STEWART STUART (royal) Y DNA Project- Background

Administrators

Surnames

ALL SURNAMES of patrilineal descendants e.g., BEAUCLERK (Duke of St Albans), BOWLIN, CAMPBELL, CLANCEY, COBB, DUN, ELDER, FITZROY (Duke of Grafton), GORDON-LENNOX (Duke of Richmond), MACLEOD-STUART, MALLOURE, McPHEE, MITCHELL, PIERCE, ROBERTSON, SCOTT (Duke of Buccleuch), Steward, STEWART, Stu, Stuart, THOMAS, THOMPSON, WARBURTON, WARD, WEBB

Background

Copyrights (c) July 18, 2017 and earlier by Stewart (royal Bonkyll branchS781+YF02381143035T494964L58W-HRDMyHeritage, my Tree). All Rights Reserved. Please credit me with the ideas, etc. below if you use them or quote me elsewhere.
Columns # 1 & 2 below are about DNA tests for males only. The other columns are about the African origin of mankind, etc. This document is still being edited.

Text and images may be enlarged over 200% via the Ctrl and + keys. Use <"CTRL MINUS"> to zoom out. This DICTIONARY may come in handy. Point cursor at images to see text & click on them & links to see sources. Click here to read OLDER VERSIONs of this web page. If a quote can not be found via a link below due to Wikipedia's notoriously unfair and biased censors, it can still be found via a search of the history of changes made to each article.
The following June/8/2017 list includes countries from which visitors to this web page came, in order of frequency: United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, France, New Zealand, Sweden, Germany, Finland, China, Ireland, Netherlands, Italy, Japan, Russia, Czech Republic, South Africa, Spain, Norway, Poland, Brazil, India, Switzerland, Denmark, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, Greece, Malta, Turkey, Croatia, Mexico, Hungary, South Korea, Israel, Philippines, Romania, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Bulgaria, Jamaica, Austria, Serbia, Thailand, Indonesia, Slovakia, Chile, Portugal, Trinidad and Tobago, Algeria, Malaysia, Pakistan, Hong Kong, Ukraine, Venezuela, Qatar, Lithuania, Georgia, Bahrain, Iran, Nigeria, Argentina, Slovenia, Tunisia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Puerto Rico, Egypt, Belarus, The Bahamas, Vietnam, Oman, Uruguay, Taiwan, Singapore, Morocco, Peru, Ecuador, Kenya, Ghana, Luxembourg, American Samoa, Bangladesh, Iceland, Iraq, Isle of Man, Albania, Jordan, Ivory Coast, Zimbabwe, Guam, Mongolia, Cambodia, Latvia, Colombia, Guernsey, Cyprus, Sudan, Saint Lucia, Guadeloupe, Macedonia, Faroe Islands, Estonia, Senegal, Cameroon, Kazakhstan, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Azerbaijan, Panama, Kosovo, Togo, Jersey, Barbados, Macau, Curacao, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Moldova, Benin, Costa Rica, Tanzania, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Laos, Palestinian Territory, Bolivia, Yemen, Madagascar. Nobody from the following countries had visited this web site as of 6/22/2017: Afghanistan, Aland Islands, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Aruba, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cape Verde, Caribbean Netherlands, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Christmas Island, Comoros, Cook Islands, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Micronesia, Monaco, Montenegro, Montserrat, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Niue, Norfolk Island, North Korea, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Republic of the Congo, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Helena, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sint Maarten, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Svalbard, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, The Gambia, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vatican City, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, Zambia
DISCLAIMER: The goal and sacred responsibility of the unpaid administrators of this project is to help their trusting kinsmen to make wise choices (not to sell tests from which they will not benefit). The genealogical, cultural and personal agendas and opinions found on the web page at http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx and its links may not be considered appropriate by any DNA testing company, employee, administrator, moderator, preacher, scientist, web site host or member of a DNA project.

Your privacy settings must be changed to "ANYONE" if you want others to see the results of your Y-DNA12, etc. STR tests via the web page at https://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx?section=ycolorized. Log into your FTDNA account and move your cursor to your name in the upper right corner. A menu will drop down. Click on PRIVACY SETTINGS, and select your options.


MOST PEOPLE CAN NOT FULLY ACHIEVE THEIR GENEALOGICAL GOALS UNLESS THEY BUY A NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING (NGS) TEST, e.g., Big Y. About half of the men in this project did so. You will know WHY if you can understand some technical terms, e.g., TERMINAL SNP (the defining SNP of the latest subclade known by current research). "Big Y is probably the most important Y DNA test that you can take because it goes beyond testing for public and known SNPs. Big Y discovers your own line of SNPs rather than just the known SNPs." Scroll down to row # 6 near the bottom of this page, and then towards the right if you want to read a message from the administrator of FTDNA's R-L21 project about why one should buy a Big Y test.

Ask your project administators for advice in order to avoid requesting a refund, or spending hundreds of dollars on STR, SNP pack, etc. tests from which you may never benefit.

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371 Welcome to FTDNA's project for y-DNA tested descendants of the first hereditary HIGH STEWARD of SCOTLAND
All of them belong to Haplogroup (HgR1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1a, & test positive for SNPs L744/S388, L745/S463 & L746/S310

If you think that you descend from this patriline, you may JOIN FTDNA's royal Stewart project provisionally, no matter what gender & surname you have.
Women may persuade a male relative to have a y-DNA (Y chromosome DNA) test, but can not have one themselves. FTDNA does not LIMIT the number of projects that one may join.

Click on any image or map on this page if you want to see larger versions, or their sources.

We thank Family Tree DNA's President and CEO Bennett Greenspan for helping us to discover who our patrilineal ancestors were all the way back to figurative ADAM, by creating this exclusive project for the descendants of Walter FitzAllan on October 29, 2010. See FTDNA's video about DNA testing and genetic genealogy at https://youtu.be/wVmTYXVQmzg.

Column # 4

The Origins of the Aryan Race & Civilization

Map # 9


the most recent major advance of the North American ice sheet complex.
Maps # 1 (Exodus from the Sahel), # 2 (Sahel & Sahara coast to coast) & # 3 (The ice sheet advance that preceded the Holocene)


Hamitic KebaransNatufians and Americans

The habitable forests of Eurasia had been over-populated by other territorial races for tens of thousands of years before Hamitic hunter gatherers left the Sahel, so some of them skirted to the north of the territorial Mongoloids during an unusually warm summer, and populated America before any other race had (see Map # 7 below), with the possible exception of Neanderthals.

If an asteroid had not devastated these blond, blue-eyed, heat-adapted Hamitic American Indians thousands of years later, Mongoloid Indians could not have invaded and driven them to the fringes of America, and the Vikings who discovered Vinland about a thousand years ago would have have been greeted by American Indians who looked almost exactly like themselves.

Semitic herdsmen (called Hyksos, i.e., "rulers of foreign lands", by the ancient Egyptians) migrated across the Mandeb straits and northwards along the Persian Gulf. They enslaved the Hg R1b1a1a2 (known previously as R1b1a2) Hamitic farmers of southern Mesopotamian about 6 KYA, and had become numerous enough to enslave the Hamitic Egyptians by about 4 KYA (see Map # 9 in Column # 4). Some farmers avoided being enslaved by genocidal Semites by becoming herdsmen too, or by escaping across Anatolia to Central Eurasia (the Sahara desert prevented travel to the south).

Central Asian farmers who were attacked by Mongoloid herdsmen fled to the forests of northern Europe (livestock starve in a forest).

Distribution map of haplogroup R1b in the Old World (Eurasia and Africa) - Eupedia Neolithic (Hamitic/Aryan) migrations from the seventh to fifth millennium BC
Map # 4 & # 5 - Hamites fled to the Fertile Crescent from a Sahelian drought, and to Europe from Semitic & Mongoloid herdmen of Asia.

Map # 4 above shows that some Hamites (Hg R) never left the vicinity of Lake Chad. Others migrated to the Fertile Crescent about 18 KYA, harvested the seeds of wild grasses because there was so little game, and became the first farmers (Kebaron and Natufian) on earth (hunter-gatherers already occupied the rest of Eurasia). Semitic herdsmen and terrorists motivated most of these Hamitic farmers to escape to Anatolia before ~3 KYA, and from there by land and sea to the Pyrennes and to the other parts of Eurasia shown in the map # 4 above.


   

Map # 6 - Location of "Southeast Asia"   Map # 7 - African origins of the Hamitc race & languages.   Map # 8 - Hg L3 Distribution in the Chad Basin.

Map # 7 above shows from which part of the Sahel Hg R Hamitic herdsmen immigrated to the Fertile Crescent, and that some Hamitic hunter gatherers did not remain in the Fertile Crescent after they left the Sahel. Hg R1 is the second most common haplogroup among American Indians.

Map # 8 - "Undifferentiated haplogroup L3 is widely distributed, particularly in the Chad Basin." Drought forced the HG L3 ancestors of Mongoloids, Crô-Magnons and Hamites (Aryans) to congregate in the vicinity of Lake Chad, and finally to migrate from the Sahel to Eurasia.


