STEWART STUART (royal) Y DNA Project- Background

Administrators

Surnames

ALL SURNAMES of patrilineal descendants e.g., BEAUCLERK (Duke of St Albans), BOWLIN, CAMPBELL, CLANCEY, COBB, DUN, ELDER, FITZROY (Duke of Grafton), GORDON-LENNOX (Duke of Richmond), MACLEOD-STUART, MALLOURE, McPHEE, MITCHELL, PIERCE, ROBERTSON, SCOTT (Duke of Buccleuch), Steward, STEWART, Stu, Stuart, THOMAS, THOMPSON, WARBURTON, WARD, WEBB

Background

Written 2017C21 by Stewart (royal Bonkyll S781+ branch143035L58W-HRDMyHeritage, my pedigreeYF02381 ).

Text and images may be enlarged over 200% via the Ctrl and + keys. Use <"CTRL MINUS"> to zoom out.

This DICTIONARY may come in handy. Click on images and links to see sources, and here if you want to read an OLDER VERSIONs of this web page. If a quote can not be found via a link below due to Wikipedia's notoriously unfair and biased censors, it can still be found via a search of the history of changes made to each article.
DISCLAIMER: The goal and sacred responsibility of the unpaid administrators of this project is to help their trusting kinsmen to make wise choices (not to sell tests from which they will not benefit). The genealogical, cultural and personal agendas and opinions found on the web page at http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx and its links may not be considered appropriate by any DNA testing company, employee, administrator, moderator, preacher, scientist, web site host or member of a DNA project.

Your privacy settings must be changed if you want project administrators, etc. to see the results of your Y-DNA12, etc. STR tests via the web page at https://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx?section=ycolorized. Log into your FTDNA account and move your cursor to your name in the upper right corner. A menu will drop down. Click on PRIVACY SETTINGS, and select your options.


Arms of the Great Steward until 1371Welcome to FTDNA's project for y-DNA tested (haplogroup  R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1d1a L744/S388, L745/S463, L746/S310) descendants of the first hereditary HIGH STEWARD of SCOTLAND

MOST PEOPLE CAN NOT FULLY ACHIEVE THEIR GENEALOGICAL GOALS UNLESS THEY BUY A NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING (NGS) TEST, e.g., Big Y. You will know why if you can understand some of the technical terms below, e.g., what a TERMINAL SNP is. Ask your project administators for advice in order to avoid requesting a refund, or spending hundreds of dollars on tests from which you may never benefit.
We thank Family Tree DNA's President and CEO Bennett Greenspan for helping us to discover who our ancestors were all the way BACK TO ADAM, by creating this exclusive project for the patrilineal descendants of Walter FitzAllan (1106 – June 1177), the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland, on October 29, 2010. See his video about DNA testing and genetic genealogy at https://youtu.be/wVmTYXVQmzg.
People who think that they may be patrilineal descendants of Walter FitzAllan (1106 – June 1177) may JOIN THIS PROJECT provisionally, no matter what their gender and surnames are. Women may persuade a male relative to have a y-DNA (Y chromosome DNA) test, but can not have one themselves. Family Tree DNA imposes NO LIMIT to the number of projects that one may join.

Column # 1 (row # 2)

The Goal of This Project's Administrators

We want to help each member of this project to discover as CHEAPLY as possible via which branches he descends from Walter FitzAllan (1106 – June 1177), so that he can:

Our goal can not be achieved unless at least one MALE member of each branch of our patrilineal family has a NGS test in order to discover his Most Recent TERMINAL SNPs (MRTS). Administrator Desideriu's S781 phylogenetic trees below and at http://www.s781.org/allsnps.html show the MRTS of some Big Y tested descendants of the Bonkyll branch of our royal Stewart family.

We recommend that our members discover their MRTS via a Big Y or another NGS test FIRST. If one orders a $359.00 Y-DNA111 STR (Short Tandem Repeat) test instead of a Big Y test first, one may end up paying TWICE for about a hundred mostly ambiguous y-STR marker values ! One may prefer to use the hundreds of dollars saved to pay for autosomal DNA tests for three more members of one's family.

Y-SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) are 100% PROOF of ancestry. Guessing which y-STR marker values indicate to which branch distantly related cousins belong is almost impossible unless one knows one's Terminal SNP(s), and sometimes even if one does.

