STEWART STUART (royal) Y DNA Project - Background





Text and images may be enlarged over 200% via the Ctrl and + keys. Use <"CTRL MINUS"> to zoom out.

Click on images and links below to see sources. If a Wikipedia quote can not be found via a link below, it can still be found via a search of the history of changes made to each article (Wikipedia's senior censors remove, distort, falsify, discredit, etc. any information that they do not like in order to further their personal, ethnic, etc. agendas).
Click here if you want to read an uncensored OLDER VERSION of this web page. It included anthropological information (not misleading propaganda) and had over four times more visitors per day according to the visitor counter at the bottom of this page.
DISCLAIMER: The genealogical, cultural and personal agendas and opinions found on the web page at and its links may not be appropriate, or those of any web site host, DNA testing company, employee, administrator, moderator or scientific community.
This DICTIONARY may come in handy. Family Tree DNA imposes NO LIMIT to the number of projects one can join.

Column # 1 (row # 1)

Welcome to FTDNA's exclusive project for y-DNA tested descendants of the first

We thank Family Tree DNA's President and CEO Bennett Greenspan for creating this project for the patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland on October 29, 2010.

These videos explain why:

  • Beginners may want to have their DNA tested.
  • Genetic genealogists prefer Family Tree DNA.

You and all of your descendants may benefit psychologically, etc. from what you learn from your own y-DNA test (and from the y-DNA tests of the patrilineal descendants of ANY of your ancestors). All of the issue of one of your great-great-great-great-grandmothers descend from the first High Steward of Scotland if one of her patrilineal cousins tests positive for SNP S310 (a.k.a. R-L746) or S781. Don't hope that anyone but you will pay for any of your relative's DNA tests, or wait until your last male relatives who are willing to have their DNA tested die (the closer to death, the less willing some become).

A Y-DNA test may help a male to identify his biological father and to obtain information about his patrilineal ancestors all the way back to the Fertile Crescent, and to the last common ancestor (y-LCA) of all of the living races of mankind (estimated to have lived 237 to 581 thousand years ago with 95% confidence). See Tables 1 & 2 about 80% down this page.

SNP vs. STR Tests

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371

A test for SNP S310 is the cheapest and most reliable way for men to prove whether or not they are patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland (DNA never lies).

Men can determine from which branch of the first High Steward of Scotland or Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll they descend via other SNP tests, e.g., S781 (see the phylogenetic trees below).

FTDNA does not sell SNP tests to first time customers, so you must first order some other kind of test unfortunately. You may JOIN THIS PROJECT (and be included in FTDNA's database) no matter what your surname is if you order a $59.00 Y-DNA12 STR (Short Tandem Repeat) test.

Initially your results will be displayed next to your kit number in the "Ungrouped" category at the bottom of the "Y-DNA Results" web page at Your results will be assigned to a different category if you test positive for SNP S310 or at a high enough STR level to determine that you are a patrilineal descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland.

The results of the SNP tests that are sold to first time customers by other companies are not displayed at unless you add them as a suffix to your surname, e.g., Stewart (781+), or Stewart (781-).

Patrilineal cousins who are related to each other closely enough to trace their relationship genealogically without the help of a DNA test usually have almost identical STR test results. This project's STR results pages allow you to compare your STR results to those of each L746+ Big Y tester. You can order tests for a Big Y tester's unique SNPs (i.e., novel variants) if you think that you and he belong to the same branch, e.g., because you and he have some of the same off-modal STR marker values. At least one DNA testing company will be willing to create a test for any newly discovered SNP.

We are disappointed that expensive Y-DNA111, etc. STR test results did not help all of us to determine how we are related to each other. The more of us order Big Y or other next generation sequencing (NGS) tests, the sooner we shall accomplish that goal.'s claim that about 50% of the Stewarts in Scotland are patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland may not be true. Less than 25% of the Stewarts in FTDNA's database (and the Stewarts in the UK for whose tests the General Fund of this project paid) do.

How To Order Individual SNP Tests From FTDNA

If you want to order an individual SNP test, login to your MyFTDNA account and:

  • Click ORDER AN UPGRADE in the upper right corner.
  • Click ORDER AN ADVANCED TEST, select SNP from the Test Type menu and type the name of the SNP, e.g., S781.
  • Click FIND, ADD, ORDER NOW, etc.

