STEWART STUART (royal) Y DNA Project- Background



Alan fitz Flaad (born about 1078), ALL SURNAMES of patrilineal descendants, BEAUCLERK (Duke of St Albans), BOWLIN, CAMPBELL, CLANCEY, COBB, DUN, ELDER, FITZROY (Duke of Grafton), GORDON-LENNOX (Duke of Richmond), MACLEOD-STUART, MALLOURE, McPHEE, MITCHELL, PIERCE, ROBERTSON, SCOTT (Duke of Buccleuch), Steward, STEWART, Stu, Stuart, THOMAS, THOMPSON, WARBURTON, WARD, WEBB.


FTDNA's April "DNA DAY" sale !

Dear Cousins,

We thank you for proving via genetic genealogy that you descend from Alan fitz Flaad (born c. 1078).

According to FTDNA, "Big Y is the most important Y-DNA test that you can take because it goes beyond testing for public & known SNPs. Big Y discovers your own line of SNPs rather than just the known SNPs."

Big Y tests cost only $425 during FTDNA's 20 April, 2017 DNA DAY SALE according to:

If one wants to identify AS CHEAPLY AS POSSIBLE the BRANCH of our family to which one belongs, we suggest that one order a BIG Y or a more expensive Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) test BEFORE one buys any other Y-DNA test except FTDNA's compulsory & relatively USELESS $59 Y-12 STR test.

To which UNKNOWN branches of our patrilineal family distantly related cousins belong can be discovered ONLY via NGS tests, e.g., BIG Y.

New branches can NOT be discovered via $339 Y-111 STR, SNP PACK, Geno 2, etc. Y-DNA tests.

Best wishes from FTDNA's Stewart Family DNA Project administrators

Only ~25% of all men surnamed STEWART (Gaelic  Stiùbhart) have the SNP S310 mutation & belong in this project. Stewart is the surname of ~80% of the Y-DNA67 STR matches of ~99% of the men in this project.

Questions & Comments Are Welcome

QUESTION # 1 : "After reading all the info on the Stewart Project web site, I am confused as to which test to recommend to my Stuart surname cousin to take. It appears that taking any of the STR tests would not be recommended. What would you recommend?"

ANSWER: To which UNKNOWN branches of the royal Stewart patriline distantly related men belong can be discovered ONLY via a comparison of the results of expensive Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) tests of their Y-chromosomes, e.g. Big Y.

Unfortunately, FTDNA does not sell Big Y or even individual SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) tests to men who have not already ordered at least a $59.00 Y-12 Short Tandem Repeat (STR) test (from which no Big Y tester is likely to benefit), e.g., by clicking on THIS LINK, or by telephoning FTDNA at 713-868-1438 Monday - Thursday 9 am to 4:30 pm CST or Friday 9 am to noon & 1 to 4:30 pm.

A Big Y test can not be ordered until AFTER one's first STR test has been batched (possibly a few days after FTDNA receives a sample of one's DNA, & in time to benefit from a sale).

The cheapest way for a man to prove whether or not he belongs to the same patriline as the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland is via an $18 test for SNP S310. A test for another individual SNP, e.g., S781 or Y14197, may prove that a man belongs to a KNOWN branch of the royal Stewart PATRILINE (no Y-DNA111 STR test can). FTDNA has no test for some individual SNPs. Some SNPs can be discovered only via an NGS test that costs more than Big Y.

A woman's patriline can be identified via a Big Y test of a male member of her patriline, e.g, her paternal uncle's son. Your & your kinfolk's autosomal DNA test results may provide clues that help you to identify the patrilines of your distant female ancestors.

QUESTION # 2 : "Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll's 9th great grandson King James died in 1625. How can one prove that they had the R-S781 mutation ?"

ANSWER: The 2nd paragraph of "DNA testing & the Stewarts" by Graham S Holton explains how this was proven.

Welcome to FTDNA's exclusive genealogical & anthropological project for y-DNA tested members of the patrilineal family of Alan fitz Flaad (born ~1078).

If you discover your own TERMINAL SNPs via an NGS test, you can prove to which branches of your patriline you belong back to Y-Chromosomal "ADAM", who lived ~235,900 years before present (ybp). See # 35 in Column # 1 below. Administrator Desideriu's S781 phylogenetic trees below & HERE display some Terminal SNPs of King James I of England & several other patrilineal descendants of Sir John Stewart. They also inherited all of the other SNPs listed in Column # 1 below. SNPs that were inherited by other branches of Alan fitz Flaad's patriline are displayed HERE. Please suffix your Terminal SNP to your surname in your contact information, e.g. STEWART (S781 Bonkyll branch).

The parts of Columns 2 & 3 about y-DNA tests are easy to understand. Studious people who use a DICTIONARY may understand the other columns, which are about genetic ANTHROPOLOGY. Move your cursor to images, hyperlinks or text to see sources, etc. & click on them to learn more. Control the size of images & text via Ctrl +/- keys. Read about this project near the bottom of Column # 4.

Page 1, ROW 3, Column # 1

Distribution of some races after the Pleistocene according to Carleton Coon.

