenation between humans & Neanderthals occured, & that their ancestral population lived ~370,000 years ago.

Click here to see COLORIZED versions of the tables above (and an older, less censored version of this web page) in the new window that slowly opens.

Row # 6

Your Donations

Your contributions to the General Fund of FTDNA's royal Stuart project will be used as you see fit, e.g., to pay for the DNA tests of men with your surname who still live in the part of the world from which you suspect that your patrilineal ancestors came. Most of the donations below were made in order to pay for the DNA tests of men who have the surname Stewart and who live in the UK.

Those who donate to our General Fund can help to avoid confusion and to facilitate communication by using FTDNA's form to state:

  • Their own names or kit numbers.
  • For what test they want their donations to pay, e.g., Big Y.
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FTDNA can not use our General Fund to pay for all or part of your DNA test unless your project administrator approves BEFORE you order it.

Please Help Us to Recruit More Volunteers for FREE DNA TESTS, and to Improve this project.

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Wikipedia is dominated by censors who carefully remove, distort, falsify, discredit, etc. information in order to further their own personal, ethnic, etc. agendas, e.g., they ousted from Wikipedia's current version evidence about the racial identity, appearance, etc. of the Amorites that proves that Pharaoh Tutankhamun and the ancient Canaanites and Egyptians belonged to Celtic haplogroup R1b1a2, and spoke Indo-Hittite (not Semitic) languages before they were holocausted.

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Thank You for your Visit

This counter read 38,721 on Jan/31/2016. It read Zero Mar 01, 2014; 2,975 Apr 01; 6,563 May 1; 7,351 May 11 (replaced the older version); 7,500 May 20; 8,333 June 1; 10,275 July 1; 11,820 August 1; 13,255 September 2; 15,300 October 1; 17,758 November 1; 21,813 December 1; 24,000 Jan. 1; 24,786 Jan. 15, 2015 (when Columns # 15 & 16 about anthropology, etc. were censored); 25,610 Feb 1; 26,936 Mar. 1; 28,837 April 1; 30,342 May 1; 31,340 June 3; 31,975 on July 2; 32,718 on July 31; 33,642 on Sept. 4; 35,938 Nov/3; 36,757 on Nov/30/2015, and 37,721 on Dec/31/2015.
Country Codes

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The more patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland join this project the more useful it will be to genealogists and scientists.

We thank the following contributors to the General Fund of this project: David E. Stuart, Steven Mitchell, Donald Grant, Michael Clancey, Hereld Stuart, Francis Marion Stewart III, CD Stewart, Donna Lindberg, Robert Lindberg, Shirley Black Barry, Mary Stuart Spangler, Desideriu Ramelet-Stuart, William Hamilton Stewart, Alexander Stewart, Belinda Dettmann, Diana Stewart Powels.

General Fund

Current balance: $778.00

Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
Debit $39.00 4/3/2016     474002 Unknown
Debit $39.00 4/3/2016     446440 Unknown
Credit $120.00 1/8/2016 Desideriu Ramelet Stuart For offering 3 advanced tests for SNP S781 to 3 Stewart cousins   Unknown
Debit $425.00 1/9/2015       Unknown
Debit $425.00 12/13/2014       Unknown
Credit $325.00 12/13/2014 Ken STEWART 337093   Individual
Credit $100.00 12/13/2014 Ann Stewart Burns For anonymous Big Y tester Stewart, negative 781   Individual
Credit $100.00 9/7/2014 Michael Clancey Contribution towards Big Y Test for Steven Mitchell. If not needed for it, then for any other purpose.   Individual
Debit $39.00 9/4/2014       Unknown
Credit $100.00 9/4/2014 Preston Stewart Myers This donation is for SNP tests 781 for kit number 209417 or any other SNP test fo further define this kit's ancestry.   Individual
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Project Stats

Statistic Type Count
Big Y 53
Combined GEDCOMs Uploaded 53
DISTINCT mtDNA Haplogroups 93
DISTINCT Y-DNA Confirmed Haplogroups 21
DISTINCT Y-DNA Predicted Haplogroups 0
Family Finder 120
Genographic 2.0 Transfers 14
Maternal Ancestor Information 181
mtDNA 113
mtDNA Full Sequence 80
mtDNA Plus 100
mtDNA Subgroups 10
Paternal Ancestor Information 234
Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 48
Total Members 307
Unpredicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 0
Unreturned Kits 49
Y-DNA Deep Clade (After 2008) 21
Y-DNA Deep Clade (Prior to 2008) 12
Y-DNA Subgroups 37
Y-DNA111 77
Y-DNA12 139
Y-DNA25 127
Y-DNA37 126
Y-DNA67 108