Autosomal DNA

One may be able to find a Stewart cousin via genealogical research or via an autosomal test (e.g., Family Finder) of one's own DNA. Cousins may or may not inherit enough of the same DNA to show that they have a common ancestor.

  • A child randomly receives half of his autosomal DNA from his mother and half from his father.
  • First Cousins may inherit a quarter of their DNA from one of their common grandparents.
  • Second Cousins may inherit an eighth of their DNA from their common great-Gparents.
  • Third Cousins may inherit a sixteenth of their DNA from their common ggGparents.
  • Fourth Cousins may inherit a 32nd of their DNA from their common gggGparents.
  • Fifth Cousins may inherit a 64th of their DNA from their common ggggGparents.
  • Sixth Cousins may inherit 128th of their DNA from their common gggggGparents - segments of DNA become so small at this level and beyond that accurate comparisons may not be possible.


For security reasons we want to make sure that only members of this family and their closest DF41 cousins have access to this project. Administrators may allow members who have not had Y-DNA tests to remain in this project if they post genealogical evidence that they qualify. The Y-DNA test results of most of its members prove that they do. Please remove yourself from this project if you do not, e.g., if:

  • The majority of your matches at the Y-37 level or higher do not have a version of the surname Stewart.
  • The name of your haplogroup does not begin with the letter "R-".
  • Over eight of your marker values differ from 181994's at the bottom of the "Y-DNA Results" web page.
  • Your completed Y-DNA37 or higher test results remain in the "Ungrouped" category for more than one week.
  • You test negative for SNP S310 (a.k.a. R-L746).

Those who are mistakenly removed from this project may contact an administrator.

How May We Benefit From Our SNP Test Results?

This ~6 minute VIDEO explains how experts can use the results of Big Y and other NGS tests to scientifically prove exactly how all of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.

Scroll about 60% down this web page if you want to know what to do with your Big Y test results after you receive them.

The L746 phylogenetic trees that Administrators Larry and Desideriu maintain below show SNPs that distinguish some branches of this Stewart family.

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 2.

Column # 2

How SNP Tests Benefited Us

About 50 members of this project had been tested by FTDNA or one of its competitors for SNP S781 (R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a1) by Feb/4/2015. About 40% tested positive and about a third added their test results to their surnames as a suffix in order to facilitate subgrouping, etc.

How May We Help Each Other?

If you want to help, please join these projects:

  • STUART project (if you descend from the first High Steward of Scotland).
  • R-S781 project (if you descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll).
  • R-DF41 project (if you test DF41+).

The more members of your branch order Big Y and other SNP tests the more likely we will be able to create pedigrees that show exactly how all of them are related to each other. Don't expect anyone but a genealogist to pay for his own tests and to contribute a sample of his DNA (especially to a stranger), no matter how much you need it.

Diana Gale Matthiesen stated: "Genealogy is like a jigsaw puzzle... If everyone hides their piece of the puzzle, none of us will get anywhere ... there are some serious practical considerations relevant to DNA projects that make lineage-sharing imperative." The fewer make their test results and the name, etc. of their earliest genealogically traced patrilineal ancestor private, the sooner we may determine exactly how all of us are related to each other.

Some of the goals of FTDNA's Royal Stewart project are to:

  • Recruit as many patrilineal descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland as possible, no matter what their surnames and geographic locations may be.
  • Help them to have their DNA tested for genealogical purposes by providing information and financial assistance to those who request it (please help us to recruit more European volunteers for FREE DNA TESTS).
  • Use their test results and pedigrees to determine exactly how they are related to each other and to which branch (sept or stirpes) of this GENS they belong.

Compare our DF13 Clan Colla cousins' FTDNA project administrators' achievements and Big Y test results to this family's if you want to see what could be better.

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 3.

Column # 3

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 4.

Column # 4

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 5 (row # 2).

Column # 5 (row # 2)

YFULL's 7/4/2015 phylogenetic tree below is at (login required). It shows:

  • The names of the SNPs via which some branches of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland can be identified.
  • Estimates of how long ago:
    • Those branch mutations occurred.
    • The common ancestor of some branches of this family lived.

Age estimation algorithm presented in article Defining a New Rate Constant for Y-Chromosome SNPs based on Full Sequencing Data by Adamov, Guryanov, Korzhavin, Tagankin, Urasin (2015).