King James' Patriline Back To Adam

The 35 sub-clades or haplogroups (Hg) listed below are named after SNP mutations, e.g., L746, L21 or M269. Terrminal SNPs allow scientists to create phylogenetic trees that show exactly how distant cousins are related to each other, & even where & who King James' patrilineal ancestors were branch by branch all the way back to the Fertile Crescent, to the first farmers & to "Y-Chromosomal ADAM".

Adam may have lived near the yellow star on Map # 18. According to Genesis 5, Adam's seventh great grandson Noah was the Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor (y-MRCA) of the Semitic & White races, i.e., the Japhet (a.k.a. Crô-Magnons) & Hamites. Noah's sons are more closely related to each other than they are to the Mongoloid, Australoid, Negroid & Neanderthal races or species. Noah was a hunter-gatherer who lived in the Sahel (the Biblical "Garden of Eden") ~50,000 years ago (~50 KYA), so all of his descendants can be as proud of being African-Americans as any "Black" hybrid even though they have NO Negro or Pygmy ancestors.

  1. Haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1a1 (a.k.a. SNP S781) formed 650 ybp in Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (died 22 July 1298), Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) 550 ybp (1467 AD).
  2. R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1a (L744, L745 & L746/S310) formed 4000 ybp
  3. R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1 (S775) formed 4000 ybp, TMRCA 4000 ybp
  4. Z43690
  5. R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d (DF41) formed 4300 ybp, TMRCA 4000 ybp. See the Celtic Belt.
  6. R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1 (Z39589) - The Celt in whom this mutation first occurred was a concestor of the PICTS & Royal Stewarts. He may have been a refugee from the genocidal Semitic slavers called Hyksos who invaded ancient Egypt ~4 KYA.
  7. R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a (DF13) formed 4400 ybp, TMRCA 4300 ybp
  8. R1b1a1a2a1a2c1 (L21) formed 4400 ybp, TMRCA 4400 ybp
  9. R1b1a1a2a1a2c (Z290)
  10. R1b1a1a2a1a2 (P312) formed 4800 ybp, TMRCA 4400 ybp
  11. R1b1a1a2a1a (L151) formed 5800 ybp, TMRCA 4900 ybp
  12. R1b1a1a2a1 (L51) formed 6200 ybp, TMRCA 5800 ybp
  13. R1b1a1a2a (L23) formed 6500 ybp, TMRCA 6200 ybp
  14. R1b1a1a2 (M269), +103 SNPs, formed 13300 ybp, TMRCA 6300 ybp - This mutation first occurred in a concestor of the Royal Stewarts & Eighteenth Dynasty Pharoahs, e.g., Ahmose I & Tutankhamun. Was Scotland named after King Tut's sister Scota (Scotia)?
  15. R1b1a1a (P297) formed 16800 ybp, TMRCA 13300 ybp in Canaan (see the inset in Map # 12 in Column # 4).
  16. R1b1a1 (L388) formed 17100 ybp, TMRCA 16800 ybp in Canaan.
  17. R1b1a (L754) formed 18900 ybp, TMRCA 17100 ybp. A concestor of the Hamitic Ouldémé & Royal Stewarts lived near Lake Chad in the Central Sahel ~18900 ybp (see the red pin in the lower left corner of Map # 12). Vegetation that existed in that area during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is shown in Map # 11. The LGM caused an almost total extinction of life in the Sahel so I favor the second hypothesis that is presented in this article (the first hypothesis vaguely postulates that the Aryan race originated in Asia instead of in Africa).
  18. R1b1 (L278) formed 20400 ybp, TMRCA 18900 ybp in the Sahel.
  19. R1b (M343) formed 22800 ybp, TMRCA 20400 ybp in the Sahel.
  20. R1 (M173, P245 ...) formed 28200 ybp, TMRCA 22800 ybp
  21. R (M207) formed 31900 ybp
  22. P (P284) + 176 SNPs formed 45400 ybp, TMRCA 31900 ybp
  23. K2b (L405) formed 45400 ybp, TMRCA 45400 ybp in the Sahel.
  24. K (M184) +18 SNPs formed 47200 ybp, TMRCA 45400 ybp. The mutation known as SNP "K" first occurred in a man named "Y-chromosomal Ham", from whom the Celts, Germans, Slavs, Ouldémé & ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Sumerians, Natufians, Kebarans, etc. descend according to the "Table of Nations". If not, from whom? About 18 KYA, during the drought known as the LGM, some of Ham's hunter-gatherer descendants migrated from the Sahel to the Fertile Crescent, where animals were so scarce that they had to eat wild grass seed, which they learned to cultivate & to irrigate, i.e., they became the first farmers. The Fertile Crescent was so barren during the last glacial period (see Map # 11 in Column # 4) that only Hamitic farmers lived there between the LGM & the Copper   Age. About ~6 KYA they were conquered & enslaved by tribalistic Semites called Bedouin who migrated from the Sahel across the Mandeb Strait to southern Mesopotamia, e.g., Sargon of Akkad. The languages & identity of the farmers was forbidden & the Semitic race & languages that replaced them over 4 KYA are called "Canaanitic" now.
  25. IJK (L15) TMRCA 47200 ybp, formed in Y-chromosomal Noah 48,500 years ago in the Sahel. He was the father of Ham, Japhet & Shem. Descendants of Japhet migrated from the Sahel to Europe over 40 KYA & became Crô-Magnons, e.g., the Basque race. Descendants of Noah's son Shem remained in Sahel & became the Semite race (Hg. J), e.g., Arabs, Hyksos & Einstein, PhD. Even though they have no common language, Semites & Hamites (Hg. R) are collectively referred to as being "Afro-Asiatic" because both races still inhabit both Africa & Asia. About 6 KYA some Semitic Bedouin migrated from the Sahel across the Mandeb Strait to southern Mesopotamia. Mounted nomadic shepherds could conquer, terrorize & enslave settled farmers, but not vice versa (the descendants of Abraham from Ur of the Chaldees were NEVER  enslaved, unless ownership is a form of bondage). The terrorized settled farmers were forced to become the slaves of the nomadic shepherds. By 4 KYA the Bedouin had become numerous enough to conquer & enslave the Hamitic Egyptians, who called them Hyksos, i.e., rulers of foreign lands (exploiters have to disguise themselves so they claim to be the victims of their victims). Some of the "biblically discredited" & still maligned Celtic survivors of this Holocaust fled to Europe. A more technologically advanced wave of Celtic refugees fled to Britain from the Fertile Crescent about 4 KYA. Would more Celtic, etc. Aryans live in the Fertile Crescent today if the Bedouin had not castrated their slaves?
  26. HIJK (F929/M578) formed 48500 ybp, TMRCA 48500 ybp
  27. GHIJK (M3658) formed 48800 ybp, TMRCA 48500 ybp
  28. F (V186) +203 SNPs formed 65900 ybp, TMRCA 48800 ybp
  29. CF (P143) +1 SNPs formed 68500 ybp, TMRCA 65900 ybp
  30. CT (M5608) +340 SNPs formed 88000 ybp, TMRCA 68500 ybp. The man in whom SNP Hg. CT first occurred lived in the Sahel. He is a concestor of the Royal Stewarts & the Mongoloids, who conquered eastern Eurasia ~70 KYA & displaced the Australoids (see map above).
  31. BT (M8968) +464 SNPs formed 130700 ybp, TMRCA 88000 ybp. The man in whom SNP Hg. BT first occurred lived in Africa's equatorial rain forest. He is a concestor of the Royal Stewarts & the Pygmies.
  32. A1b +50 SNPs formed 133400 ybp, TMRCA 130700 ybp.
  33. A1 (L985) +201 SNPs formed 161300 ybp, TMRCA 133400 ybp. A concestor of the Austroloids & all Eurasian races or species migrated from Africa's equatorial rain forest to the Sahel after the penultimate glacial period in order to obtain more meat.
  34. A0-T (L1085) +619 SNPs formed 235900 ybp, TMRCA 161300 ybp.
  35. A00 (AF6) +2514 SNPs formed 235900 ybp according to Yfull, & 338,000 (95% CI=237000 – 581000) years ago according to The American Journal of Human Genetics. Y-Chromosomal "Adam" was the common ancestor of the Royal Stewarts & the Bantu. He lived in Africa's dark equatorial rain forest, where direct sunlight (ultraviolet radiation) never reaches the forest floor. Only fair-skinned people should have evolved in such twilight according to the fallacious Vitamin D theory of skin color (which proves how misleading & exploitative some "educations" can be). Until the hot Eemian, the non-Negroid man in whom SNP A00 first occurred was as FAIR-SKINNED & well-camouflaged (hairy) as Bonobos are, & belonged to the Hg. A patriline, a.k.a., to the ROOT of all mankind. Semites began to import Bantu slaves from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East during the 9th century. Would it have more mulattoes, & as many hate crimes, unsolvable racial problems & criminals as America & South Africa have, if racist Semites had NOT castrated their slaves?