Why do almost all of FTDNA's unpaid project administrators encourage their customers to order expensive y-STR and SNP pack tests via which the aforesaid genealogical goal can not be achieved, BEFORE they order Big Y tests? CAVEAT EMPTOR?

Unfortunately, FTDNA does not allow one to order Big Y and other SNP tests unless one first purchases at least a $59.00 Y-DNA12 STR test (from which a Big Y tester may never benefit), e.g., by scrolling down at this link or by telephoning FTDNA at 713-868-1438 Monday - Thursday 9 am to 4:30 pm CST and Friday 9 am to noon. A Big Y test can not be ordered until one's first STR test has been batched (possibly a couple days or a week after FTDNA receives one's sample, hopefully in time to benefit from a sale).

FTDNA did not report the ~500 Y-STR marker values that are displayed in Table #1 below even though they were discovered via an analysis of my Big Y test. I had to pay $49 (less than $.10 per marker value instead of over $3.00 each) to a company that FTDNA's projects turn to for Big Y analysis, but which they are not allowed to promote.

Your computer will automatically search for a more elaborately colorized y-STR comparison table that shows the ~500 y-STR marker values of sixteen or more NGS tested descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll if you avoid scrolling, etc. for at least twenty seconds after you click on this link: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~stewartroyal/index.html#ta2 (those whose NGS test results have not been analyzed yet can not be included in the trees and tables referred to above).

Why Identify Members of Your Own Branch?

Those who belong to the same branch of our patrilineal family can help each other to break through their genealogical "brick walls" from several directions instead of from only one! The MORE members of a branch discover their Terminal SNP(s) and ~500 y-STR marker values, the more likely they will be able to identify their Last Common Patrilineal Ancestor (LCPA), e.g., one of the descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll. These are some of the reasons that FTDNA's following projects have offered to use their General Funds to help their members to pay for their Big Y tests if they tested positive for:

If the entire NGS test results of a ducal descendant of King Charles II or any other aristocratic member of this Stewart family who has a trustworthy pedigree are made public, this royal Stewart project will gladly compensate whoever pays for their tests, so that more members of this family can prove when and where their LCPAs lived.

Click here to see the list of those who contributed to our General Fund (near the bottom of this web page).

Column # 2 (row # 2)

Discount Coupons

If you want to order a Big Y test that will benefit every member of your family, you may be able to find a discount coupon via the Internet, e.g., Big Y coupons worth up to $125 off were displayed via the spreadsheet at https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1CgXRKz2TySvRqSInveSIYoslO7yexAc9d-BzpNhaY1c/edit#gid=1338933495 during a sale that began before Thanksgiving and ended on December 31, 2016.

Y-DNA111, etc. STR Test Results

Individual Y-SNP tests cost less than y-DNA12 STR tests, and are far more reliable indicators of ancestry than off-modal STR marker values and "Genetic Distance" (GD). E.g., the y-STR111 GD between brothers 5987 and 16895 is two. The y-STR67 GD between fourth cousins 143035 and 199984 is also two. The y-STR67 GD between about ten Stewarts whose common ancestor lived about 800 years ago is ZERO.

Dirt cheap individual SNP tests can prove with 100% certainty:
    1) Whether or not a man is a patrilineal descendant of the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland.
    2) To which known branches of our patrilineal family distantly related cousins belong (unknown branch can be discovered only via NGS tests).

According to Steve St. Clair, Big Y is the "last test that you have to take with FTDNA". Big Y is the ONLY DNA test sold by FTDNA via which a man can discover the unique mutation(s) that ONLY members of his own branch (e.g., all of his own descendants, or those of his fifth great-grandfather) have.

Why does FTDNA report one's Terminal SNPs but NOT the ~500 STR marker values that can be obtained only via an analysis of one's Big Y (or other NGS test) results? Are 500 STR marker values too much of a good thing, or less useful than only 111? Colorized Table #1 below shows that:
    * ALL of the marker values that are included in our Y-DNA111 tests except DYS 447 may be included in the results of our Big Y and other NGS tests (click here and wait at least 20 seconds for more proof).
    * About 500 y-STR marker values are over four times as useful as only 111.