(Column # 4)

Column # 5

The Almost Total Holocaust of the Hamitic Farmers of the Fertile Crescent

  • Why did some Hamites leave Africa? The LGM reduced global temperatures and therefore evaporation from the oceans and the rainfall that the wildlife and hunter-gatherers of the Sahel needed in order to survive.
  • Why did part of the Hamitic population travel northwards up the Nile river valley to the Fertile Crescent? They would have been killed by the territorial inhabitants of Africa's equatorial rain forest if they had traveled south, and by territorial Semites if they had traveled further east in order to cross the Mandeb strait into Arabia.
  • Why did some Hamites remain in the Fertile Crescent instead of seek better hunting grounds elsewhere? Hunter-gatherers had already populated the more habitable parts of Eurasia. No other race wanted the relatively barren Fertile Crescent.
  • Why did some Hamites become farmers? They had to forage for grass seed and eventually to cultivate it because there was so little rainfall and wild game in the Fertile Crescent.
  • Why is Hg R no longer the most common in the Fertile Crescent? Hamites fled from the droughts, over-population, and finally the genocidal Semitic herdsmen who invaded their territory. Semitic herdsmen terrorized and gradually conquered, killed, enslaved and drove out nearly all of the Hamitic farmers of the entire Fertile Crescent except the Kurds and the endogamous Yazidis (the Yazidi girl at this link looks so Aryan that you will be shocked).
  • Why did some Hamites migrate from Central Asia to the forests of northern Europe? In order to escape from the genocidal Mongoloid herdsmen who attacked their farms.

Chaldean and Hyksos Imperialists

The ancient Egyptians called the Semitic herdsmen (Hg J) who conquered them "Hyksos", a word that means "rulers of foreigh lands", i.e., "imperialists". The Semitic Hyksos conquered Egypt ~4 KYA and brutally oppressed the Hamitic farmers for centuries. According to the Jewish historian Josephus and the Judeo-Christian Bible, hundreds of thousands of Hebrews from the Sumerian city of Ur of the Chaldees were expelled from Egypt by Ahmose I (died ~1557 BC).

According to Wikipedia, "Semitic languages originated in Western Eurasia". "HG J (Semitic) is found in greatest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula. Migration from Arabia into the Fertile Crescent has been a constant pattern of human movement in the Middle East since antiquity. As such, the Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original Semitic Urheimat by a majority of scholars. Older theories positing Mesopotamia as the Semitic homeland were severely undermined by the identification of the non-Semitic Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia in the late 19th century..." Censored quote from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Semitic_language&oldid=452079142#Homeland

Map # 10 above shows where Hg J is most frequent, i.e., from where in Africa it came, and that Semitic herdsmen migrated from the eastern Sahel across the Mandeb strait to southern Arabia, and conquered the Hamitic farmers of ancient Mesopotamia and Canaan. The adjacent image shows the fairer-skinned (bibically maligned) Hamitic (Celtic Hg R-M269 / R1b1a1a2) Egyptians being attacked in the Nile valley from all sides by the Semitic Hyksos. Evolution in the dark forests of eastern Africa caused Semites to have darker skin & frizzier hair. See the bottom right corner of Map # 9, Column # 4.

"Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may also move to raid settled communities ... This lifestyle ... is possibly associated with the appearance of Semitic languages in the region of the Ancient Near East."

"Historically nomadic herder lifestyles have led to warrior-based cultures that have made them fearsome enemies of settled people." "The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent peoples in the world".

Wikipedia's racist censors deleted the above two quotes from its article about Nomadic Pastoralism, but they can be found via a search of its history.

I claim that Semitic languages originated in the part of the Sahel and forests that are between the southern Nile valley and the Red Sea, and that Semitic herdsmen spread them across the Mandeb Straits into Arabia and along the Persian Gulf to Mesopotamia, where they first discovered the farmers' crops.

For thousands of years small bands of nomadic herdsmen on horseback, e.g., Genghis Khan, could escape with impunity after they invaded the homelands of farmers and terrorized, raped, massacred and plundered them.

According to ISOGG: "Y-DNA haplogroup J evolved in the ancient Near East and was carried into North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan and India. J2 lineages originated in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The main spread of J2 into the Mediterranean area is thought to have coincided with the expansion of agricultural peoples during the Neolithic period. The timing of the demographic events that brought J2 to Central Asia, Pakistan, and India is not yet known. J1 lineages may have a more southern origin, as they are more often found in the Levant region, other parts of the Near East, and North Africa, with a sparse distribution in the southern Mediterranean flank of Europe, and in Ethiopia."

               

Map # 11 - African origins of Semitic languages,     Map # 12 - Location of "Arabia",     Map # 13 - Location of "Western Asia"

Map # 14 below shows vegetation during the Last Glacial Maximum (26,500-19,000 years ago).

Map of vegetation patterns during the last glacial maximum


(Column # 5)

Column # 6

Why Doesn't Everyone Have Beautiful Fair Skin?

During the penultimate glaciation the patrilineal concestor of all men may have lived in a forested part of the Cameroons near the yellow star on image # 7 below. His dark, Bonobo-like hair camouflaged and protected his fair skin from cold, rainy weather (the skin of nearly all furry and feathered animals is no darker than a chicken's).

The body hair of mankind became less visible during the hot Eemian, so the skin of Pygmies and other races that continued to evolve in dark forests darkened for camouflage. According to the ridiculous Vitamin D theory of skin color, shouldn't the skin of Pygmies be the fairest, since "The rainforest canopy cut off almost all the ultraviolet light and prevented it from reaching the forest floor"?

Pygmies and every other race that has evolved since the Eemian under thick forest canopies (even in Europe) for tens of thousands of years have been exposed to less sunlight than Celtic farmers. Celts have fair skin because it reflects heat and is better camouflage in grasslands. Hg R & I hunter-gatherers migrated from the sunny Sahel to the sunny Fertile Crescent because of the droughts caused by the LGM, and became the world's first farmers, so their skin color never darkened for camouflage. Farmers need sunshine in order to grow crops, so their symbol of life & God became the sun (which they depicted as the cross that one sees when one squints at a light, e.g., a street light at night). Christians adopted the cross & many other aspects of the Aryan religion in order to make it easier for them to worship an Israelite.

World Map of Y-DNA Haplogroups
Map # 15 - Some men who belong to Hg R left the Sahel during the LGM. Other clades of mankind left during 3 previous stadials.


The skin of Pygmies darken for camouflage after mankind became less hairy
Images of a fair skinned Bonobo & a Pygmy who lives in a dark forest & should be white according to Vitamin D theorists.

Bonobos need dark skin for camouflage only on the hairless parts of their bodies. Their bodies are fairer than the bodies of Pygmies and Bantus because their longer body hair provides all of the camouflage that they need. All three species evolved for over 100 KY in the dim all day twilight of Africa's equatorial rain forest. Would the soles and palms of Pygmies and Negroes be black for camouflage if they were as visible as the rest of their bodies?

Since Pygmies and Negroes have always evolved where ultraviolet light levels (of the kind that are "supposed" to help human skin make vitamin D) are particularly low, why aren't they as white as plucked chickens? After mankind became less hairy, the skins of most races eventually DARKENED FOR CAMOUFLAGE because their ancestors lived under multiple canopies of vegetation in the dark forests of Africa, Eurasia, etc. for tens of thousands of years. Why aren't lionscamels and all people as black as Pygmies and forest panthers? After Sahelians became less hairy they retained their fair skin because:

  • Fair skin and hair are better camouflage than black in the golden grasses of the sunny savannah.
  • Fair skin and hair reflect heat better than black does.


Map # 16 - African Political Boundaries. Can you find Lake Chad?


(Column # 6)

Column # 7

Caveat

Only the bracketed [     ] comments below were written by Stewart.
According to http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml:

  • "Hg R* originated in North Asia just before the Last Glacial Maximum (26,500-19,000 years ago)".
          [There is no evidence that people who belong to the Hg R patriline left the Sahel before they were forced to do so by the LGM. Hg R* originated in Hamitic hunter-gatherers of the Sahel, from which the LGM forced them to migrate. They were not numerous enough to defend themselves in parts of Africa and Eurasia that had already been populated by other territorial races, e.g., Mongoloids, Semites, Crô-Magnons and Negroes, so they migrated via the Nile valley to the Fertile Crescent, where there was so little game that they had to harvest grass seed in order to survive, and eventually became farmers. After Semitic herdsmen began to raid, terrorize and enslave the farmers of the Fertile Crescent, most of them fled to the forests of Europe, took the land of the hybrid Crô-Magnon/Neanderthal hunter gatherers who had survived the LGM there, and created the civilizations of southern Europe. The Aryans of southern Europe eventually interbred with the dark, cold-adapted Crô-Magnon/Neanderthal hybrids, so they look different from the fair, heat-adapted Aryans of northern Europe. Semitic herdsmen wiped out nearly all Aryans who remained in the Fertile Crescent. Aryans who escaped from the Semites to Central Asia fled to the forests of northern Europe (where cattle starve) after their farms were attacked by the genocidal Mongoloid herdsmen of Central Asia. Northern Europe had been depopulated by the LGM, so hardly any miscegenation with Crô-Magnon/Neanderthal hybrids occurred there.]