The distinctive   non-Negroid Kiffian skull shown half way down Column # 4 also proves that the Chadic  Ouldémé, the ancient Egyptians & Hittites, the Kiffians of Gobero in Niger, & the Celts, Vikings, Slavs, Kurds, Yazidis & all other Aryan (Hg. R & I) nations belong to the Hamitic race. A Hamite is a "member of a group of peoples of northern & northeast Africa, including the Berbers, Tuaregs, & the ancient Egyptians, thought to be descendants of the biblical patriarch Ham."

(Column # 1) Back to Top

Column # 2

Which Race Inhabited The Fertile Crescent First?

"Studies have reported that most Irish & Britons are descendants of Neolithic farmers who left modern day Iraq & Syria" (& Egypt, Israel, etc). Genetic researchers Jobling & Balaresque say that they "have found compelling evidence that four out of five (80% of) white Europeans can trace their roots to the Near East." [12]

During the last glacial period (a.k.a. Ice Age) most of the Fertile Crescent was too arid (except where irrigated) for any race of hunter-gatherers or herdsmen to survive there (herds starve in deserts & forests, e.g, in Lebanon). Hamitic refugees from the Sahel would not have settled in the Fertile Crescent if the parts of Eurasia where food was more abundant (see Maps # 11 & 12 in Column # 4) had not already been overpopulated by the Mongoloids, Crô-Magnons & other races that had left the Sahel tens of millennia earlier.