Tables like those below help us to interpret y-STR marker values, i.e. to GUESS who belongs to which branch if too few SNPs were discovered via one's Big Y test (additional useful SNPs can be discovered via more expensive NGS tests).

SNPs Are The BEST Proof Of Ancestry

Ducal descendant of King Charles II #39568 and everyone listed in the S781 phylogenetic tree below tested positive for SNP S781, and therefore have 100% proof that they descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (c1245 - 1298), the ninth great grandfather of King James I of England. Anyone who tests positive for SNP S781 is more closely related to King James than Sir John was.

E.g., according to FTDNA & the results of their Y-67 STR tests, there is a 95% probabilty that the LCPA of 143035 and 39568 (a ducal descendant of King Charles II) lived about 510 years ago (1507 AD), and that their LCPA may have therefore been been John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox (c. 1490 - 1526), the great-grandfather of James I of England. See Table # 5 below. 100% proof would require a comparison of their most recent Terminal SNPs (SNPs indicate ancestry far more reliably than one's y-STR marker values can).

The GD between duke #39568 and Robert "Robin" STEWART (1785 - 1865) is only 3, if his y-STR haplotype included only the three off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that his two gggGrandsons (4th cousins 199984 and 143035) have in common. If so, according to FTDNA's estimates and Table # 8 below, there is a 95% probablilty that the LCPA of Duke #39568 and Robert lived about 450 years ago (1567 AD), and may have therefore been a legitimate or illegitimate son, nephew or patrilineal cousin of the aforesaid Earl or his siblings, e.g., Henry Stuart (or Stewart), Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 10 February 1567).

Why Buy DNA Tests?

Some of us would rather understand from whom we inherited the precious genes that have influenced every aspect of our lives and civilization, and the behavior of our race for hundreds of thousands of years, than for our heirs to gamble our money on lottery tickets, or to spend it on senseless entertainments and addictive drugs like alcohol and tobacco.

Column # 3 (row # 2)

To What Family Did Our Ancestors Belong 1000 Years Ago?

Alex Williamson was able to create the phylogenetic tree at http://www.ytree.net/DisplayTree.php?blockID=7 because everyone listed in it had an NGS test. It displays:

  • The TERMINAL SNPs and geographical origins of some of the descendants of the patrilineal family to which our Stewart ancestors belonged a thousand or more years ago (few had surnames at that time).
  • More branches of the royal Stewart family than the S-781 phylogenetic tree below shows.

The Two Main Branches of Mankind

The results of DNA tests show how members of our Stewart family are related to each other, as well as to all of the other descendants of the last universal common agnatic ancestor (LUCA or concestor) of all of the extant biological "cryptic species" of mankind.

Our concestor lived in Africa about 338 thousand years ago (KYA), plus or minus a few 100,000 years. ALL of his descendants are therefore as "African" as any ape, and Americans who have NO Negro ancestors can be as proud of being African American as any mulatto.

Homo sapiens began to speciate so many hundred thousand years ago because some brave hunter gatherers began to think and speak well enough to migrate from the safety of Africa's huge equatorial rain forest into the dangerous, predator infested, hotter and drier Sahel to the north, in order to obtain more meat (grazing animals starve in a forest).

The TWO MAIN BRANCHES of our concestor's territorial descendants became competely isolated from each other because they evolved in two totally different and distinct regions of Africa:

  1. The less numerous branch evolved in the relative safety of the dark (protein poorer) equatorial rain forest south of the Sahel. It includes the ancestors of Pygmies, Bushmen and Negroes (technically,  each race belongs to a separate species, and some treat each other as such).
  2. The branch that evolved in the sunny Sahel includes the ancestors of the Hamites. The Guanche, Berbers, the noble peasant class of rural Egypt, and the Celts and Germans (euphemistically called "Whites" by miscegenationists who are scared to use the word Aryan) are Hamitic, and survived in the Sahel for tens of thousands of years longer than the ancestors of the:
    • Autraloids, who immigrated from the Sahel about 106 KYA to where Mongoloids now live.
    • Mongoloids who immigrated from the Sahel and pushed the depopulated Australoids to the fringes of Asia about 75 KYA.
    • Crô-Magnons (Japheth), who migrated from northern Africa to Europe between 40 & 50 KYA.
    • Semites (Arabs & Hebrews), who migrated to Arabia from Ethiopia mainly via the Mandeb Strait between 40 & 50 KYA.
    Cooler global temperatures reduced evaporation from the oceans, and therefore rainfall in the Sahel during four stadials. Each stadial motivated one of the above branches of mankind to leave the Sahel, and the population that remained recovered. The Hamitic race almost became extinct during the last stadial, a.k.a. the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), so no large, cohesive group maintained Hamitic linguistic, haplogroup, etc. commonality. Some anthropologists have therefore perversely assumed that descendants of Hamites who never left the Sahel migrated from Eurasia. According to ISOGG, "Y-DNA haplogroup R-M207 is believed to have arisen approximately 27,000 years ago in ASIA."
    "The second hypothesis, an AFRICAN origin of the M9 superclade that includes haplotype 117 would imply a subsequent impressive extinction of derivative lineages in sub-Saharan Africa ..." Haplotype 117 carries the M269 (R1b1a1a2, formerly R1b1a2) derived allele on a M207/M173 background (listed in cladogram # 2).