  • R-L744 S802 * A475 * S797... 25 SNPs formed 3900 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp
    • R-L744*
      • id:YF01975
      • id:YF02025
      • id:YF02086 GBR [GB-DBY]
      • id:YF02447
      • id:YF03554 SCT
      • id:YF03673 SCT new
    • R-Y14197 Y14197 * Y14198 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp
      • id:YF02294 SCT
      • id:YF03214
    • R-Y4954 Z17581/Y4954 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp
      • R-Y4954*
        • id:YF01793
      • R-Y15896 Y15896 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp
        • id:YF01546 GBR
        • id:YF03552
    • R-S781 S781 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 600 ybp
      • R-S781*
        • id:YF02184
        • id:YF02313
        • id:YF02381 GBR [GB-ANT]
        • id:YF02406
        • id:YF02561
        • id:YF02682
        • id:YF02955
        • id:YF03473
      • R-A306 A307 * A308 * A306... 1 SNPs formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 200 ybp
        • id:YF01691
        • id:YF03362
      • R-Y11635 A889/Y11635 formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp
        • id:YF02080
        • id:YF02698
      • A922 formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp
        • R-A922*
          • id:YF02972
        • R-Y14048 Y14048 * A921/Y14230 formed 300 ybp, TMRCA 125 ybp
          • id:YF02179
          • id:YF03242

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 6.

Column # 6

Our Phylogenetic Tree's Foundation Is Under Construction

QUESTION: "Isn't it strange that none of the testers have any SNPs in common? I would have thought some type of pattern would have emerged by now."

ANSWER: "Most of it was planned that way.

A few months ago we developed a strategy to try to get as many branches identified through BigY as we could to develop a framework. Most of the kits that have tested so far were targeted under that strategy which, if successful, would result in one kit per branch. We still have a few of the targeted kits pending which may identify yet more branches.

But, now that we have a relatively comprehensive framework, additional tests that were not in our targeted set should start the pairing process.

Larry Walker"

Note: About half of our current NGS Testers have already been coupled with members of their own branch of our R-L746 Gens according to Graph # 1 below. Larry's June, 2014 recommendations for Big Y tests were based on genetic distance (shared off-modal branch marker values and SNPs indicate kinship more reliably).

An Analysis of the Big Y Results of some R-S781 Testers

We thank FTDNA's brilliant and hard working Stuart project administrator Desideriu for his "S781 Phylogenetic Tree" below and for his Analysis of the Big Y Test Results of ALL descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland. The lastest versions of his working drafts are at:

If you want your Big Y results to be added to Desideriu's tables:

  • Download and store your .bam files on Google Drive (see the instructions near the bottom of this web page).
  • Send the link needed to access them to Desideriu.

You may:

  • Order a book in French (profits are donated to the General Funds of FTDNA's Stewart projects as needed) about the well-documented and exciting military, etc. history of Desideriu's ancestors in Corsica, etc.
  • Click here to download a free .pdf version thereof.

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 7 (row # 3).

Branches of the R-S781 family

The left column of Administrator Larry's Graph # 1 below shows exactly how some descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.
All of them belong to the R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a branch of an ISOGG tree that includes all of the descendants of the y-LCA of every living race.
Click on the DF41 phylogenetic tree below if you want to see only the Stewart (S310/R-L746) part of it.

Branches of the DF41 family

Click here to see a significant COLORIZED version of the tables below (and an older, less censored version of this web page) in the new window that slowly opens.