  • "three main branches of R1b1 (R1b1a, R1b1b, R1b1c) all seem to have stemmed from the Middle East."
          [These patrilines may have formed before the ancestors of Aryans emigrated from the Sahel to the Fertile Crescent. See R Haplogroup YTree v5.02 in Column # 7 of this web page. R1b1a2 (PF6279/V88; previously known as R1b1c - see https://isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html) has been found in 95.5% of the Hamitic-speaking Ouldeme (who live near Lake Chad), and also in Western Asia and Southern Europe. Other subclades of R1b that remained in the Sahel did not live close enough to sources of water and game, e.g., Lake Chad, to survive droughts that lasted for thousands of years.]

  • "It has been hypothetised that R1b people (perhaps alongside neighbouring J2 tribes) were the first to domesticate cattle in northern Mesopotamia some 10,500 years ago."
          [R1b & I (Aryan) hunter-gatherers became farmers (not herdsmen) because there was so little game for them to hunt in the Levant. After they learned how to irrigate their crops they were able to expand their civilization into Egypt and lastly into Mesopotamia. They were eventually discovered by Semitic shepherds who had migrated across the Mandeb Straits to the southwestern Arabian Peninsula in order to graze their livestock. After Semitic herdsmen began to terrorize and raid their farms, some farmers migrated to the forests of Europe, or became herdsmen themselves. Semitic herdsmen eventually enslaved the farmers of Mesopotamia, became their rulers, e.g., Sargon the Great, so some of them escaped to Europe and began creating Stonehenge and their civilizations there. See Dave Vance's R1b-L21-History-Timeline, which is based on Yfull's "Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor" (TMRCA) estimates.]

The information below is near the bottom of ISOGG's web page at https://isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html (italized text is mine):

  • Y-DNA Hg R (M207) is believed to have arisen approximately 27,000 years ago in Asia (I claim in Africa). The two currently defined subclades of Hg R-M207 are R1-M173 and R2.
  • R1-M173 is estimated to have arisen during the height of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), about 18,500 years ago, most likely in southwestern Asia (i.e., the Fertile Crescent?). The two most common descendant clades of R1 are R1a and R1b.
  • R1a-M420 is believed to have arisen on the Eurasian Steppe or the Indus Valley, and today is most frequently observed in eastern Europe and in western and central Asia. R1a-M458 is found at frequencies approaching or exceeding 30% in Eastern Europe.
  • R1b-M343 is believed to have arisen in southwest Asia (i.e., the Fertile Crescent?) and today its sublcades are bound in various distributions across Eurasia and Africa.
  • Paragroup R1b1* and R1b1a2-V88 are found most frequently in SW Asia and Africa (i.e., the Sahel and around Lake Chad?). The African examples are almost entirely within R1b1a2 and are associated with the spread of Chadic languages.
  • R1b1a1a-P297 is found throughout Eurasia. R1b-M73 is observed most frequently in Asia, with low frequency of observation in Europe. R1b-M269 is observed most frequently in Europe, especially western Europe, but with notable frequency in southwest Asia (i.e., the Fertile Crescent?. R1b-M269 hunter-gatherers became numerous after they became the first farmers in the Fertile Crescent, and fled to Europe during the Holocene because of droughts and the Semitic terrorist and herdsmen who migrated from Africa to south-eastern Arabia, and began to invade the Fertile Crescent about 6 KYA).
  • R1b1a1a2-M269 is estimated to have arisen approximately 4,000 to 8,000 years ago in southwest Asia (the Fertile Crescent?) and to have spread into Europe from there. The Atlantic Modal Haplotype, or AMH, is the most common STR haplotype in R1b1a1a2a1a-L11/PF6539/S127 and most European R1b belongs to R1b1a1a2a1a1-M405/S21/U106 or R1b1a1a2a1a2-P312/PF6547/S116. The royal Stewart family belongs to the R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1a L744/S388, L745/S463, L746/S310 patriline.
  • R2-M479 is most often observed in Asia, especially on the Indian sub-continent and in central Asia.

(Column # 7)

Column # 8

Excerpts From Yfull's R Haplogroup YTree v5.03

I added SNP Z39589 and the Pictish branch to Yfull's tree below. Yfull's original June, 2017 version is at https://www.yfull.com/tree/R/.

Move your cursor over the 'years before present' (ybp), etc. to see:
* Pop-up estimates of when each SNP first occurred.
* How long ago the last common ancestor of members of each branch lived.
* The meaning of some of the abbreviations used.

  • R F295/M685/PF6039/V3064 * L747/PF5918/YSC0000287/M702 * F82/M620/V1194+53 SNPs formed 31900 ybp, TMRCA 28200 ybp
    • R-Y482 Y482/PF6056/F459 * PF5919/F356/M703 * PF6040/YSC179/FGC1168+1 SNPs formed 28200 ybp, TMRCA 28200 ybp
      • R1 P245/PF6117 * M781/PF6145 * PF6119+62 SNPs formed 28200 ybp, TMRCA 22800 ybp
        • R1b M343/PF6242 * PF6246/V1532 * L506/PF6267+25 SNPs formed 22800 ybp, TMRCA 20400 ybp
          • R-L278 M415/PF6251 * L278 formed 20400 ybp, TMRCA 18700 ybp
            • R-PH155 BY14387 * BY14350 * PH4622+65 SNPs formed 18700 ybp, TMRCA 7400 ybp
            • R-L754 CTS8436/PF6259 * CTS3063/V2515/F1811 * L761/PF6258/YSC0000266+16 SNPs formed 18700 ybp, TMRCA 17100 ybp. The royal Stewarts & the Ouldémé belong to Hg R-L754.
              • R-V88 (R1b1a2) Z30230/Y7770 * V88/PF6279 * PF6332+59 SNPs formed 17100 ybp, TMRCA 11700 ybp. The Ouldémé & some Europeans & native Americans belong to Hg R-V88.
              • NOTE: I claim that the Hamitic ancestors of the royal Stewarts lived near Lake Chad during the LGM, and that their Ouldémé cousins never left that area. According to "Human Y chromosome Hg R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and the spread of Chadic languages." at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20051990. "The R-V88 coalescence time was estimated at 9.2-5.6 kya [corrected], in the early mid Holocene. We SUGGEST that R-V88 is a paternal genetic record of the PROPOSED mid-Holocene migration of proto-Chadic Afroasiatic speakers through the Central Sahara into the Lake Chad Basin, and geomorphological evidence is consistent with this view."
              • R-L389 L389/PF6531 * L388/PF6468 formed 17100 ybp, TMRCA 16800 ybp. The royal Stewarts (but not the Ouldémé) descend from this Celtic branch of the Hamitic patriline.
                • R-P297 YSC0000269/PF6475/S17 * PF6498 * L752/PF6483+34 SNPs formed 16800 ybp, TMRCA 13300 ybp
                  • R-M269 CTS11468/PF6520 * PF6437 * PF6419/CTS623+102 SNPs formed 13300 ybp, TMRCA 6500 ybp
                    • R-L23 PF6404 * L478/PF6403 * L23/S141/PF6534 formed 6500 ybp, TMRCA 6200 ybp
                      • R-L51 L51/M412/S167/PF6536 * PF6535 * CTS10373/PF6537/FGC39+2 SNPs formed 6200 ybp, TMRCA 5800 ybp
                        • R-L151 P310/S129/PF6546 * YSC0000191/PF6543/S1159 * L52/PF6541+9 SNPs formed 5800 ybp, TMRCA 4900 ybp
                          • R-L21 Z290/S461 * L21/M529/S145 * L459+3 SNPs formed 4400 ybp, TMRCA 4400 ybp
                            • R-DF13 CTS8221/Z2542 * DF13/S521/CTS241 formed 4400 ybp, TMRCA 4300 ybp
                              • Z39589
                                  • R-L1335 S733 * S5285 * PT1/FGC9557/Y2984 +25 SNPs formed 4300 ybp, TMRCA 3700 ybp. Picts belong to haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1f.
                                    • R-CTS2501 (DF41) CTS2501/S836 * Y2368/FGC7999 * FGC8000/Y2370+5 SNPs formed 4300 ybp, TMRCA 4000 ybp
                                      • R-S775 S775 * A475 * Y5844/FGC34916 +4 SNPs formed 4000 ybp, TMRCA 4000 ybp
                                        • R-L744 S790 * Y5845 * S791 +22 SNPs formed 4000 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp → (R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1a)
                                          • R-L744*/S388, L745/S463, L746/S310
                                            • id:YF06282
                                            • id:YF05865
                                            • id:YF05851 USA [US-VA]
                                            • id:YF04357 SCT
                                            • id:YF03673 SCT
                                            • id:YF03554 SCT
                                            • id:YF02447
                                            • id:YF02086 GBR [GB-DBY]
                                            • id:YF02025
                                            • id:YF01975
                                          • R-Y4954 Z17581/Y4954 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp
                                            • R-Y4954*
                                              • id:YF01793
                                            • R-Y15896 Y15896 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp
                                              • id:YF03552
                                              • id:YF01546 GBR
                                          • R-Y14197 Y14197 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 500 ybp
                                            • R-Y14197*
                                              • id:YF05155
                                            • R-Y14198 Y14198 formed 500 ybp, TMRCA 325 ybp
                                              • id:YF05896
                                              • id:YF03214
                                              • id:YF02294 SCT
                                          • R-S781 S781 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 550 ybpinfo. (R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1a1)
                                            • R-S781*. A mutation that occurrs only in descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll, e.g., King James I of England..
                                              • id:YF09885
                                              • id:YF08120 SCT
                                              • id:YF06827 ENG
                                              • id:YF05289
                                              • id:YF03473
                                              • id:YF02682
                                              • id:YF02561
                                              • id:YF02406
                                              • id:YF02381 GBR [GB-ANT] (See 143035's MRTS in the pink column of the S781 tree in Column # 9).
                                              • id:YF02313
                                              • id:YF02184
                                            • R-A306 A308 * A306 * A309+1 SNPs formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 200 ybp
                                              • id:YF03362
                                              • id:YF01691
                                            • R-A5024 Y29911 * A5024 formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 550 ybp
                                              • id:YF07865 SCT
                                              • id:YF02955
                                            • R-Y11635 A889/Y11635 formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp
                                              • id:YF02698
                                              • id:YF02080
                                            • R-A922 A922 formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 250 ybp
                                              • R-A922*
                                                • id:YF02972
                                              • R-Y14048 Y14048 * A921/Y14230 formed 250 ybp, TMRCA 50 ybp
                                                • id:YF09962
                                                • id:YF08182
                                                • id:YF03242
                                                • id:YF02179