Click here if you want to read Columns 4, 5, 6 & 7.


Click here if you want to see a more colorized and complete version of this table (FTDNA does not display the useful background colors of all of the cells in the tables below.)
1Table # 1~500 UNREPORTED STR markers discovered via Big Y analysis → 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502
2The total # of y-STR markers that are included in Y-DNA111 y-STR tests →  12                               34                 5                                                                                                                                                                                         6789101112131415161718192021222324252627 2829303132333435 3637383940414243444546474849      50       51 5253  54 55 5657 58    5960    6162 63    64 65 66       67686970 71  72        73  74 7576  77 78 79 80 81  8283 84       85 8687 8889     90        91             92  9394 95 9697 98   99                                  100 101 102103104105          106   107108109110111
3Names of UNREPORTED y-STR markers discovered via Big Y analysis →ATA 71D03CDY .1CDY .2DXY S156DYF 371.1DYF 371.2DYF 371.3DYF 371.4DYF 380.1DYF 380.2DYF 381.1DYF 381.2DYF 382DYF 383.1DYF 383.2DYF 384.1DYF 384.2DYF 385.1DYF 385.2DYF 386.1DYF 386.2DYF 386.3DYF 386.4DYF 387.1DYF 387.2DYF 389DYF 390DYF 390.1DYF 390.2DYF 391.1DYF 391.2DYF 392DYF 393DYF 394DYF 395.1DYF 395.2DYF 396.1DYF 396.2DYF 398.1DYF 398.2DYF 399.1DYF 399.2DYF 399.3DYF 400.1DYF 400.2DYF 401.1DYF 401.2DYF 403.1DYF 403.2DYF 404.1DYF 404.2DYF 405.1DYF 405.2DYF 406DYF 407.1DYF 407.2DYF 408.1DYF 408.2DYF 409.1DYF 409.2DYF 410.1DYF 410.2DYF 411.1DYF 411.2DYF 412.1DYF 412.2DYR 1DYR 10DYR 100DYR 101DYR 102DYR 103DYR 104DYR 105DYR 106DYR 107DYR 108DYR 110DYR 111DYR 112DYR 113DYR 114DYR 115DYR 116DYR 117DYR 118DYR 119DYR 12DYR 120DYR 121.1DYR 121.2DYR 122.1DYR 122.2DYR 123DYR 124.1DYR 124.2DYR 124.3DYR 125.1DYR 125.2DYR 126DYR 127DYR 128.1DYR 128.2DYR 13DYR 130DYR 131DYR 132.1DYR 132.2DYR 135DYR 136DYR 137DYR 138DYR 139DYR 14DYR 143DYR 144DYR 146DYR 15DYR 150DYR 152DYR 154DYR 156DYR 157DYR 158DYR 159DYR 160DYR 161DYR 162DYR 163DYR 164DYR 165DYR 166DYR 167DYR 168DYR 169DYR 170DYR 171DYR 17.1DYR 172DYR 17.2DYR 173DYR 17.3DYR 174DYR 175DYR 18.1DYR 18.2DYR 19DYR 2DYR 20DYR 23DYR 26DYR 27DYR 28DYR 29DYR 3DYR 30DYR 31DYR 32DYR 33DYR 35.1DYR 35.2DYR 36.1DYR 36.2DYR 38.1DYR 38.2DYR 39DYR 40DYR 41DYR 43DYR 44DYR 45.1DYR 45.2DYR 45.3DYR 46DYR 47DYR 48DYR 49DYR 5DYR 51DYR 52DYR 54DYR 55DYR 56DYR 57DYR 58.1DYR 58.2DYR 59DYR 6DYR 60DYR 61DYR 62DYR 63.1DYR 63.2DYR 64.1DYR 64.2DYR 65DYR 66.1DYR 66.2DYR 67.1DYR 67.2DYR 67.3DYR 67.4DYR 68.1DYR 68.2DYR 68.3DYR 68.4DYR 69DYR 7DYR 70DYR 71DYR 73DYR 74DYR 75DYR 76DYR 77DYR 78DYR 79DYR 8DYR 80DYR 81DYR 82DYR 83DYR 84DYR 85DYR 87DYR 88.1DYR 88.2DYR 89DYR 90DYR 91DYR 9.1DYR 92DYR 9.2DYR 93DYR 94DYR 95DYR 96DYR 97DYR 99DYS 19/394DYS 385.1DYS 385.2DYS 