The drought caused by the LGM forced the Hamitic ancestors of the Celts to migrate from Lake Chad in the Central Sahel to the sacred forests of ancient Canaan (see Maps # 12 & 11), where there was so little to hunt that they began to eat the seeds of wild grasses, & consequently became the FIRST farmers on earth.

These noble Hg. R farmers created the first civilization in the world by domesticating themselves (eugenically), as well as some of the wild plants & animals upon which the survival of most of mankind now depends. They were the only occupants of the Fertile Crescent from the LGM until Semitic Bedouin from the Sahel conquered Mesopotamia (& eventually Egypt, which is now over 99% Semitic, as all Europe will be in a few generations). The past (e.g., the history of the World Wars that is censored by YouTube's Page & Brin, etc.) is repeated by those who forget it.

The mobile Bedouin began to terrorize, enslave & cull the farmers, e.g., in order to lower their racial IQ & to make it easier to exploit them via religious, etc. propaganda (exploiters disguise themselves by criminalizing their innocent victims). Some Aryan families survived this Semitic holocaust of Hamitic civilization by fleeing to Anatolia, & created the Indo-European (a.k.a., Indo-Hittite) speaking nations of Eurasia during the Neolithic.

Miscegenation would have destroyed the Semitic & Hamitic races via homogenization (despite the Bible's warnings) if they had simultaneously inhabted the Fertile Crescent or the same part of Africa on terms of equality for many generations (territorial Semites claimed the part of the Sahel that is east of the Nile).

Is whether or not two different races belong to the same species a matter of opinion? The tribalistic way in which Semites & Hamites have reputedly   holocausted each other for over thirty millennia shows that they have not considered themselves to be members of the same panmictic species.

How To Discover To Which Branch Of Your Patriline You Belong

A Big Y test may be the best & cheapest way to identify the UNKNOWN branch(es) of the patriline to which a man belongs. This goal can not be achieved via Y-DNA111, etc. STR tests.

FTDNA does not sell Big Y or even individual SNP tests to men who have not already ordered at least a $59.00 Y-12 STR test, e.g., by clicking on this link, or by telephoning FTDNA at 713-868-1438 Monday - Thursday 9 am to 4:30 pm CST or Friday 9 am to noon & 1 to 4:30 PM.

Order FTDNA's Big Y test before you buy any STR test above the Y-12 level if you want to identify the branch to which you belong as cheaply as possible.

A Big Y test can not be ordered until AFTER one's first STR test has been batched (possibly a couple days or a week after FTDNA receives one's sample, & hopefully in time to benefit from a sale).

If you can not afford a Big Y test when it is on sale, save your money until you have enough, or ask an administrator for a loan.

More SNPs may be discovered via a more expensive NGS test if too few were discovered via your Big Y test.

NGS & individual SNP tests are incomparably better that STR tests no matter what they cost.

An ~$18 test for SNP S310 will suffice if a man only wants to know whether or not he belongs to the same patriline as the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland.

A man MAY be able to identify to which KNOWN branch he belongs via an individual SNP test, e.g., for S781, Y14197, ZZ52, etc.

Big Y Results Analysis

The results of your Big Y test can not be added to Williamson's R-L746 tree & a useful ~500 marker value comparison table like colorized Table #1 on Row # 9 of Page # 2 unless you:

  1. Ask FTDNA to "ACTIVATE" your BAM file (this may take several days).
  2. After activation, go to your FTDNA account > BIG Y RESULTS > DOWNLOAD RAW DATA, & follow the instructions.
  3. Click on FTDNA's "SHARE BAM" button, copy the BAM sharing link & paste it onto this Order Form (results will be delivered BEFORE payment).
  4. Follow Alex Williamson's instructions.

SNPs Are The BEST Proof Of Ancestry

SNPs are unique, almost 100% permanent mutation(s).

Your most recent TERMINAL SNP is 100% proof of the branch of your patriline to which you belong.

A Terminal SNP is "the defining SNP of the latest subclade known by current research". Members of the same branch of a family have the same Terminal SNPs. Members of different branches of a family have different Terminal SNPs.

Guessing to which branch(es) distantly related cousins belong is almost impossible unless one knows their Terminal SNP(s), & sometimes even if one does.

Terminal SNPs show how a man is related to all of his patrilineal cousins & to the rest of mankind (see Column # 1). The Terminal SNPs of your own descendants, those of your great-grandfather, or even of your ancestors who lived several hundred thousand years ago can be used to reliably identify & position them on branches of a phylogenetic tree like the S781 tree at the top of this web page.

The ONLY way for a man to discover his most recent (private) Terminal SNP(s) is via a Big Y or more expensive NGS test.

A Big Y test will benefit you an order of magnitude more than any other Y-DNA test sold by FTDNA. It is the FIRST & ONLY Y-DNA test that you need to buy according to Steve St. Clair's video.

According to FTDNA, "Big Y is the most important Y-DNA test that you can take because it goes beyond testing for public & known SNPs. Big Y discovers your own line of SNPs rather than just the known SNPs."