Table # 1 was created 4/30/2015. Members of this project who have the same terminal SNPs belong to the same branch of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland. If you have some of the same off-modal STR markers as one of these branches, a test for some of the terminal SNPs that distinquish it may prove that you belong to it too. A Big Y test can also determine whether you belong to one of these branches, or to a branch that has not yet been undiscovered.
IDs of members of this project.BRANCHDYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
Stewart Mode 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
Members of FTDNA's royal Stuart project who tested POSITIVE for SNP R-S781
329057  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916132526191211121211914121011113112142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
272638  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916122626191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
292186  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231710121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101022151813241612152512231810141791211
168412  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215813222114121113111112113715916132526191211121211914121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
183344  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
E16071 A1a011324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171836-37121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113616916132526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
E16164 A1a011324141111-14121213131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171836-36121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113616916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
E15052 A1a011325141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113616916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
53238 A1a021325141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101222-23161012121581223211412111311111211                                            
251918 A1a021325141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101222-231610121215812232114121113111112113515916122526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151814241612152512231810141791211
148693 A1a021325141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101222-23161012121581223211412111311111211                                            
315522 A1a031324141111-14121211131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
349908 A1a031324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
128499 A1a041324141111-14121212131330179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231615171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012132413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
187778 A1a051324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916122526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
287075 A1a051324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
272860 A1a051324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231811141791211
143035 A1a061324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231910141791211
199984 A1a061324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171636-37121212915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
235915 A1a071324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916122526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
49412 A1a081324141111-14121212131330179-911112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-38121211915-1681010811101223-23151012121581222211412111311111211                                            
115205 A1a091324141111-13121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121114111112113615916132626191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
48694 A1a111324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812232114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113013142414101020151813241612152512231810141791211
Members of FTDNA's royal Stuart project who tested NEGATIVE for SNP R-S781
148478  1323141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101223-231710121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
112014  1324141110-14121212131329189-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211912121011113012132413101021151812241712152512231810141791211
209417  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681011811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
317006  1324141111-14121212131329179-1010112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171836-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101022151813241712152412231810141791211
40333  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112514192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222014121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413111021151813241612152612231810141891211
48747  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121311915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222214121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101121151813241612152512231810141791211
B8873  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                  11301214241310           23     12 
315872  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515202914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012132413101022151813241712152512231810141791111
221200  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112615192915-15-17-17111019-231515181736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231710121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241712152412231810141791211
320811  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011122515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171836-37131211915-1681010811101223-23161012121681222211412111311111211                                            
64547  1324141111-14121213131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211512111311111211                                            
198781  1324141112-14121212131329169-1011112415192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
43549  1324141211-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171836-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
224095  1324151211-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111119-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215811222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
358623 A1b1324141111-14121211131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121217812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151813241812152512231810141791211
337156 A1b1324141111-14121211131329169-1011112615193014-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-2316101212168122321141211131111121135159161325261912111212119131210111130121324131010211518132416131525122318101417101211
52840 A1b1324141111-14121212121328159-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241712152512231810141791211
275395 A1b1324141111-14121212131329                                                                                           
198199 A1b1324141111-14121212131329159-1011112415192914-15-17-17111019-231515171636-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101022151813241712152512231810141791211
N2338 A1b1324141111-14121212131329169-1010112615192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216813232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241613152512231810141791211
287664 A1b1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192814-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232014121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
288798 A1b1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192814-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121681223201412111311111211                                            
5603 A1b1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192814-15-16-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232014121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
239315 A1b1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
283694 A1c1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17101019-231515171636-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812222115121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
75703 A1c1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515161636-38121211915-1681010812101223-231610121216812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151713241612152512231810141791211
5987 A1d1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231514171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215811222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101023151813241612152512231810131791211