388DYS 389IDYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 391DYS 392DYS 393DYS 413.1DYS 413.2DYS 425DYS 426DYS 434DYS 435DYS 436DYS 437DYS 438DYS 439DYS 441DYS 442DYS 443DYS 444DYS 445DYS 446DYS 447DYS 448DYS 449DYS 450DYS 452DYS 453DYS 454DYS 455DYS 456DYS 458DYS 459.1DYS 459.2DYS 460DYS 461DYS 462DYS 463DYS 464.1DYS 464.2DYS 464.3DYS 464.4DYS 466DYS 467DYS 468DYS 469DYS 470DYS 471DYS 472DYS 473DYS 474DYS 475DYS 476DYS 477DYSDYS 480DYS 481DYS 484DYS 485DYS 487DYS 488DYS 489DYS 490DYS 491DYS 492DYS 493DYS 494DYS 495DYS 496DYS 497DYS 499DYS 500DYS 501DYS 502DYS 504DYS 505DYS 506DYS 507DYS 508DYS 509DYS 510DYS 511DYS 512DYS 513DYS 514DYS 516DYS 517DYS 518DYS 520DYS 521DYS 522DYS 523DYS 525DYS 526ADYS 526BDYS 527.1DYS 527.2DYS 528.1DYS 528.2DYS 530DYS 531DYS 532DYS 533DYS 534DYS 536DYS 537DYS 538DYS 539DYS 540DYS 541DYS 542DYS 543DYS 544DYS 545DYS 546DYS 547DYS 548DYS 549DYS 550DYS 551DYS 552DYS 554DYS 556DYS 557DYS 558DYS 559DYS 561DYS 562DYS 565DYS 567DYS 568DYS 569DYS 570DYS 571DYS 572DYS 573DYS 574DYS 575DYS 576DYS 577DYS 578DYS 579DYS 580DYS 581DYS 582DYS 583DYS 584DYS 585DYS 587DYS 588DYS 589DYS 590DYS 592DYS 593DYS 594DYS 595DYS 596DYS 598DYS 599DYS 600DYS 607DYS 608DYS 609DYS 611DYS 612DYS 613DYS 614DYS 615DYS 616DYS 617DYS 618DYS 619DYS 620DYS 621DYS 622DYS 623DYS 624DYS 625DYS 626DYS 627DYS 629DYS 630DYS 631DYS 632DYS 633DYS 634DYS 635DYS 636DYS 637DYS 638DYS 639DYS 640DYS 641DYS 642DYS 643DYS 644DYS 645DYS 649DYS 650DYS 651DYS 655DYS 656n/aDYS 662DYS 664DYS 666DYS 667DYS 668DYS 672DYS 673DYS 675DYS 676DYS 677DYS 678DYS 679DYS 681DYS 683DYS 684DYS 685DYS 686DYS 687DYS 688DYS 692DYS 694DYS 695DYS 696DYS 701DYS 702DYS 703DYS 705DYS 706DYS 707DYS 708DYS 709DYS 710DYS 711DYS 712DYS 713DYS 714DYS 715DYS 716DYS 717DYS 718DYS 719DYS 720DYS 721DYS 722DYS 723DYS 725.1DYS 725.2DYS 725.3DYS 725.4DYS 726G09 411L13 13L14YCA II.1YCA II.2Y-GATA-A10Y-GATA-H4Y-GGAAT-1B07
4Names of y-STR markers that are included in Y-DNA111 y-STR tests → CDY .1CDY .2                               DYF 395.1DYF 395.2                 DYF 406                                                                                                                                                                                         DYS 19/394DYS 385.1DYS 385.2DYS 388DYS 389IDYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 391DYS 392DYS 393DYS 413.1DYS 413.2DYS 425DYS 426DYS 434DYS 435DYS 436DYS 437DYS 438DYS 439DYS 441DYS 442 DYS 444DYS 445DYS 446DYS 447DYS 448DYS 449DYS 450DYS 452 DYS 454DYS 455DYS 456DYS 458DYS 459.1DYS 459.2DYS 460DYS 461DYS 462DYS 463DYS 464.1DYS 464.2DYS 464.3DYS 464.4      DYS 472       DYS 481 DYS 485DYS 487  DYS 490 DYS 492 DYS 494DYS 495 DYS 497    DYS 504DYS 505    DYS 510DYS 511 DYS 513    DYS 520 DYS 522 DYS 525       DYS 531DYS 532DYS 533DYS 534 DYS 537  DYS 540        DYS 549  DYS 552 DYS 556DYS 557  DYS 561 DYS 565 DYS 568 DYS 570 DYS 572  DYS 575DYS 576 DYS 578       DYS 587 DYS 589DYS 590 DYS 593DYS 594     DYS 607        DYS 617             DYS 632  DYS 635DYS 636 DYS 638 DYS 640DYS 641 DYS 643   DYS 650                                  DYS 710 DYS 712 DYS 714DYS 715DYS 716DYS 717          DYS 726   YCA II.1YCA II.2Y-GATA-A10Y-GATA-H4Y-GGAAT-1B07