Why waste money on SNP Pack, Geno 2 (craftily misrepresented as being "Next Generation") & y-DNA111, etc. STR tests via which one's most recent Terminal SNP(s) can NOT be discovered?

Y-DNA111 STR tests cost almost as much as Big Y tests did during FTDNA's last sale.

If you bought the wrong test because you were misled by a project administrator or an advertisement, & ask quickly enough, you may receive a refund (see the lowest part of the web page at this link).

Genetic Genealogy makes genealogical research far easier, cheaper & more reliable (DNA & GOD never LIE).

The Goal of This Project's Administrators

We want to help each MALE descendant of Alan fitz Flaad:

  1. To discover as CHEAPLY as possible his TERMINAL SNP(s) so that he can be positioned on the phylogenetic trees of Alex Williamson & Administrator Desideriu.
  2. To know who else belongs to his own branches, & exactly how his branches are genetically related to all of the other branches of Alan's patriline, & to the rest of mankind.

The sooner at least one man from each branch of our agnatic family has a Big Y or more useful NGS test, the sooner our genealogical goals can be achieved. About half of the Y-DNA tested members of this project have already had a Big Y test. More of them might have done so if they had not felt that they had been manipulated into squandering their money on obsolete STR, etc. tests.

Individual SNP Tests

Individual SNP tests can determine only to which KNOWN branches one belongs. To which UNKNOWN branches of our patrilineal family distantly related cousins belong can be discovered ONLY via NGS tests.

SNP S310 can prove with 100% certainty whether or not a man belongs to the same patriline as the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland. A test for another SNP, e.g., S781 or Y14197, can prove that a man belongs to another known branch of this Stewart family (no STR test can).

Individual SNP tests ($18 each) cost less than y-DNA12 STR tests. SNPs indicate ancestry far more reliably than ambiguous off-modal STR marker values & "Genetic Distance" (GD) can. E.g., the y-DNA67 GD between about ten Stewarts whose Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor (y-MRCA), CONCESTOR, or "Last Common Patrilineal Ancestor" (y-LCA) lived about 800 years ago is ZERO. The y-DNA111 GD between brothers 5987 & 16895 is two. The y-DNA67 GD between fourth cousins 143035 & 199984 is also two.

(Column # 2) Back to Top

Column # 3

Why Identify Members of Your Own Branch?

Few members of this project have much genealogical information about their seventeenth century patrilineal ancestors. Men who have the same Terminal SNP(s) belong to the same branch, & can help each other to break through their genealogical "brick walls" from several directions instead of from only one! The MORE members of a branch discover their Terminal SNP(s) & ~500 y-STR marker values, the more likely they will be able to identify their y-MRCA. This is one of the reasons that FTDNA's following projects have offered to use their General Funds to help their members to pay for their Big Y tests, e.g., if they tested positive for:

Click here or scroll down to see the list of those who contributed to our General Fund.

DNA Sample Collection

In order to avoid contamination & having to order another DNA sample collection kit, brush your teeth before sleeping overnight. Obtain a DNA sample as soon as you awaken, before brushing your teeth or eating or drinking anything.

Discount Coupons

You may be able to find a discount coupon via the Internet, e.g., Big Y coupons worth up to $125 off were displayed via a group spreadsheet during FTDNA sales that began before Thanksgiving & ended on December 31, 2016 & 2017. Some of us bought our Big Y tests for less than $400, & even less if we received assistance from our General Fund.


Why do so many of FTDNA's unpaid project administrators encourage members of their projects to order expensive y-STR, Geno 2 & other SNP PACK tests via which NO NEW BRANCHES of our patriline can be discovered, BEFORE they order a REAL Next Generation Sequencing test, e.g., Big Y? Do they think that we are too penny wise & pound foolish to pay less than $100 more for a far better product?

Why does FTDNA report one's Terminal SNPs but NOT the ~500 STR marker values that can be obtained only via an analysis of the results of a Big Y (or any other NGS) test? Click here & wait at least 20 seconds to see a ~500 y-STR marker value comparison table that includes about sixteen NGS tested descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll. Their Terminal SNPs have helped us to understand which STR marker values are relevant to the branches to which they belong.

Colorized Table #1 on Row # 9 of Page # 2 shows that:

  • ALL of the marker values that are included in our Y-DNA111 tests except DYS 447 may be included in the results of our Big Y & other NGS tests.
  • About 500 y-STR marker values are over four times as useful as only 111 (a crucial difference).

FTDNA did not report the ~500 Y-STR marker values that are displayed in the aforesaid Table # 1 even though they were discovered via an analysis of my Big Y test results. In order to obtain them I had to pay $49, less than $.10 per marker value (FTDNA charges about $3.00 each) to the company that creates our colorized ~500 Y-STR marker value comparison tables, & to which some of FTDNA's projects turn for Big Y analysis.

John Cleary's three videos about "Using SNP Testing & STRs To Enhance A Genetic Genealogy Research Project" explain why I with the help of the aforesaid company (whose name I was warned not to advertise) created the aforesaid ~500 y-STR comparison tables.

After all of the descendants of Sir John who are listed in Administrator Desideriu's S781 phylogentic tree have Yfull IDs, I intend to add their ~500 y-STR marker values to a comparison table like Table # 1.