      (Column # 8)

      (Column # 9)

      We thank royal Stewart project administrator Desideriu for the R-S781 SNP tree at http://www.s781.org/allsnps.html and for the S781 phylogenetic tree below. They show the branches to which the descendants of Sir John STEWART of Bonkyll belong. Branches of the R-S781 family


      Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R1b

      Hg R1b formed 22800 ybp according to Yfull, i.e., during the LGM. The concestor of the royal Stewarts and the Chadic speaking Ouldémé (Hg V88) belonged to Hg R-L754 (formed 18700 ybp).
      He probably lived in the Sahel instead of Anatolia (contrary to Eupedia's tree below). Some undiscovered branches of haplogroups R1b and R-L754 may never have left the Sahel. Few survived the drought caused by the LGM.
      The R1b-L21 phylogenetic tree below shows that Stewart haplogroups L746 and S781 are downstream of L21/M529 and SNP S775 (shown with a pink background in the tree below).
      DF41 (CTS2501) SNP Formation Timelines Phylogenetic Tree of Haplogroup R1b-Z39589


      We thank DF41 Cousin Larry Walker for:

      • The DF41 (CTS2501) SNP Formation Timelines table below, which includes the SNP names of nine Stewart branches plus some of the other DF41 branches that are shown in the table at https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-CTS2501/.
      • His searchable DF41 STR tree at http://rangebiome.org/DF41STR.pdf , which includes the kit numbers of most of the y- STR-tested members of FTDNA's DF41 and royal Stewart projects.
      • Helping to administer FTDNA's royal Stewart and DF41 projects.

      DF41 (CTS2501) SNP Formation Timelines MODERN EUROPEAN SKULL 10,000 YEAR OLD KIFFIAN SKULL DISCOVERED IN AFRICA's SAHEL at GOBERO in NIGER

      Image #22 - There is no evidence that the ancestors of the Kiffians of Goberno (see image above) ever left Africa. They evolved physically and mentally for over 100,000 years in the dangerous Sahel (a verbal language may have helped them to compete with lions and other predators). Some physical adaptations to that hot and dry climate include:

      • Elevated noses that cool and humidify the hot, dry air of the Sahel before it enters the lungs.
      • Dolichocephalic heads that help cool the brain.
      • Tall, thin and relatively hairless and sweaty bodies that helped men to exhaust and kill large furry ungulates by chasing them during the hotest part of the day (possibly with the help of dogs).
      • Fair colored hair and skin that provides better camouflage in the sunny savanna, and reflects heat and cancer causing radiation.
      • Blood that cools and turns the skin pink because it circulates so closely to the surface.
      The teeth of Kiffians are relatively small because their ancestors obtained most of their protein from meat.

      Image #21 - Dolichocephalic northern Europeans have more prominent (i.e., larger and higher) noses (see image above), fairer hair and skin, and less body hair than southern Europeans because:

      • They have less Crô-Magnon blood than southern Europeans.
      • Their ancestors immigrated from the sunny Sahel tens of thousands of years later than Crô-Magnons, Mongoloids and Australoids.

        (Column # 9)

      Row # 2, Column # 1

      The Goal of This Project's Administrators

      We want to help each member of this project to discover as CHEAPLY as possible the branches via which he descends from our common ancestor Walter FitzAllan (1106 – June 1177), so that he can:

      Our goal can not be achieved unless the Most Recent TERMINAL SNPs (MRTS) of at least one MALE member of each branch of our agnatic family is discovered via an NGS test, e.g., Big Y. Administrator Desideriu displays the MRTS of over twenty Big Y tested descendants of the Bonkyll branch of our Stewart family on his S781 phylogenetic trees, e.g., at http://www.s781.org/allsnps.html . Future generations or our family can continue our work.

      Big Y is the ONLY DNA test sold by FTDNA via which a man can discover the unique mutation(s) that ONLY members of his own branch (e.g., all of his own descendants, or those of his fifth great-grandfather) have. According to Steve St. Clair, Big Y is the "last test that you have to take with FTDNA. See his posts.

      Some members of this Stewart family were tested only for SNP R-M269 (Hg R1b1a1a2). All of them belong to Hg R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1a, and test positive for the following three SNPs : L744/S388, L745/S463, L746/S310.

      Y-SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) are 100% PROOF of ancestry. Guessing which y-STR (Short Tandem Repeat) marker values indicate to which branch distantly related cousins belong is almost impossible unless one knows one's Terminal SNP(s), and sometimes even if one does.

      Unfortunately, FTDNA does not allow one to order Big Y and other SNP tests unless one first purchases at least a $59.00 Y-DNA12 STR test (from which a Big Y tester may never benefit), e.g., by clicking on this link, or by telephoning FTDNA at 713-868-1438 Monday - Thursday 9 am to 4:30 pm CST or Friday 9 am to noon. A Big Y test can not be ordered until one's first STR test has been batched (possibly a couple days or a week after FTDNA receives one's sample, hopefully in time to benefit from a sale).


      Discount Coupons

      You may be able to find a discount coupon via the Internet, e.g., Big Y coupons worth up to $125 off were displayed via the spreadsheet at https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1CgXRKz2TySvRqSInveSIYoslO7yexAc9d-BzpNhaY1c/edit#gid=1338933495 during a sale that began before Thanksgiving and ended on December 31, 2016. Some of us paid only $425 for our Big Y tests, and even less if we received assistance from our General Fund.


      Individual SNP Tests

      $18.00 DNA tests, e.g., for SNPs S310, S781, Y14197, etc. can prove with 100% certainty whether or not a man is a patrilineal descendant of the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and to which known branches of this family he belongs. To which UNKNOWN branches of our patrilineal family distantly related cousins belong can be discovered ONLY via a relatively expensive NGS test.

      Individual Y-SNP tests cost less than y-DNA12 STR tests, and are far more reliable indicators of ancestry than ambiguous off-modal STR marker values and "Genetic Distance" (GD). E.g., the y-STR111 GD between brothers 5987 and 16895 is two. The y-STR67 GD between fourth cousins 143035 and 199984 is also two. The y-STR67 GD between about ten Stewarts whose common ancestor lived about 800 years ago is ZERO.


      Why Identify Members of Your Own Branch?

      The seventeenth century patrilineal ancestors of most members of this project have not been identified yet. Those who have the same MRTS belong to the same branch of our patrilineal family and can help each other to break through their genealogical "brick walls" from several directions instead of from only one! The MORE members of a branch discover their Terminal SNP(s) and ~500 y-STR marker values, the more likely they will be able to identify their Last Common Patrilineal Ancestor (LCPA), e.g., a descendant of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll who lived only a few generations ago. This is one of the reasons that FTDNA's following projects have offered to use their General Funds to help their members to pay for their Big Y tests, e.g., if they tested positive for:

      Click here to see the list of those who contributed to our General Fund (near the bottom of this web page).