5The Y-DNA~500 y-STR Marker MODE of the Royal Stewart Family → 1136371210121314101088139978101111141414303011x10x998268151688817xxx2223141626291515611111212815121310101111111317101012711105889511146x294710121061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416181111991213101321131115131615302341111268374412x13x14xx10141012101312x1111101571714994712121112119111011159411x8691011161191114141794121277810109911119913136149710111513121116116341013158718191115612121413107712714111412132924111313232312129111215121213121312121425192983011111115179101112112414151717713171611278108811813822131513131112121210916x14813813161213101110171011122013143221911131013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116981519111111111710111010101799998888101812128111510810722111598183381881412128881810933262811211098823121111101110810178818xx35850775911611111114510573921347978327529105152328213665214225242619151232192119xxxx1211341923141010
6 The 22 Off-modal y-STR marker values discovered via my Big Y analysis: →x35371210121314101088x9978101111111414303011x10x99827x15168881723 23 25.1 2223141625291515611111212815121310101111111317101013xx1058x9511146x29471010106xxxx1691012252712x81010137xx116416181111991213101321131115x1615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1013101210.t1312x11x101571815994712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911 x1417xx1212xx81010991111991313x14871011151312xx1163410131587xx1116612121413107712714111412132924111313xx121291112151212131213121214x19x830111111151799111211x14151717713171611288x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148148131612131011x171011122013143221911131013363235181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x81519111111111610x10101017999988881019x12811151081072211159x18328x814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xxx850775911611111114510x392135x7832753010516x282135x21422524xx151232192119xxxx121134xx141010
7 The 6 Off-modal y-STR marker values were discovered via my Y-DNA111 test: →  3537                               1516                 11                                                                                                                                                                                         1411141213292411131323231212911121512121312 121214251930830 11111517991112112414151717      8       22 1513  12 12 916 14    1612    1710 12    21 11 10       11131313 10  13        12  25 1116 15  11 11 16 11  1017 9       19 128 1510     15        12             9  2312 11 1110 10   18                                  35 21 25242619          12   1923141010