16895 A1d1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231514171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011112812142413101023151813241612152512231810131791211
330477 A1e1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
337093 A1e1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916122526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
147822 A1e1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171635-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121114111112113615916132526191211121211914121011113012152413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
256138 A1f1324141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111119-231515171736-37121211915-1781010810101223-241610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191111121211912121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
321497 A1g1324141111-14121212131329179-911112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211914121011113012142413101021151813241711152512231810141791211
368733 A1h1324141111-13121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526181211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241712152512231810141791211
57979 A1h1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241713152512231810141791211
179069 A1h1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211131211913121011113012142413101021151813241713152512231810141791211
164047 A1h1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17121019-231515171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916132526191211131211913121011113012142413101021151813241713152512231810141791211
52758 A1i1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-18111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215811222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
305358 A1j1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171834-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151913241612152512231810141791211
Members of FTDNA's royal Stuart project who have NOT TESTED for SNP R-S781 as of 4/30/2015
304756  1323141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121311 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222221412111311111211                                            
85883  1323141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121216 812232114121113111112113615 916132526191212121211 9131210111130121424131010201518132416121524122318101417 91211
144696  1323141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231710121215 81222211412111311111211                                            
N133020  1324131111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-15-17111119-231515171636-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121216 8122221141211131111121136  916132526191211121211 91312101111301214 1310102115 1324161215251223 101417 91211
14486  1324141011-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 812222114121113111112113615 916132526191211131211 9131210111130121424131010211518132416121525122318101417 91211
199958  1324141011-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231516171737-38121311 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 812222114121113111112113515 916132526191211121211 9131210111130121423131010201518132416121525122318101418 91311
82598  1324141111-14121212131329159-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171636-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231510121216 812222114121113101112113615 916132526191211121211 9131210111130121424131010211518132416121525122318101417 91211
69506  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192814-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222211412111310111211                                            
212556  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-221515161736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81223211412111311111211                                            
N53630  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-38121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121217 81223211412111311111211                                            
21686  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 812222114121113101112113515 916132526191211121211 9131210111130121424131010201518132416121524122318101417 91211
275682  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111021-221515171836-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121217 812222113121113111112113615 916132526191211121211 9131210111130121424131010211518132416121525122318101417 91211
67847  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171637-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121216 81221211412111311111211                                            
72199  1324141111-14121212131329169-1011 92515192914-14-15-17101019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121216 81222211412111311111211                                            
150786  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112415192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121216 812222014121113111112113615 916132626191211121211 9131210111130121424131010221518132416121525122318101417 91211
112839  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231415171636-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222211412111312111211                                            
164112  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-381212                                                                        
250834  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171734-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121216 81122211412111311111211                                            
N8849  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-361312                                                                        
44765  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222211412111311111211                                            
280335  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 812222114121114111112113615 916132526191211121212 9131210111130121424131010201518132416121525122318101417 91211
148823  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222211412111411111211                                            
315732  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 812101223-231610121215 812222114121113111112113615 916132526191211121211 9131210111130121424131010211518132416121525122318101417 91211
3214  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121311 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222221412111311111211                                            
15341  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231516171735-38121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 812222114121113111112113515 916132526191211121211 9131210111130121424131010201518132416121525122318101418 91311
199957  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231516171736-371212                                                                        
365740  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231516171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 812222114121113111112113515 916132526191211121211 9131210111130121523131010201518132416121525122318101418 91311
129498  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 813222114121113111112113615 916132526191211121211 9131210111130121424131010201518132417121524122318101417 91211
337622  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-381212                                                                        
285143  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515161736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222211412111311111211                                            
146145  1324141111-14121212141330179-1011112515193014-15-15-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 812232114121113111112113615 916132526191211121211 9141210111130121424131010211518132417111525122318101417 91211
210080  1324141111-15121212131329169-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222211412111311111211                                            
7107  1324141111-15121212131329179-1011112315192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81223211412111311111211                                            
304968  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112615192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-371212                                                                        
181994  1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211 915-16 81010 811101223-231610121215 81222211412111311111211                                            
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+ 