      Why Buy DNA Tests?

      "We have conducted a meta-analysis of virtually all twin studies published in the past 50 years, on a wide range of traits and reporting on more than 14 million twin pairs across 39 different countries. Our results provide compelling evidence that all human traits are heritable: not one trait had a weighted heritability estimate of zero." VOLUME 47 | NUMBER 7 | JULY 2015 Nature Genetics

      Some of us would rather understand from whom we inherited the precious genes that have influenced every aspect of our lives and civilization, and the behavior of our species for hundreds of thousands of years, than for our heirs to gamble our money on lottery tickets, or to spend it on senseless entertainments and addictive drugs like alcohol and tobacco. Learn how to help those genes make a family great via better nutrition in one minute by clicking here.

       


      (Column # 1)

      Column # 2

      STR Tests

      Relying on STR tests instead of on SNP tests is like eating junk instead of more nutritious foods. You'll be better off and save money in the long run if you choose the latter.

      Since SNPs indicate ancestry far more reliably than the y-STR marker values of most members of this project can, we recommend that their Terminal SNPs be discovered via a Big Y or another NGS test FIRST. If one orders a $339.00 Y-DNA111 STR test instead of a Big Y test first, one may end up paying TWICE for about a hundred mostly ambiguous y-STR marker values ! One may prefer to use the hundreds of dollars saved to pay for autosomal DNA tests for three more members of one's family.

      CAVEAT EMPTOR. Why do almost all of FTDNA's unpaid project administrators encourage members of their projects to order expensive y-STR and SNP PACK tests via which NO new branches of our patriline can be discovered, BEFORE they order Big Y tests? Do they think that we are too penny wise and pound foolish to pay about $100 more for a far better product? You may benefit from the results of an NGS test an order of magnitude more than from the results of SNP PACK and expensive Y-DNA111, etc. STR tests.

      Why does FTDNA report one's Terminal SNPs but NOT the ~500 STR marker values that can be obtained only via an analysis of the results of a Big Y (or any other NGS) test? Are 500 STR marker values too much of a good thing, or less useful than only 111? Colorized Table #1 below shows that:
          * ALL of the marker values that are included in our Y-DNA111 tests except DYS 447 may be included in the results of our Big Y and other NGS tests (click here and wait at least 20 seconds for more proof).
          * About 500 y-STR marker values are over four times as useful as only 111 (a critical difference).

      FTDNA did not report the ~500 Y-STR marker values that are displayed in Table #1 below even though they were discovered via an analysis of 143035's (my) Big Y test. In order to obtain them I had to pay $49 (less than $.10 per marker value instead of over $3.00 each) to a company that FTDNA's projects turn to for Big Y analysis, but which they are not allowed to promote. I persuaded this aforesaid company to generate colorized ~500 Y-STR marker value comparison tables because manually creating error-free versions of them was so difficult.

      John Cleary's three videos about "Using SNP Testing & STRs To Enhance A Genetic Genealogy Research Project" explain why I (with the help of the aforesaid company) created the ~500 y-STR comparison table below, and the more elaborately colorized version at http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~stewartroyal/index.html#ta2. If you avoid scrolling, etc. for at least twenty seconds after you click on this link you will see a ~500 y-STR marker value comparison table that includes about sixteen NGS tested descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll.  Their STR marker values MAY or may not help us to GUESS to which branch etc. some of them belong. If too few SNPs were discovered via one's Big Y tests, one may discover additional useful SNPs via a more expensive NGS test).

      After all twenty of the descendants of Sir John who are listed in Administrator Desideriu's S781 phylogentic tree have Yfull IDs, I intend to add their ~500 y-STR marker values to comparison tables like those below. Those whose NGS test results have not been analyzed yet can not be included in a reliable phylogenetic tree.


      SNPs Are The BEST Proof Of Ancestry

      Big Y, etc. SNP tests are incomparably better than SNP Pack, Y-DNA111 STR tests, etc. no matter what they cost. Our General Fund will gladly pay for the NGS tests of the descendants of King Charles II and other aristocratic members of this Stewart family who have trustworthy pedigrees if their results are made public. The University of Stratclyde has been most helpful in this regard. Knowing when their SNPS first occurred, e.g., S768, may help some of their unaristocratic cousins to learn more about their own ancestors.

      Some descendants of Charles II and everyone listed in the S781 phylogenetic tree at the top of Column # 9 tested positive for SNP S781. They therefore have 100% proof that they descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (c1245 - 1298), the ninth great grandfather of King James I of England, and that at least one of their ancestors was more closely related to King James than Sir John was.

                        

      According to FTDNA and the results of their Y-67 STR tests below, there is a 95% probabilty that the LCPA of 143035) and Duke # 39568 lived about 510 years ago (1507 AD), and that their LCPA may have therefore been been John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox (c. 1490 - 1526), the great-grandfather of James I of England. See Table # 5 below. How credible is such information if it is based only on the results of their STR tests?

      The GD between duke #39568 and Robert "Robin" STEWART (1785 - 1865) of Stover Creek, SC is only 3, if his y-STR haplotype included only the three off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that his two gggGrandsons (4th cousins 199984 and 143035) have in common. If so, according to FTDNA's estimates and Table # 8 below, there is a 95% probablilty that the LCPA of Duke #39568 and Robert lived about 450 years ago (1567 AD), and may have therefore been a legitimate or illegitimate son, nephew or patrilineal cousin of the aforesaid Earl or his siblings, e.g., Duke of Albany Henry Stuart (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567), a manly great-grandson of King Henry 7th of England, and the second husband and first cousin of Scottish Queen Mary Stuart. 100% proof would require a comparison of their most recent Terminal SNPs.


      Columns # 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are not about DNA tests. They are about the African origin of the ancestors of this Stewart and all other branches of mankind, etc.

      (Column # 2)

      Column # 3

      The African Origins of All Eurasians

      All people descend from Mitochondrial Eve, a woman who lived before the end of the penultimate glaciation, probably in the relative safety of Africa's dark equatorial rain forest (see the yellow star on map #15 in Column # 6). Her skin was as white and her hair as long and dark as a Bonobo's for camouflage and in order to protect her from the cold rain (see the pictures in Column # 6). Her descendants became less hairy during the hot Eemian, and darkened for camouflage if they remained in the forest. Fair skin and hair is better camouflage where lions live, and reflects heat (spacewalkers wear white suits, not black).

      The Hg L3 branch of Eve's descendants evolved enough intelligence and verbal skills to coordinate their hunts and to defend themselves, e.g., against predatory lions, so they migrated to the hot, dry and dangerous Sahel in order to obtain a better source of protein. The longer a race evolved in the Sahel, the more heat-adapted and Nordic looking it became, e.g., slender, tall, and less hairy. In order to keep their bodies and brains cool, Nordics have fair hair, dolichocephalic heads and pink skin (because their blood circulates close to the surface), and sweat more profusely than other races. They have prominent noses that help them to humidify and cool the hot air of the Sahara before it enters their lungs because their easily identifiable skulls have a nasal bone (see the pictures in Column # 9) that is possessed only by Whites (a term that may include non-Aryan Europeans and Semites). Races that have lived in a cold climate for thousands of years, e.g., in Eurasia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) have none of these heat adaptations. The aforesaid heat adaptations prove that Aryans, e.g., northern Europeans and Indians, evolved in the Sahel longer than any other Eurasian race.

      Why Would Any Hunter Gatherer Want To Cross The Formidable Sahara Anyway?

      The 1,118 X 2,983 mile Sahara desert is as big as the USA, and extends from the Atlantic ocean to the Red Sea. The last glacial period made leaving Africa more difficult because it reduced evaporation from the oceans and rainfall in the Sahel, especially during the increasingly severe droughts known as major stadials, which occur every twenty thousand years due to Milankovitch cycles according to the video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2JcVMkyJoZY. Each stadial was followed by an interstadial during which the predator and prey populations of the Sahel fully recovered.

      Each major stadial starved the population of mankind and game in the Sahel except where water was more plentiful, e.g., near Lake Chad, so part of the Hg L3 population migrated to Eurasia. Hunter gatherer refugees from Sahelian droughts crossed the desolate Sahara desert via the Nile valley because they would have been killed by the dark skinned inhabitants of Africa's equatorial rainforest if they had traveled southwards, or by fiercely territorial Semites if they had tried to leave Africa via the Mandeb Strait, the easiest way out of Africa (see Map # 10, Column # 5). Each subclade of Hg L3 left Africa during a different stadial, settled in a different part of Eurasia, and became a separate territorial race or species (see Map # 15 in Column # 6 and the "Out of Africa" theory at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recent_African_origin_of_modern_humans). All tribes were territorial enough to kill refugees who invaded their territories, so this was a one-way trip. Any Eurasian who survived the trip across the Sahara desert even at its greenest would have been outnumbered and killed by the territorial hunter gatherers and herdsmen whose ancestors never left the Sahel. Hundreds of thousands of years of evolution made mankind as savage as any undomesticated animal ever was, and instinctively and permanently tribalistic and racist to the core.