 Table # 2

Column number →

12345-67891011121314-1516171819202122-23-24-25262728-293031323334-353637383940-414243444546474849-5051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111
The Names of Y-111 y-STR Markers →DYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
The Y-111 y-STR MODE of the Royal Stewart Family →1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
 The Y-67 results of a ducal descendant of Sir John (Duke #39568)  → 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
My fourth cousin (199984)'s off-modal, etc. Y-111 y-STR marker values →1324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171636-37121212915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                             
My (143035) off-modal, etc. Y-111 y-STR marker values →1324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231910141791211

Table # 3 - Genetic Distance
ID3
9
5
6
8
1
9
9
9
8
4
1
4
3
0
3
5
39568-44
1999844-2
14303542-
- Hybrid mutation model is used.
- The LCPA of 199984 & 143035 was born in 1785.
Table # 4 - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
ID3
9
5
6
8
1
9
9
9
8
4
1
4
3
0
3
5
39568-270270
199984270-150
143035270 (1747 AD)150 (1867 AD)-
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Average mutation rate varies: 0.0041 to 0.0041, from FTDNA derived rates
- Probability is 50% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
- Average generaton: 30 years
Table # 5 - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
ID3
9
5
6
8
1
9
9
9
8
4
1
4
3
0
3
5
39568-510510
199984510-360
143035510 (1507 AD)360 AD(1657)-
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Average mutation rate varies: 0.0041 to 0.0041, from FTDNA derived rates
- Probability is 95% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
- Average generaton: 30 years
Table # 6 - Genetic Distance
ID3
9
5
6
8
1
9
9
9
8
4
1
4
3
0
3
5
39568-33
1999843-0
14303530-
- Hybrid mutation model is used.
- The LCPA of 199984 & 143035 was born in 1785.
Table # 7 - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
ID3
9
5
6
8
1
9
9
9
8
4
1
4
3
0
3
5
39568-210210
199984210-30
143035210 (1807 AD)30 (1987 AD)-
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Average mutation rate varies: 0.0041 to 0.0041, from FTDNA derived rates
- Probability is 50% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
- Average generaton: 30 years
Table # 8 - Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (Years)
ID3
9
5
6
8
1
9
9
9
8
4
1
4
3
0
3
5
39568-450450
199984450-180
143035450 (1567 AD)180 (1837 AD)-
- Infinite allele mutation model is used
- Average mutation rate varies: 0.0041 to 0.0041, from FTDNA derived rates
- Probability is 95% that the TMRCA is no longer than indicated
- Average generaton: 30 years

Branches of the R-S781 family

S310/L746 (R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a4a1) Haplogroup YTree v5.02

Each of the descendants of Walter FitzAllan whose IDs are listed below paid the experts who created this tree $49 to analyse their NGS test results and to create the colorized R-S781 ~500 STR marker comparison table on which Table # 1 above is based.

NOTE: Move your cursor over the 'years before present' (ybp), etc. to see:
* Pop-up estimates of when each SNP first occurred.
* How long ago the last common ancestor of members of each branch lived.
* The meaning of some of the abbreviations used below.

SOURCE: R-P312/S116 > Z260 > L21/S145 > DF13 > Z39589 > DF41/S524 > Z43690 > S775 > L746 (Royal Stewart)

  • R-S775 S775 * A475 * Y5844/FGC34916 +4 SNPs formed 4000 ybp, TMRCA 4000 ybp info
    • R-S775*
    • R-L744 S790 * Y5845 * S791 +22 SNPs formed 4000 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp info
      • R-L744*
        • id:YF05851 USA [US-VA]
        • id:YF04357 SCT
        • id:YF03673 SCT
        • id:YF03554 SCT
        • id:YF02447
        • id:YF02086 GBR [GB-DBY]
        • id:YF02025
        • id:YF01975
      • R-Y4954 Z17581/Y4954 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp info
      • R-Y14197 Y14197 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 500 ybp info
      • R-S781 S781 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 550 ybp info
        • R-S781*
          • id:YF06827 ENG
          • id:YF02682
          • id:YF02561
          • id:YF02406
          • id:YF02381 GBR [GB-ANT] (his MRTS are listed on the right side of the colorized S781 phylogenetic tree above).
          • id:YF02313
          • id:YF02184
        • R-A306 A308 * A306 * A309+1 SNPs formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 200 ybp info
          • id:YF03362
          • id:YF01691
        • R-A5024 Y29911 * A5024 formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 550 ybp info
          • id:YF02955
        • R-Y11635 A889/Y11635 formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp info
          • id:YF02698
          • id:YF02080
        • R-A922 A922 formed 550 ybp, TMRCA 250 ybp info
          • R-A922*
            • id:YF02972
          • R-Y14048 Y14048 * A921/Y14230 formed 250 ybp, TMRCA 50 ybp info
            • id:YF08182 SCT new
            • id:YF02179

Haplogroup YTree v5.02 at

Details of age estimation algorithm described in FAQ What is YFull's age estimation methodology?