Column # 7 (row # 3)

What a Big Y tester can do in order to benefit from his Big Y results after FTDNA delivers them:

We are fortunate that NGS expert Larry Walker analyzes the Big Y test results of descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland, finds novel variants (SNP mutations) via which their branches can be identified, and lists them in Graph # 1 above so that those who did not order an NGS test can prove to which branches they belong (and thereby facilitate their genealogical research) via à la carte SNP tests that cost between $15 and $40.

FTDNA's Big Y Novel Variants report and VCF file only show the markers that meet FTDNA's quality threshold. This means that we cannot assume that any potential SNP is negative if it is shown as “rejected”, or if it is not shown on the Novel Variants report in the VCF file.

Yfull will help us to obtain full utility from your Big Y test by analysing and permanently storing your results for $49 if you:

  1. Telephone FTDNA at (713) 868-1438 or email and request that a DOWNLOAD.BAM FILE button be added to your Big Y Results web page as soon as possible.
  2. Login to your FTDNA account a few days later (if FTDNA says two days or months it may take five).
  3. Click on the “BigY Results” button near the bottom of the page.
  4. Click on the blue “Download Raw Data” button (not the “Export CSV" button).
  5. A pop-up should appear. Click on the green “Download BAM” button (NOT the “Download VCF” button). Contact the FTDNA help desk and ask for one if you do not see one. A Chrome browser user reported that it took about ten minutes to download a ~750 MB file named "" and about an hour to upload it to YFull. More info about the BAM specification is at
  6. Temporarily save your .BAM file on your Desktop or in a directory that you can remember.
  7. Click the “Order Now” button near the bottom of the web page at Some people confuse YFULL with a different business named Full Genomes Corporation (FGC) that markets a product frequently referred to as ‘Full Y’.
  8. Fill out the form. For “Source of raw data”, select “Upload .BAM file from my computer” (the first option). Click on the temporary link that Yfull immediately emails to you, add your .bam file to the upload queue and click the START button.
  9. Solve the anti-spam puzzle and click the “Order Now” button.
  10. You may delete FTDNA's .zip file from your computer after YFull emails your YFull ID and temporary password to you, or store it on Google Drive in case you need it later.
  11. YFull will bill you $49 after it completes its interpretation of your Y-Chr Sequence about three weeks later. You may then join Yfull's "R-S781, R-DF41" and "R-L21" Groups so that your YFull group administrators can see your raw data (ChrY positions, "private" variants, known SNPs, STRs, etc.).

Note: This will give direct access to your YFull analysis to administrators of FTDNA's exclusive projects for descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland.

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 8.

Column # 8.

Administrator Larry's Recommenations

From: A Big Y Tester

Dear Larry Walker,

Thank you for your preliminary analysis.
I assume you already have access to the data.
Is there anything more I need to provide anyone with?

From: Larry Walker
RE: Congratulations on Big Y results

Dear Big Y Tester,

Your valuable Big Y test results will be used to develop the phylogenetic map of mankind if you join the:

After joining, you should receive a request from an admin or co-admin of each project (I am CCing them) telling you what raw data they would like for you to provide and requesting your permission to use it. That will get you into:

From my end, I recommend that you join which will cost another $49, but IMHO is well worth it.

Over time (I have a large backlog) I will eventually browse your BAM data at Yfull to confirm the status (+ or -) and read quality of over 700 novel variants. Several good reasons to join YFull that do not include anything that I might do are:

  • Other than YFull, everything above is being done by individual volunteers. If any of us gets run over by a truck, then whatever we are providing goes Kaput. YFull is run as a business by a team, so is not vulnerable to the individual casualty risk.
  • YFull provides complete BAM file analysis including Y-STRs and mtDNA (what you get from the rest of us is partial) with a great set of on-line reports and tools. See for examples, or go to and login as email “”, password “yfull” for a hands-on sample.
  • YFull's experimental tree for our R-DF41/CTS2501/ subclade includes private as well as public SNPs, and is updated every 2 to 4 weeks.

I hope that FTDNA and/or FGC will eventually evolve to providing a similar level of analysis and access, but YFull is the only game in town that I know of for now.

That is probably enough for now.

Larry Walker

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 9.

Column # 9.

Administrator Larry's Request

NGS expert Larry Walker Larry prefers that your .BAM file be interpreted by YFULL: "ANYBODY WHO HAS BIGY (or FGC) SHOULD PLEASE-PLEASE-PLEASE JOIN YFULL!!!... While processing new YFull data in preparation for the diagram at for kit 52062 Miller, I found it positive for 17326894CA and 7311229CT which had not been called in the FTDNA reports. And, I found kit 82890 Morrison positive for 7311229CT which had not been called in the FTDNA reports. So, I developed the SPECULATIVE diagram on the ASSUMPTION that all Q’s might be positive (but not called by FTDNA) for those two novel variants. IF CONFIRMED for all of the remaining kits through YFull, it rectifies the problems contained in the online diagram." See FORUM.

Shall We Take the Next Step?

The results of your Y-DNA67 test would be useless if you were the only descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland who ordered it. More descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland have ordered Big Y and Y-DNA111 STR tests than the average Stewart family because of their extraordinary family spirit and because FTDNA created an exclusive project for them.

Shall we take the next step? 148478 Thomas (S781-) tried to get the ball rolling by being the first to order an FGC test. S781+ Administrator Desideriu ordered a $975 Elite Y test on Nov/04/2014. Were their efforts in vain?

A $575 Big Y test covers about 75% of the SNPs in ISOGG's database, and about 70% of the private SNPs that an $975 Elite Y test covers. A test that covers all 14.6 million bases costs even more.

SNP L746 a.k.a. S310

"We are phasing over to favoring the L746 designation for the triad as L744 (adjoins a possible deletion) and L745 (a deletion) can be problematic to identify with next generation sequencing (NGS) and has yielded some false negatives."