      The fourth and last major stadial was called the LGM because it was the longest, coldest and driest. It lasted from  26,500 to 19,000 years ago, and the Sahara was hyper-arid about 23–14.5 kya. This drought nearly exterminated the part of the Hamitic race (Hg R1b and I) that remained in the Sahel, and forced part of it to migrate from the vicinity of Lake Chad to the Fertile Crescent via the Nile basin. Rainfall in the Sahara increased again during the "African Humid Period" 11,000-5,000 years ago, so Hamitic farmers spread into Egypt, where they invented irrigation.

      Irrigation made it possible for Hamites to colonize Mesopotamia, where they encountered Semitic herdsmen who had crossed the Mandeb straits to Arabia. Nomadic Semites were more mobile, so they could terrorize, enslave and exterminate farmers with impunity. Some farmers therefore fled to Anatolia, and from there by boat to the Pyrennes, and by land to Central Asia (Mongoloid herdsmen motivated some of them to seek refuge in the forests of northern Europe). See maps in columns # 4, 5, & 6.

      Why Do Five Major Eurasian Species of Mankind Exist?

      Most biologists practically define a "species" as a population of organisms that are GENETICALLY more similar to each other than they are to members of other genepools. Some people incorrectly refer to the five major extant Eurasian species of mankind as "races" nevertheless. Some of this diversity may disappear within a few generations because of miscegenation between all of the species of mankind except the one that was chosen to be above all of the others.

      Each group of migrants settled in a different part of Eurasia, where it was completely isolated from the rest of mankind for so long that it became a separate territorial species, e.g., the AustraloidsMongoloids, and Crô-Magnons (southern Europeans).

      The concestors of the Australoids left Africa during the first stadial, shortly after the last glacial period began. Neanderthals inhabited Europe so Australoids settled in the wonderful forests of eastern Asia. The Australoids were nearly exterminated by a volcanic eruption about 70 KYA, shortly before the second major stadial forced the concestors of the Mongoloid race to migrate from the Sahel and drive the Australoids to the fringes of Asia (see map # 15 in column # 6).

      The meat hungry, heat-adapted concestors of Crô-Magnon race migrated from the Sahel to Europe during the third stadial, possibly across the Mediterranean via round boats (they had branches and animal hides) in the same way that Europe is being flooded with refugees today. Europe became so warm shortly thereafter that cold adapted Neanderthals could not compete with these possible cannibals. The last Neanderthal died about 30 KYA, even though they may have been the most intelligent species of mankind that ever lived (their brains were far larger than ours).

      An established race that can not defend its territory must accept refugees who will replace it if possible. The history of China shows that refugees can terrorize and take the territories of weaker races, and quickly exterminate farmers and the civilizations they create. Farmers can not compete with their savage cousins because they need more security, and have become as domesticated as their farm animals due to law enforcement, etc. The stronger and more racist and savage a race is, the more likely it will be able to defend and to expand its own territory. Evolution is more likely to create savages like Tyrannosaurus rex than a civilized species that can outlast planet Earth.

      Only part of the Semitic race (Hg J) left Africa during the Holocene. Semites still inhabit Arabia and the most hospitable and forested part of the Sahel, e.g., Ethiopia (see maps # 10 & 11 in Column # 5).

      Only part of the Indo-European or Aryan race (haplogroups R & I) left the Sahel during the LGM. The Hg R1b1a1 hunter-gatherer ancestors of the royal Stewarts owe their existence to the hardy Hamitic explorers who traveled on foot northwards along the western side of the parasite infested Nile river for thousands of miles through the Sahara desert to the Fertile Crescent during the worst drought that occurred during the last glaciation. Some may have had to cross the Sahara several times in order rescue members of their beloved tribe who were healthy enough to survive that dangerous trek.

      The Hg R1b1a2 Ouldémé hunter-gatherer cousins of the royal Stewarts never left the Sahel. The Ouldémé speak Wuzlam, a branch of the Chadic branch of the Hamitic language that was spoken in the Sahel by all R1b and I patrilines before the LGM. They still live in the part of the African Sahel near Lake Chad from which the Hamitic ancestors of the HittitesCanaanites ancient Egyptians, etc. and ALL Indo-European, a.k.a., Indo-Hittite, speaking nations migrated because of the desiccation caused by the LGM. Map # 6 in Column # 4 shows the location of Southeast Asia, where Hg R originated according to Karafet et al (2014).


      When did the Royal Stewart Patriline Leave the African Sahel?

      Hg R formed or arose 31,900 years before present (ybp) according to Yfull's R Haplogroup YTree v5.03 (see Column # 8). It arose 27,000 years ago in Southeast Asia according to Wikipedia. I claim that Haplogroups R and R-L754 (to which both the royal Stewarts and R-V88 Ouldémé belong) first occurred in the Sahel, not in Eurasia. See Map # 9 in Column # 4.

      According to the "R Haplogroup YTree v5.03" in Column # 8 (see the red font), and at https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-L754/:

      • The royal Stewarts, the Ouldémé and other Hamitic speaking tribes of the Sahel test positive for SNP R-L754 (Hg R1b1a).
      • Royal Stewarts belong to the R1b1a1 branch of R-L754.
      • Ouldémé belong to the Hg R1b1a2 (see https://isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html), a.k.a. the PF6279/V88 branch of R-L754, which is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Central and Western Asia, and other parts of northern Africa.
      • The mutation known as R-L754 is estimated to have first occurred in a man who lived 18,700 ybp, i.e., before the Hamitic (a.k.a. Kebaran and Natufian) ancestors of the Stewarts, etc. migrated from the Sahel to the Fertile Crescent.

      According to Cruciani and others at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987365/: "If the presence of R1b chromosomes in Africa was not because of a back migration, we would have to assume that all the mutations that connect M9 with V88 in the MSY phylogeny (>50 mutations) originated in Africa. Under this scenario, we should assume that all the K-M9 lineages that are now found outside sub-Saharan Africa have survived extinction, whereas those which should have accumulated in Africa are now extinct (with the exception of T-M70 and R-V88) ..." I claim that periodic stadials caused droughts that exterminated most of the Sahelians who did not immigrate to Eurasia.

      According to the erroneous back migration of Hg R1b1a2 to the Sahel theory, the Ouldémé migrated from eastern Eurasia (see Map # 15 in Column # 6) to near Lake Chad "during the early mid Holocene" 10-5 thousand years ago (KYA), and the patriline to which all Aryans and the R-V88 Ouldémé belong arose in Asia. Would the far-fetched back migration theory apply to Semites too, if Hamitic languages were "Afro-Asiatic, i.e., more closely related to Semitic than Indo-European languages are? Semitic herdsmen had no reason to enslave, rape, exterminate and impose their languages on the Hamites of ancient Canaan, etc. until after Aryans became productive farmers (see maps # 10 & # 11 in Column # 5).

      Royal Stewarts belong to Celtic Hg R-M269 (R1b1a1a2, known previously as R1b1a2). Hamitic Pharaoh Tutankhamun (~1333 BC) did too, according to  Swiss scientists who work at iGENEA (FTDNA's European affiliate). That Tutankhamun and the ancient Egyptians, etc. belonged to the Celtic branch of the Hamitic race and spoke a Hamitic language is consistent with Table of Nations. If Hamitic & Semitic belonged to the same language family, all Indo-European languages would be Afro-Asiatic" too.

      Have the traditional enemies of free speech and Egypt's Semitic government tried to cover up the genocide and enslavement of Hamitic farmers by Semites (see Column # 5) by keeping the DNA test results of the ancient Egyptians top secret, etc.? Can obfuscation of this holocaust and the true history of the Aryan race (taboo even amongst Christians) for political, religious, etc. reasons ever be stopped? Some racists have contrived history to suit their own paranoid political agendas.