Those whose NGS test results have not been analyzed yet can not be included in a reliable phylogenetic tree.

Mike Walsh wrote: "If you have not yet tested to 111 Y STRs (Short Tandem Repeats) please upgrade." Please help me to understand why Mike continues to recommend obsolete Y-DNA111, etc. STR tests via which Terminal SNPs & 500 STR marker values can NOT BE DISCOVERED, even though Y-111 STR tests cost almost as much as Big Y tests? We thank Mike for recommending Big Y:

Date: Tue, Apr 25, 2017 at 1:38 PM
Subject: Message from FTDNA's R L21 & Subclades Project: Please consider Big Y on sale thru April 27th


I'm the volunteer lead project administrator for FTDNA's R-L21 Y DNA project.

The most valuable DNA test for discovering the tree for R-L21 people has been Big Y. We now have a couple of thousand Big Y tests done so there is a lot to compare with. Please consider ordering Big Y if you have not already. It is on sale right now for $425 as a part of FTDNA's "DNA Day" promotion. This is a $150 discount from the regular price. No coupons or promotional codes are required. The $425 price expires on April 27th.

Big Y is a Next Generation Sequencing product that discovers stable mutations called SNPs. These are used to reliably mark branches on the haplotree of paternal lineages (Y DNA). SNPs occur every several generations per each lineage so we are finding very youthful branches that reach into the genealogical records timeframe. Big Y can help you break through genealogical record brickwalls.

For more information on Big Y, please scroll down to the "Why Big Y Next Generation Sequencing?" question at the R1b project FAQ page.

We have over 6,000 SNPs for R-L21 on FTDNA's haplotree & they represent over 1,600 branches. This is growing weekly, which is good for everybody.

Regards, Mike Walsh, , R-L21 & R1b project lead administrator

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371     Arms of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (Hg R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a4a1a)
Arms of the 4th High Steward of Scotland & his son Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (Haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a4a1a).

SNP vs. STR Tests

Almost 100% of SNPs are permanent mutations. They therefore indicate ancestry far more reliably than STR marker values can. Some descendants of Charles II & everyone listed in the S781 phylogenetic tree at the top of this page tested positive for SNP S781. They therefore have 100% proof that they descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, & possibly even from King James I of England.

Tombstone of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, an agnatic ancestor of King James I of England.

Our General Fund will gladly pay for the NGS tests of the descendants of James VI & I & other aristocratic members of this Stewart family who have trustworthy pedigrees if their results are made public. The University of Stratclyde has been most helpful in this regard. Knowing when a SNP, e.g., S768, first occurred may help some of us to learn more about our own ancestors.

According to FTDNA & the results of their Y-67 STR tests & Table # 5 in Row # 9 on Page # 2, there is a 95% probabilty that the y-MRCA of 143035 & Duke # 39568 lived about 510 years ago (1507 AD), & that their y-MRCA may therefore have been John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox (c. 1490 - 1526), the proavus of James I of England. 100% proof of who their y-MRCA was would require a comparison of their most recent Terminal SNPs (not their off-modal STR marker values).

The GD between duke #39568 & Robert "Robin" STEWART (1785 - 1865) of Stover Creek, SC is only 3, if his y-STR haplotype included only the three off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that his two gggGrandsons (4th cousins 199984 & 143035) have in common. If so, according to FTDNA's estimates in Table # 8 on Row # 9 on Page # 2, there is a 95% probablilty that the y-MRCA of Duke #39568 & Robert lived about 450 years ago (1567 AD), & may have therefore been as closely related to the aforesaid Earl as Henry Stuart (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), a manly great-grandson of King Henry 7th of England, & the second husband & first cousin of Scottish Queen Mary Stuart. 100% proof would require a comparison of their most recent Terminal SNPs.

(Column # 3) Back to Top

Column # 4 - Columns # 5, 6, 7, etc. on Row # 4 of PAGE # 2 are also about genetic anthropology.

The History & Migrations of Haplogroup R

Celtic, etc. Neolithic farmers fled to the Fertile Crescent from a Sahelian drought during the LGM, & to Europe from the Semitic & Mongoloid herdmen of Asia during the first holocaust of a civilized   nation.

The UN has declared the ISIS killings & enslavement, etc. of the endogamous blond, blue eyed Yazidi Aryans a genocide. Are Europeans next?
The UN declared ISIS' extermination of endogamous blond, blue eyed Yazidi Aryans a genocide. Are Europeans or Israelis next?

the most recent major advance of the North American ice sheet complex.

Map # 1 - Exodus from Sahel. Map # 2 - African Sahel & Sahara. Map # 3 - Ice sheet that preceded the Holocene.


Map # 6 - Hg L3 Distribution in the Chad Basin.   Map # 7 - African origins of Hamites.   Map # 8 - "Southeast Asia"

Map # 6 above - "Undifferentiated haplogroup L3 is widely distributed, particularly in the Chad Basin." Several droughts forced the HG L3 ancestors of Mongoloids, Crô-Magnons & Hamites (Aryans) to congregate in the vicinity of Lake Chad. Some of them migrated from the Sahel to Eurasia during each stadial.