"As we are now at a level where identifying branches from STR results appears to be just about impossible, that makes everybody who is willing to invest in a Big Y test a 'priority candidate'".

"Big Y analyst Larry also wrote: ". . .we have covered most, or all, readily identifiable high priority candidates for identification of new branches. ANY additional BigY tests now will either help refine the branches that we have identified, or will identify new branches. Any branch or twig on the box diagram in “Graph #1” that has more than 1 novel variant shown would benefit from refinement."

"... there appears to be no clear indicator from either phylogenetic trees or spreadsheet examination of STR results for projecting whether a person can be expected to test either positive or negative for S781." Must the STR haplotypes of all grandsons of Walter the third High Steward have been identical to the Mode of this entire Stewart family therefore?

" ... 148478 Thomas tested S781-, so whatever hope we had that his FGC test would help clarify the S781+ group is gone. After looking at GD’s, I think that he may end up as a third kit in the Pierce-Thompson cluster."

"Anyway, that is just my opinion. Different people will look at the same data and develop different opinions. The way I see things for now are posted at a permalink for whatever it is worth. That Graph is a LOT of work, so I will not update it very often."

Administrator Larry may update Graph # 1 above, and recommend more SNP tests after FTDNA delivers more results. These results may make it easier for some S781+ and S781- Stewarts to determine to which branch they belong by ordering individual SNP tests instead of Big Y tests (~$500).

Note: Administrator Larry's messages in Columns 3, 4 & 5 above were slightly edited by the web master.

GD between racial haplotypes is greater than indicated due to haplotype convergence.
Table # 2M
Stewart Mode-2917759142
39568 Stewart Duke2-51456067
89163 Australoid59605971-88
N50900 Mongoloid7745105-71139
9 Israelite9151-10559164
215865 Negroid1426716413988-
Related- Hybrid mutation model is used
Table # 3 - Grey cells indicate the 12 ($59), 25, 37 ($169), 67 ($268) and 111 ($339) marker levelsDYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
Modal STR Haplotype of all Descendants of High Stewards of Scotland tested by FTDNA ==> 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
Haplotype of ducal descendant #39568 of Charles II according to Roger S. Powell, MA1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # 9 (J1c3d. The y-MRCA of HG R & Semitic J-L147 lived ~45 KYA.1223141014-17111712131129178-811112514202514-14-16-16111021-221514181831-31131011815-168111181191221-22191012121781325211312111312121211321581512242720121213111291112101111301113221511112015191023151116241220189151791111
Haplotype of N50900 (China). The y-MRCA of HG O & R lived ~70 KYA.1225161112-12111212121328179-911112414203112-15-15-15111219-231415171832-36111011815-178117811101217-1716111212167132419121211151011121138158161225282011111312129111110111231111223139921162012221613152512231910141891212
Haplotype of Australoid89163 (GD=59@67). The y-MRCA of HG K & R lived ~106 KYA.1323161013-13111012141429189-91182815192714-14-15-15101119-221514172231-34131013816-169111081110019-21191012121691126221511111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # N64496 & 215865 (GD=68@67, HG A00 descendants of Dixie's Carolinian slaves)1319161016-17131112131230168-910112412213213-15-15-1811916-181515141836-36121610914-1481088117923-23171211121681226230121214101111123915913122228191011111012101110810133101220010927151213261713142415152013151491211
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+The Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor of all men who belong to HG R lived ~27 KYA. The Y chromosomes of men in R have no known SNP mutations in common with men in A00 and Neanderthals. According to Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona and Dr. Thomas Krahn, the theoretical y-MRCA of all men who belong to HG R and men who belong to HG A00 lived ~338,000 years ago (95% confidence interval 237–581 KYA). Some scientists claim that humans and Neanderthals mated and that their ancestral population lived ~370,000 years ago.

Click here to see COLORIZED versions of the tables above (and an older, less censored version of this web page) in the new window that slowly opens.

Your contributions to the General Fund of FTDNA's royal Stuart project will be used as you see fit, e.g., to pay for the DNA tests of men with your surname who still live in the part of the world from which you suspect that your patrilineal ancestors came. Most of the donations below were made in order to pay for the DNA tests of men who have the surname Stewart and who live in the UK.