      (Column # 3)


      Row # 3         Click here if you want to see a more colorized and complete version of this table (FTDNA does not display the useful background colors of all of the cells in the tables below.)
      1Table # 1~500 UNREPORTED STR markers discovered via Big Y analysis → 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502
      2The total # of y-STR markers that are included in Y-DNA111 y-STR tests →  12                               34                 5                                                                                                                                                                                         6789101112131415161718192021222324252627 2829303132333435 3637383940414243444546474849      50       51 5253  54 55 5657 58    5960    6162 63    64 65 66       67686970 71  72        73  74 7576  77 78 79 80 81  8283 84       85 8687 8889     90        91             92  9394 95 9697 98   99                                  100 101 102103104105          106   107108109110111
      3Names of UNREPORTED y-STR markers discovered via Big Y analysis →ATA 71D03CDY .1CDY .2DXY S156DYF 371.1DYF 371.2DYF 371.3DYF 371.4DYF 380.1DYF 380.2DYF 381.1DYF 381.2DYF 382DYF 383.1DYF 383.2DYF 384.1DYF 384.2DYF 385.1DYF 385.2DYF 386.1DYF 386.2DYF 386.3DYF 386.4DYF 387.1DYF 387.2DYF 389DYF 390DYF 390.1DYF 390.2DYF 391.1DYF 391.2DYF 392DYF 393DYF 394DYF 395.1DYF 395.2DYF 396.1DYF 396.2DYF 398.1DYF 398.2DYF 399.1DYF 399.2DYF 399.3DYF 400.1DYF 400.2DYF 401.1DYF 401.2DYF 403.1DYF 403.2DYF 404.1DYF 404.2DYF 405.1DYF 405.2DYF 406DYF 407.1DYF 407.2DYF 408.1DYF 408.2DYF 409.1DYF 409.2DYF 410.1DYF 410.2DYF 411.1DYF 411.2DYF 412.1DYF 412.2DYR 1DYR 10DYR 100DYR 101DYR 102DYR 103DYR 104DYR 105DYR 106DYR 107DYR 108DYR 110DYR 111DYR 112DYR 113DYR 114DYR 115DYR 116DYR 117DYR 118DYR 119DYR 12DYR 120DYR 121.1DYR 121.2DYR 122.1DYR 122.2DYR 123DYR 124.1DYR 124.2DYR 124.3DYR 125.1DYR 125.2DYR 126DYR 127DYR 128.1DYR 128.2DYR 13DYR 130DYR 131DYR 132.1DYR 132.2DYR 135DYR 136DYR 137DYR 138DYR 139DYR 14DYR 143DYR 144DYR 146DYR 15DYR 150DYR 152DYR 154DYR 156DYR 157DYR 158DYR 159DYR 160DYR 161DYR 162DYR 163DYR 164DYR 165DYR 166DYR 167DYR 168DYR 169DYR 170DYR 171DYR 17.1DYR 172DYR 17.2DYR 173DYR 17.3DYR 174DYR 175DYR 18.1DYR 18.2DYR 19DYR 2DYR 20DYR 23DYR 26DYR 27DYR 28DYR 29DYR 3DYR 30DYR 31DYR 32DYR 33DYR 35.1DYR 35.2DYR 36.1DYR 36.2DYR 38.1DYR 38.2DYR 39DYR 40DYR 41DYR 43DYR 44DYR 45.1DYR 45.2DYR 45.3DYR 46DYR 47DYR 48DYR 49DYR 5DYR 51DYR 52DYR 54DYR 55DYR 56DYR 57DYR 58.1DYR 58.2DYR 59DYR 6DYR 60DYR 61DYR 62DYR 63.1DYR 63.2DYR 64.1DYR 64.2DYR 65DYR 66.1DYR 66.2DYR 67.1DYR 67.2DYR 67.3DYR 67.4DYR 68.1DYR 68.2DYR 68.3DYR 68.4DYR 69DYR 7DYR 70DYR 71DYR 73DYR 74DYR 75DYR 76DYR 77DYR 78DYR 79DYR 8DYR 80DYR 81DYR 82DYR 83DYR 84DYR 85DYR 87DYR 88.1DYR 88.2DYR 89DYR 90DYR 91DYR 9.1DYR 92DYR 9.2DYR 93DYR 94DYR 95DYR 96DYR 97DYR 99DYS 19/394DYS 385.1DYS 385.2DYS 388DYS 389IDYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 391DYS 392DYS 393DYS 413.1DYS 413.2DYS 425DYS 426DYS 434DYS 435DYS 436DYS 437DYS 438DYS 439DYS 441DYS 442DYS 443DYS 444DYS 445DYS 446DYS 447DYS 448DYS 449DYS 450DYS 452DYS 453DYS 454DYS 455DYS 456DYS 458DYS 459.1DYS 459.2DYS 460DYS 461DYS 462DYS 463DYS 464.1DYS 464.2DYS 464.3DYS 464.4DYS 466DYS 467DYS 468DYS 469DYS 470DYS 471DYS 472DYS 473DYS 474DYS 475DYS 476DYS 477DYSDYS 480DYS 481DYS 484DYS 485DYS 487DYS 488DYS 489DYS 490DYS 491DYS 492DYS 493DYS 494DYS 495DYS 496DYS 497DYS 499DYS 500DYS 501DYS 502DYS 504DYS 505DYS 506DYS 507DYS 508DYS 509DYS 510DYS 511DYS 512DYS 513DYS 514DYS 516DYS 517DYS 518DYS 520DYS 521DYS 522DYS 523DYS 525DYS 526ADYS 526BDYS 527.1DYS 527.2DYS 528.1DYS 528.2DYS 530DYS 531DYS 532DYS 533DYS 534DYS 536DYS 537DYS 538DYS 539DYS 540DYS 541DYS 542DYS 543DYS 544DYS 545DYS 546DYS 547DYS 548DYS 549DYS 550DYS 551DYS 552DYS 554DYS 556DYS 557DYS 558DYS 559DYS 561DYS 562DYS 565DYS 567DYS 568DYS 569DYS 570DYS 571DYS 572DYS 573DYS 574DYS 575DYS 576DYS 577DYS 578DYS 579DYS 580DYS 581DYS 582DYS 583DYS 584DYS 585DYS 587DYS 588DYS 589DYS 590DYS 592DYS 593DYS 594DYS 595DYS 596DYS 598DYS 599DYS 600DYS 607DYS 608DYS 609DYS 611DYS 612DYS 613DYS 614DYS 615DYS 616DYS 617DYS 618DYS 619DYS 620DYS 621DYS 622DYS 623DYS 624DYS 625DYS 626DYS 627DYS 629DYS 630DYS 631DYS 632DYS 633DYS 634DYS 635DYS 636DYS 637DYS 638DYS 639DYS 640DYS 641DYS 642DYS 643DYS 644DYS 645DYS 649DYS 650DYS 651DYS 655DYS 656n/aDYS 662DYS 664DYS 666DYS 667DYS 668DYS 672DYS 673DYS 675DYS 676DYS 677DYS 678DYS 679DYS 681DYS 683DYS 684DYS 685DYS 686DYS 687DYS 688DYS 692DYS 694DYS 695DYS 696DYS 701DYS 702DYS 703DYS 705DYS 706DYS 707DYS 708DYS 709DYS 710DYS 711DYS 712DYS 713DYS 714DYS 715DYS 716DYS 717DYS 718DYS 719DYS 720DYS 721DYS 722DYS 723DYS 725.1DYS 725.2DYS 725.3DYS 725.4DYS 726G09 411L13 13L14YCA II.1YCA II.2Y-GATA-A10Y-GATA-H4Y-GGAAT-1B07
      4Names of y-STR markers that are included in Y-DNA111 y-STR tests → CDY .1CDY .2                               DYF 395.1DYF 395.2                 DYF 406                                                                                                                                                                                         DYS 19/394DYS 385.1DYS 385.2DYS 388DYS 389IDYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 391DYS 392DYS 393DYS 413.1DYS 413.2DYS 425DYS 426DYS 434DYS 435DYS 436DYS 437DYS 438DYS 439DYS 441DYS 442 DYS 444DYS 445DYS 446DYS 447DYS 448DYS 449DYS 450DYS 452 DYS 454DYS 455DYS 456DYS 458DYS 459.1DYS 459.2DYS 460DYS 461DYS 462DYS 463DYS 464.1DYS 464.2DYS 464.3DYS 464.4      DYS 472       DYS 481 DYS 485DYS 487  DYS 490 DYS 492 DYS 494DYS 495 DYS 497    DYS 504DYS 505    DYS 510DYS 511 DYS 513    DYS 520 DYS 522 DYS 525       DYS 531DYS 532DYS 533DYS 534 DYS 537  DYS 540        DYS 549  DYS 552 DYS 556DYS 557  DYS 561 DYS 565 DYS 568 DYS 570 DYS 572  DYS 575DYS 576 DYS 578       DYS 587 DYS 589DYS 590 DYS 593DYS 594     DYS 607        DYS 617             DYS 632  DYS 635DYS 636 DYS 638 DYS 640DYS 641 DYS 643   DYS 650                                  DYS 710 DYS 712 DYS 714DYS 715DYS 716DYS 717          DYS 726   YCA II.1YCA II.2Y-GATA-A10Y-GATA-H4Y-GGAAT-1B07
      5The Y-DNA~500 y-STR Marker MODE of the Royal Stewart Family → 1136371210121314101088139978101111141414303011x10x998268151688817xxx2223141626291515611111212815121310101111111317101012711105889511146x294710121061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416181111991213101321131115131615302341111268374412x13x14xx10141012101312x1111101571714994712121112119111011159411x8691011161191114141794121277810109911119913136149710111513121116116341013158718191115612121413107712714111412132924111313232312129111215121213121312121425192983011111115179101112112414151717713171611278108811813822131513131112121210916x14813813161213101110171011122013143221911131013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116981519111111111710111010101799998888101812128111510810722111598183381881412128881810933262811211098823121111101110810178818xx35850775911611111114510573921347978327529105152328213665214225242619151232192119xxxx1211341923141010
      6 The 22 Off-modal y-STR marker values discovered via 143035's Big Y analysis: →x35371210121314101088x9978101111111414303011x10x99827x15168881723 23 25.1 2223141625291515611111212815121310101111111317101013xx1058x9511146x29471010106xxxx1691012252712x81010137xx116416181111991213101321131115x1615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1013101210.t1312x11x101571815994712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911 x1417xx1212xx81010991111991313x14871011151312xx1163410131587xx1116612121413107712714111412132924111313xx121291112151212131213121214x19x830111111151799111211x14151717713171611288x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148148131612131011x171011122013143221911131013363235181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x81519111111111610x10101017999988881019x12811151081072211159x18328x814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xxx850775911611111114510x392135x7832753010516x282135x21422524xx151232192119xxxx121134xx141010
      7 The 6 Off-modal y-STR marker values were discovered via 143035's Y-DNA111 test: →  3537                               1516                 11                                                                                                                                                                                         1411141213292411131323231212911121512121312 121214251930830 11111517991112112414151717      8       22 1513  12 12 916 14    1612    1710 12    21 11 10       11131313 10  13        12  25 1116 15  11 11 16 11  1017 9       19 128 1510     15        12             9  2312 11 1110 10   18                                  35 21 25242619          12   1923141010