Map # 7 above shows from which part of the Sahel Hg R Hamitic hunter-gatherers immigrated to the Fertile Crescent, & that some Hamitic hunter gatherers did not remain in the Fertile Crescent after they left the Sahel. Hg R1 is the second most common haplogroup among American Indians.

Distribution map of haplogroup R1b in the Old World (Eurasia & Africa) - Eupedia Neolithic (Hamitic/Aryan) migrations from the seventh to fifth millennium BC
Maps # 9 & # 10 - Celtic, etc. Aryans fled to the Fertile Crescent from a Sahelian drought, & to Europe from the Semitic & Mongoloid herdmen of Asia.

Map # 9 above shows that some Hamites (Hg R) never left the vicinity of Lake Chad. Others migrated to the Fertile Crescent about 18 KYA, harvested the seeds of wild grasses because there was so little game, & became the first farmers (Kebaron & Natufian) on earth (hunter-gatherers already occupied the rest of Eurasia). Semitic herdsmen & terrorists motivated most of these Hamitic farmers to escape to Anatolia before ~3 KYA, & from there by land & sea to the Pyrennes & to the other parts of Eurasia shown in the map # 9 above.

Map # 11 below shows vegetation during the Last Glacial Maximum (26,500-19,000 years ago).

Map of vegetation patterns during the last glacial maximum

Hamitic Holocausts

  • Why did some Hamites leave Africa? The LGM reduced global temperatures & therefore evaporation from the oceans & the rainfall that the wildlife & hunter-gatherers of the Sahel needed in order to survive.
  • Why did part of the Hamitic population travel northwards up the Nile river valley to the Fertile Crescent? They would have been killed by the territorial inhabitants of Africa's equatorial rain forest if they had traveled south, & by territorial Semites if they had traveled further east in order to cross the Mandeb strait into Arabia.
  • Why did some Hamites remain in the Fertile Crescent instead of seek better hunting grounds elsewhere? Hunter-gatherers had already populated the more habitable parts of Eurasia. No other race wanted the relatively barren Fertile Crescent.
  • Why did some Hamites become farmers? They had to forage for grass seed & eventually to cultivate it because there was so little rainfall & wild game in the Fertile Crescent.
  • Why is Hg R no longer the most common in the Fertile Crescent? Hamites fled from the droughts, over-population, & finally the genocidal Semitic shepherds who invaded their territory. Semitic Bedouin terrorized & gradually conquered, killed, enslaved & drove from the entire Fertile Crescent nearly all of the Hamitic farmers, except for the Kurds & Yazidis. The endogamous YAZIDIS may become the last blue-eyed race in the world if they survive the current holocaust of their race. No domesticated species can compete with its savage cousins.
  • Why did some Hamites migrate from Central Asia to the forests of northern Europe? In order to escape from the genocidal Mongoloid herdsmen who attacked their farms.

The Origins of the Aryan Race & Civilization

Map # 12

How Many Species of Mankind ?

Are all of the extant descendants of Neanderthals interspecific hybrids? Many different domesticated & undomesticated species produce fertile offspring in nature. Biologists practically define:

  1. A "race" as an an interbreeding, usually geographically isolated population of organisms differing from other populations of the same species in the frequency of hereditary traits, e.g., in their skulls & SNPs.
  2. A "species" as a population of organisms that are GENETICALLY more similar to each other than they are to members of other genepools. Are there more species of mankind than there are of gorillas?


Arrow # 2 in the picture of the skull of a modern European above points to the nasal sill or dam, & lower nasal spine that helped the noses of the Hamitic ancestors of Aryans to humidify & cool the hot dry air of the Sahara before it entered their lungs. The adjacent Kiffian skull was found at Gobero in Niger, about 700 miles northwest of Lake Chad. That it also has a nasal sill or dam & prominent lower nasal spine shows that the Hamitic race evolved in the Sahel longer than any race that no longer exists in Africa, & probably long enough to have created the tools known as Aterian. That Mongoloids, Pygmies, Negroes & Neanderthals have a smaller (or no) nasal spine, & no nasal sill or dam, shows that they do not belong to the same race/species of mankind as Hamites (see Table A in Column # 7 of Row # 4 on PAGE # 2).

In modern craniofacial anthropometry, the features that typify the skulls of Negroes include a broad & round nasal cavity; no dam or nasal sill; Quonset hut-shaped nasal bones; notable facial projection in the jaw & mouth area (prognathism); a rectangular-shaped palate; a square or rectangular eye orbit shape & large, megadontic teeth. Some of this diversity may disappear within a few generations because of miscegenation between all of the races/species of mankind except the one that chose itself to be above all of the others.

This Genealogical Project

We thank Family Tree DNA's President & CEO Bennett Greenspan for kindly creating this Y-DNA project on October 29, 2010. Click here to see one of his videos about DNA testing.

The goal of the unpaid administrators of this project is to help their trusting kinsmen to identify their patrilineal ancestors as correctly & as cheaply as possible.

You may JOIN FTDNA's royal Stewart project provisionally if you think it is about your Stewart patriline, no matter what gender & surname you have. Women may persuade a male relative to have a y-DNA test, but can not have one themselves. FTDNA does not LIMIT the number of projects that one may join.