Those who donate to our General Fund can help to avoid confusion and to facilitate communication by using FTDNA's form to state:

  • Their own names or kit numbers.
  • For what test they want their donations to pay, e.g., Big Y.
  • The kit number of the donor of the DNA that will be used for the test.

FTDNA can not use our General Fund to pay for all or part of your DNA test unless your project administrator approves BEFORE you order it.

Please Help Us to Recruit More Volunteers for FREE DNA TESTS, and to Improve this project.

"If you are creating or joining a company the most important thing is to: 1) Do everything you can to gather great people... 3) Constantly seek criticism. A well thought out critique of whatever you are doing is as valuable as gold, and you should seek that from everyone you can, but particularly your friends. Usually your friends know what's wrong, but they don't want to tell you because they don't want to hurt you. They want to encourage you so they do not want to tell you what is wrong with your product. It does not mean that your friends are right but very often they are right. You at least want to listen very carefully to what they say, and to everyone. You should take the approach that you are wrong. Your goal is to be less wrong". SOURCE: the video about Elon MUSK at

Bannockburn Live was a huge success and the highlight of the 700th anniversary year.

This counter read 32,718 on July 31, 2015. It read Zero Mar 01, 2014; 2,975 Apr 01; 6,563 May 1; 7,351 May 11 (replaced the older version); 7,500 May 20; 8,333 June 1; 10,275 July 1; 11,820 August 1; 13,255 September 2; 15,300 October 1; 17,758 November 1; 21,813 December 1; 24,000 Jan. 1; 24,786 Jan. 15, 2015 (when Columns # 15 & 16 about anthropology, etc. were censored); 25,610 Feb 1, 26,936 Mar. 1, 28,837 April 1, 30,342 May 1, 31,340 June 3, and 31,975 on July 2, 2015.
Country Codes

Flag Counter

The more patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland join this project the more useful it will be to genealogists and scientists.

We thank the following contributors to the General Fund of this project: David E. Stuart, Steven Mitchell, Donald Grant, Michael Clancey, Hereld Stuart, Francis Marion Stewart III, CD Stewart, Donna Lindberg, Robert Lindberg, Shirley Black Barry, Mary Stuart Spangler, Desideriu Ramelet-Stuart, William Hamilton Stewart, Alexander Stewart, Belinda Dettmann, Diana Stewart Powels.

General Fund

Current balance: $736.00

Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
Debit $425.00 1/9/2015       Unknown
Debit $425.00 12/13/2014       Unknown
Credit $325.00 12/13/2014 Ken STEWART 337093   Individual
Credit $100.00 12/13/2014 Ann Stewart Burns For anonymous Big Y tester Stewart, negative 781   Individual
Credit $100.00 9/7/2014 Michael Clancey Contribution towards Big Y Test for Steven Mitchell. If not needed for it, then for any other purpose.   Individual
Debit $39.00 9/4/2014       Unknown
Credit $100.00 9/4/2014 Preston Stewart Myers This donation is for SNP tests 781 for kit number 209417 or any other SNP test fo further define this kit's ancestry.   Individual
Credit $100.00 9/1/2014 David E. Stuart John Moody Stuart of Philadelphia,1882-1957   Memory Of
Credit $100.00 8/1/2014 Ann Stewart Burns, admin of 330477 In memory of Goodwill Murray Stewart   Memory Of
Credit $100.00 7/26/2014 Janis Stewart Storbo To find Stewarts in Northern Ireland to test for matches   Honor
Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of 7

Project Stats

Statistic Type Count
Big Y 39
Combined GEDCOMs Uploaded 53
DISTINCT mtDNA Haplogroups 70
DISTINCT Y-DNA Confirmed Haplogroups 9
DISTINCT Y-DNA Predicted Haplogroups 0
Family Finder 100
Genographic 2.0 Transfers 12
Maternal Ancestor Information 149
mtDNA 87
mtDNA Full Sequence 59
mtDNA Plus 74
mtDNA Subgroups 10
Paternal Ancestor Information 185
Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 29
Total Members 246
Unpredicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 0
Unreturned Kits 31
Y-DNA Deep Clade (After 2008) 22
Y-DNA Deep Clade (Prior to 2008) 10
Y-DNA Subgroups 32
Y-DNA111 72
Y-DNA12 123
Y-DNA25 114
Y-DNA37 114
Y-DNA67 102