Samples HGxxxxx and NAxxxxx © 1000 Genomes Project, samples HGDPxxxxx © HGDP Project,
samples ERRxxxxxxx @ Mallick et al (2016), samples ERSxxxxxx @ Francalacci et al (2013), samples SRRxxxxxxx @ Rodriguez-Flores et al.(2016)

ISOGG Haplogroup Tree


The left column of Administrator Larry's Graph # 1 below shows exactly how some descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.
All of them belong to the R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a branch of an ISOGG tree that includes all of the descendants of the y-LCA of every living race.
Click on the DF41 phylogenetic tree below if you want to see only the Stewart (S310/R-L746) part of it.

Branches of the DF41 family

Row # 6

Your Donations

Your contributions to the General Fund of FTDNA's royal Stuart project will be used as you see fit, e.g., to pay for the DNA tests of men with your surname who still live in the part of the world from which you suspect that your patrilineal ancestors came. Most of the donations below were made in order to pay for the DNA tests of men who have the surname Stewart and who live in the UK.

Those who donate to our General Fund can help to avoid confusion and to facilitate communication by using FTDNA's form to state:

  • Their own names or kit numbers.
  • For what test they want their donations to pay, e.g., Big Y.
  • The kit number of the donor of the DNA that will be used for the test.

FTDNA can not use our General Fund to pay for all or part of your DNA test unless your project administrator approves BEFORE you order it.




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The more patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland join this project the more useful it will be to genealogists and scientists.


We thank the following contributors to the General Fund of this project: David E. Stuart, Steven Mitchell, Donald Grant, Michael Clancey, Hereld Stuart, Francis Marion Stewart III, CD Stewart, Donna Lindberg, Robert Lindberg, Shirley Black Barry, Mary Stuart Spangler, Desideriu Ramelet-Stuart, William Hamilton Stewart, Alexander Stewart, Belinda Dettmann, Diana Stewart Powels.

General Fund

Current balance: $903.00

Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
Credit $125.00 1/11/2017 Desideriu Ramelet Stuart For kit 112839 Big Y test   Memory Of
Debit $39.00 4/3/2016     474002 Unknown
Debit $39.00 4/3/2016     446440 Unknown
Credit $120.00 1/8/2016 Desideriu Ramelet Stuart For offering 3 advanced tests for SNP S781 to 3 Stewart cousins   Unknown
Debit $425.00 1/9/2015       Unknown
Debit $425.00 12/13/2014       Unknown
Credit $325.00 12/13/2014 Ken STEWART 337093   Individual
Credit $100.00 12/13/2014 Ann Stewart Burns For anonymous Big Y tester Stewart, negative 781   Individual
Credit $100.00 9/7/2014 Michael Clancey Contribution towards Big Y Test for Steven Mitchell. If not needed for it, then for any other purpose.   Individual
Debit $39.00 9/4/2014       Unknown
Page: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of 7

Project Stats

Statistic Type Count
Big Y 57
Combined GEDCOMs Uploaded 52
DISTINCT mtDNA Haplogroups 95
DISTINCT Y-DNA Confirmed Haplogroups 26
DISTINCT Y-DNA Predicted Haplogroups 0
Family Finder 142
Genographic 2.0 Transfers 15
Maternal Ancestor Information 203
mtDNA 121
mtDNA Full Sequence 87
mtDNA Plus 108
mtDNA Subgroups 10
Paternal Ancestor Information 254
Predicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 54
Total Members 345
Unpredicted Y-DNA Haplogroups 0
Unreturned Kits 61
WTY 1
Y-DNA Deep Clade (After 2008) 21
Y-DNA Deep Clade (Prior to 2008) 10
Y-DNA Subgroups 36
Y-DNA111 75
Y-DNA12 143
Y-DNA25 127
Y-DNA37 127
Y-DNA67 109