Your privacy settings must be changed to "ANYONE" if you want others to see the results of your Y-DNA12 & other STR tests via the web page at Log into your FTDNA account & move your cursor to your name in the upper right corner. A menu will drop down. Click on PRIVACY SETTINGS, & select your options.

Click on the hyperlinks on this page if you want to see sources or have questions, & on any image or map if you want to see larger versions. Arrow keys can be used to scroll right, left, up & down (Windows 10).

Click here to read OLDER VERSIONs of this web page. If a link to a Wikipedia article does not work, search the history of changes made to it (the censors at Wikipedia, YouTube & other social media are notoriously unfair). If you want to know who rules & exploits you, simply ask who you are not permitted to criticize (one must click on the intimidating "I UNDERSTAND AND WISH TO PROCEED" button in order to watch the Youtube video at this link).

DISCLAIMER: The genealogical, cultural & personal agendas & opinions found on this web page at & its links may not be considered appropriate by any DNA testing company, employee, administrator, moderator, preacher, historian, scientist, web site host or member of a DNA project.

Copyright (c) 2/6/2018 by Stewart (royal Bonkyll S781+ branch143035L58W-HRDMyHeritage, my tree @ Ancestry.comT494964 is my Gedmatch ID, YF02381 is my Yfull ID). All Rights Reserved.

Please link to this web site in order to credit it with the ideas, etc. above if you quote or use them elsewhere. This document is still being edited.

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12/01/2017 - 76,000; 12/08/2017 - 77,000; 12/16/2017 - 78,000; 12/30/2017- 79,000;
1/10/2018 - 80,000; 1/17/2018 - 81,000; 1/26/2018 - 82,000; 2/6/2018 - 83,000; 2/27/2018 - 84,000; 3/26/2018 - 85,000; 4/11/2018 - 86,000;

Learn more about your surname.

Your Donations

Your contributions to the General Fund of FTDNA's royal Stuart project will be used as you see fit, e.g., to pay for the DNA tests of men with your surname who still live in the part of the world from which you suspect that your patrilineal ancestors came. Most of the donations below were made in order to pay for the DNA tests of men who have the surname Stewart & who live in the UK.

Those who donate to our General Fund can help to avoid confusion & to facilitate communication by using FTDNA's form to state:

  • Their own names or kit numbers.
  • For what test they want their donations to pay, e.g., Big Y.
  • The kit number of the donor of the DNA that will be used for the test.

FTDNA can not use our General Fund to pay for all or part of your DNA test unless your project administrator approves BEFORE you order it.

(Column # 4) Back to Top - Columns # 5, 6, 7 about genetic anthropology, etc. are on Row # 4 of PAGE # 2.

We thank the following contributors to the General Fund of this project: Alexander Stewart, Alford Kenith Stewart, Ann Stewart Burns, Belinda Dettmann, Catherine Stewart, David Edward Stuart Ph.D., Desideriu Ramelet-Stuart, Donald L. Grant, Frank Stewart, Fred Stewart (S781+), Hereld Anson Stuart (S781+), Kenneth Frederick Stewart (Y14197+), Mary Stuart Spangler, Michael Patrick Clancey, Orville Roy Stewart (S781+), Preston Stewart Myers, Robert & Monique Lindberg, Shirley Black Barry, Steven Thomas Mitchell (BY11987), William Hamilton Stewart (S781).

General Fund

Current balance: $831.05

Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
Debit $71.95 2/16/2018     IN25142 Unknown
Credit $125.00 1/11/2017 Desideriu Ramelet Stuart For kit 112839 Big Y test   Memory Of
Debit $39.00 4/3/2016     474002 Unknown
Debit $39.00 4/3/2016     446440 Unknown
Credit $120.00 1/8/2016 Desideriu Ramelet Stuart For offering 3 advanced tests for SNP S781 to 3 Stewart cousins   Unknown
Debit $425.00 1/9/2015       Unknown
Debit $425.00 12/13/2014       Unknown
Credit $325.00 12/13/2014 Ken STEWART 337093   Individual
Credit $100.00 12/13/2014 Ann Stewart Burns For anonymous Big Y tester Stewart, negative 781   Individual
Credit $100.00 9/7/2014 Michael Clancey Contribution towards Big Y Test for Steven Mitchell. If not needed for it, then for any other purpose.   Individual
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Project Stats

Statistic Type Count
Big Y 69
Combined GEDCOMs Uploaded 52
DISTINCT mtDNA Haplogroups 109
DISTINCT Y-DNA Confirmed Haplogroups 34
DISTINCT Y-DNA Predicted Haplogroups 0
Family Finder 176
Genographic 2.0 Transfers 14
Maternal Ancestor Information 235
mtDNA 131
mtDNA Full Sequence 98
mtDNA Plus 119
mtDNA Subgroups 13
Paternal Ancestor Information 294
Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 87
Total Members 413
Unpredicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 0
Unreturned Kits 93
Y-DNA Deep Clade (After 2008) 21
Y-DNA Deep Clade (Prior to 2008) 10
Y-DNA Subgroups 36
Y-DNA111 93
Y-DNA12 162
Y-DNA25 144
Y-DNA37 145
Y-DNA67 124