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About us

Y-chromosome DNA Haplogroup C-P39

Project Administrators: Marie Rundquist and Roberta Estes  Project Advisor: Dr. David Pike

Family Tree DNA Project administrators are volunteers and receive no compensation for our services.

Y-Chromosome DNA Haplogroups are based on SNPs, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, that occur in the non recombining region of the Y-chromosome. Haplogroup C-P39 is defined by the SNP P39. This mutation is believed to have occurred at least 15,000 years ago. C-P39 is found in the Americas.  See for updated estimates about the timings of the C-P39 haplogroup, and downstream and upstream branches, from the Family Tree DNA "Discover" page, now in beta-test To search individual haplogroups, use this link:

  • SNPs that are characteristic of this project include, thus far, the C- P39+ (our project baseline) and new subclades based on novel variants and SNPs submitted 4/27/2017 by the C-P39 Big Y project.

  • Letter haplogroup assignments in red are unconfirmed and, when grouped, indicate that C P39 SNP tests are pending.  Confirmed haplogroup assignments are green.

  • Family Tree DNA Big Y and individual SNPs may be ordered by C-P39 Y DNA project members.

  • Big Y C-P39 Y DNA test participants will find new, distinguishing SNPs showing as labels in their individual project results.  In labeling and grouping the data on the site, outside of referencing the new SNPs for further categorization of results, the project has maintained the same information as already published on our site without change. For all C-P39 Big Y results in our project, there was no change to the initial C-P39 positive (+) finding during analysis of the novel variant and SNP information submitted; so, this SNP should stand as the initial SNP tested by project members who join.  Updates to the Y Tree based on the C-P39 project's Big Y novel variant and SNP submission as related to regions represented in the C-P39 Y DNA project are summarized below:
    • North American Appalachian Region - Multiple Surnames: C-P39+ C-Z38940+ [Updated 7/24/2017]
    • North American Canada - Multiple Surnames: C-P39+ C-Z30765+
    • North American Canada - Multiple Surnames: C-P39+ C-Z30750+ 
    • North American Canada: Acadia (Nova Scotia): C-P39+ C-Z30754+ (Positive C-Z30754 SNP results were obtained through Big Y DNA tests and individual SNP tests -- Updated 08/08/2018)
    • North America Canada: Acadia (Nova Scotia): C-P39+ C-Z30754+ C-BY92312+ (This branch is one-step down from the C-Z30754+ branch of the C-P39 Y DNA haplogroup -- Updated 12/14/2021)
    • North American Southwest Region: C-P39+ C-BY56288+ (Updated 12/14/2021)
    •  North American Canada: Newfoundland: C-P39+ C-BY18405+ 
    •  North American Canada: New Brunswick: C-P39+ C-BY22870+[Updated 9/6/2017]
    •  North American Canada: Gaspe, QC: C-P39+ C-BY22870+[Updated 9/6/2017]
    • The ancestors of two families represented in the study, one in the Pacific Northwest, another in the North American Southwest did not experience any mutations in the New World and Big Y results are within the current genetic boundaries of the C-P39 SNP haplogroup as noted. [Updated 6/23/2017]

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Journals and News Letters

  • American Journal of Human Genetics
  • Annals of Human Genetics
  • European Journal of Human Genetics
  • Genome Research
  • Human Genetics
  • Journal of Genetic Genealogy
  • Society for Molecular Biology