       Table # 2

      Column number →

      12345-67891011121314-1516171819202122-23-24-25262728-293031323334-353637383940-414243444546474849-5051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111
      The Names of Y-111 y-STR Markers →DYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
      The Y-111 y-STR MODE of the Royal Stewart Family →1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
       The Y-67 results of a ducal descendant of Sir John (Duke #39568)  → 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
      My fourth cousin (199984)'s off-modal, etc. Y-111 y-STR marker values →1324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171636-37121212915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                             
      My (143035) off-modal, etc. Y-111 y-STR marker values →1324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231910141791211

      Table # 3 - Genetic Distance
      ID3
      9
      5
      6
      8
      1
      9
      9
      9
      8
      4
      1
      4
      3
      0
      3
      5
      39568-44
      1999844-2
      14303542-
      - Hybrid mutation model is used.
      - The LCPA of 199984 & 143035 was born in 1785.
      Table # 4 - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
      ID3
      9
      5
      6
      8
      1
      9
      9
      9
      8
      4
      1
      4
      3
      0
      3
      5
      39568-270270
      199984270-150
      143035270 (1747 AD)150 (1867 AD)-
      - Infinite allele mutation model is used
      - Average mutation rate varies: 0.0041 to 0.0041, from FTDNA derived rates
      - Probability is 50% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
      - Average generaton: 30 years
      Table # 5 - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
      ID3
      9
      5
      6
      8
      1
      9
      9
      9
      8
      4
      1
      4
      3
      0
      3
      5
      39568-510510
      199984510-360
      143035510 (1507 AD)360 AD(1657)-
      - Infinite allele mutation model is used
      - Average mutation rate varies: 0.0041 to 0.0041, from FTDNA derived rates
      - Probability is 95% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
      - Average generaton: 30 years
      Table # 6 - Genetic Distance
      ID3
      9
      5
      6
      8
      1
      9
      9
      9
      8
      4
      1
      4
      3
      0
      3
      5
      39568-33
      1999843-0
      14303530-
      - Hybrid mutation model is used.
      - The LCPA of 199984 & 143035 was born in 1785.
      Table # 7 - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
      ID3
      9
      5
      6
      8
      1
      9
      9
      9
      8
      4
      1
      4
      3
      0
      3
      5
      39568-210210
      199984210-30
      143035210 (1807 AD)30 (1987 AD)-
      - Infinite allele mutation model is used
      - Average mutation rate varies: 0.0041 to 0.0041, from FTDNA derived rates
      - Probability is 50% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
      - Average generaton: 30 years
      Table # 8 - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
      ID3
      9
      5
      6
      8
      1
      9
      9
      9
      8
      4
      1
      4
      3
      0
      3
      5
      39568-450450
      199984450-180
      143035450 (1567 AD)180 (1837 AD)-
      - Infinite allele mutation model is used
      - Average mutation rate varies: 0.0041 to 0.0041, from FTDNA derived rates
      - Probability is 95% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
      - Average generation: 30 years


      Row # 6

      Your Donations

      Your contributions to the General Fund of FTDNA's royal Stuart project will be used as you see fit, e.g., to pay for the DNA tests of men with your surname who still live in the part of the world from which you suspect that your patrilineal ancestors came. Most of the donations below were made in order to pay for the DNA tests of men who have the surname Stewart and who live in the UK.

      Those who donate to our General Fund can help to avoid confusion and to facilitate communication by using FTDNA's form to state:

      • Their own names or kit numbers.
      • For what test they want their donations to pay, e.g., Big Y.
      • The kit number of the donor of the DNA that will be used for the test.

      FTDNA can not use our General Fund to pay for all or part of your DNA test unless your project administrator approves BEFORE you order it.

      Flag Counter

      Date: Tue, Apr 25, 2017 at 1:38 PM
      Subject: Message from FTDNA's R L21 and Subclades Project: Please consider Big Y on sale thru April 27th

      Hello,

      I'm the volunteer lead project administrator for the R-L21 Y DNA project at FTDNA at https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/r-l21/about/background

      The most valuable DNA test for discovering the tree for R-L21 people has been Big Y. We now have a couple of thousand Big Y tests done so there is a lot to compare with. Please consider ordering Big Y if you have not already. It is on sale right now for $425 as a part of FTDNA's "DNA Day" promotion. This is a $150 discount from the regular price. No coupons or promotional codes are required. The $425 price expires on April 27th.

      Big Y is a Next Generation Sequencing product that discovers stable mutations called SNPs. These are used to reliably mark branches on the haplotree of paternal lineages (Y DNA). SNPs occur every several generations per each lineage so we are finding very youthful branches that reach into the genealogical records timeframe. Big Y can help you break through genealogical record brickwalls.

      For more information on Big Y, please scroll down to the "Why Big Y Next Generation Sequencing?" question at the R1b project FAQ page. https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/r-1b/faq#/FBIGY

      We have over 6,000 SNPs for R-L21 on FTDNA's haplotree and they represent over 1,600 branches. This is growing weekly, which is good for everybody.

      Regards, Mike Walsh, mwwdna@gmail.com , R-L21 and R1b project lead administrator


      Row # 7

      We thank the following contributors to the General Fund of this project: David E. Stuart, Steven Mitchell, Donald Grant, Michael Clancey, Hereld Stuart, Francis Marion Stewart III, CD Stewart, Donna Lindberg, Robert Lindberg, Shirley Black Barry, Mary Stuart Spangler, Desideriu Ramelet-Stuart, William Hamilton Stewart, Alexander Stewart, Belinda Dettmann, Diana Stewart Powels.

      General Fund

      Current balance: $903.00

      Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
      Credit $125.00 1/11/2017 Desideriu Ramelet Stuart For kit 112839 Big Y test   Memory Of
      Debit $39.00 4/3/2016     474002 Unknown
      Debit $39.00 4/3/2016     446440 Unknown
      Credit $120.00 1/8/2016 Desideriu Ramelet Stuart For offering 3 advanced tests for SNP S781 to 3 Stewart cousins   Unknown
      Debit $425.00 1/9/2015       Unknown
      Debit $425.00 12/13/2014       Unknown
      Credit $325.00 12/13/2014 Ken STEWART 337093   Individual
      Credit $100.00 12/13/2014 Ann Stewart Burns For anonymous Big Y tester Stewart, negative 781   Individual
      Credit $100.00 9/7/2014 Michael Clancey Contribution towards Big Y Test for Steven Mitchell. If not needed for it, then for any other purpose.   Individual
      Debit $39.00 9/4/2014       Unknown
      Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of 7

      Project Stats

      Statistic Type Count
      Big Y 60
      Combined GEDCOMs Uploaded 53
      DISTINCT mtDNA Haplogroups 101
      DISTINCT Y-DNA Confirmed Haplogroups 25
      DISTINCT Y-DNA Predicted Haplogroups 0
      Family Finder 150
      Genographic 2.0 Transfers 15
      Maternal Ancestor Information 213
      mtDNA 124
      mtDNA Full Sequence 90
      mtDNA Plus 112
      mtDNA Subgroups 10
      Paternal Ancestor Information 262
      Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 55
      Total Members 366
      Unpredicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 0
      Unreturned Kits 72
      WTY 1
      Y-DNA Deep Clade (After 2008) 21
      Y-DNA Deep Clade (Prior to 2008) 10
      Y-DNA Subgroups 33
      Y-DNA111 77
      Y-DNA12 146
      Y-DNA25 131
      Y-DNA37 131
      Y-DNA67 109