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Wellhausen - Amsler - Fricke

  • 63 members

About us

Our first Wellhausen Y-DNA testing member is on the HANOVER-TEXAS line of ERNST CHRISTOPHE CARL WELLHAUSEN.  This tester matches our second tester Wellhouse at 106 / 111 markers. Ernst was born in 1793 in Herzberg, Hanover, now called Herzberg am Harz, Osterode, Lower Saxony, Germany. Herzberg castle was first mentioned in 1154. The town was part of the state of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, and the castle was for some time used as a residence by the dukes.

The Cullen subclade predictor shows this Welhausen tester is Y-DNA Haplogroup I1 to a 100 % probability with subclade probabilities at 67 markers as follows:
I-M253-T13 => 38 %
I-M253-ASgen => 30 %

Subclade researcher Prof. Ken Nordtvedt informs us that this tester should be considered part of the I-M253-ASgen (Anglo-Saxon Generic) subclade because of the 9 at marker DYS 511. We understand that ASgen is a generic residual subclade category for I1 Anglo-Saxon testers who do not fit into another I1 Anglo-Saxon subcategory.

Prof. Nordtvedt also informs us that this subclade probably originated in the vicinity of Schleswig-Holstein around 4,500 years ago. Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the sixteen states of Germany, comprising most of the two historical duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Its capital city is Kiel, and other notable cities are Lübeck, Flensburg and Neumünster. Schleswig-Holstein borders Denmark (Region Syddanmark) to the north, the North Sea to the west, the Baltic Sea to the east, and the German states of Lower Saxony, Hamburg, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern to the south. Wikipedia.

We hope to narrow the subclade designation further and learn more details about the narrower subclade and when and where it originated and moved as additional data is developed.

EUPEDIA on Haplogroup I1:
Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)
I is the oldest haplogroup in Europe and in all probability the only one that originated there (apart from deep subclades of other haplogroups). It is thought to have arrived from the Middle East as haplogroup IJ around 35,000 years ago, and developed into haplogroup I approximately 25,000 years ago. This means that Cro-Magnons most probably belonged (exclusively ?) to IJ or I. Nowadays haplogroup I accounts for 10 to 45% of the population in most of Europe. It is divided in four main subclades. The megalithic structures (5000-1200 BCE) of Europe were built by I people.

Haplogroup I1 (formerly I1a) is the most common I subclade. It is found mostly in Scandinavia and Northern Germany, where it can represent over 35% of the population. Associated with the Norse ethnicity, it is found in all places invaded by the ancient Germanic tribes and the Vikings.

During the Neolithic period, pre-I1 and I1 people were part of the sucessive Ertebølle culture (5300-3950 BCE) and Funnelbeaker culture (4000-2700 BCE). The Corded Ware period (3200-1800 BCE) marks the arrival of the Indo-European R1a people from the Ukrainian steppes.

I1 is identified by at least 15 unique mutations, which indicates that this lineage has been isolated for a long period of time, or experienced a serious population bottleneck. Although the first mutation splitting I1 away from I2 may have arisen as long as 20,000 years ago, people belonging to this haplogroup all descend from a single man who lived less than 5,000 years ago. This corresponds to the arrival of the Indo-European, suggesting that a high percentage of the indigenous I1 men could possibly have been killed by the new immigrants.

WIKIPEDIA on Haplogroup I1, I-M253:
Haplogroup I-M253 (M253, M307, P30, P40) displays a very clear frequency gradient, with a peak frequency of approximately 35% among the populations of southern Norway, southwestern Sweden, and Denmark, and rapidly decreasing frequencies toward the edges of the historically Germanic-influenced world. A notable exception is Finland, where frequency in West Finns is up to 40%, and in certain provinces like Satakunta more than 50%.

Outside Fennoscandia, distribution of Haplogroup I-M253 is closely correlated with that of Haplogroup I-M436; but among Scandinavians (including both Germanic and Uralic peoples of the region) nearly all the Haplogroup I Y-chromosomes are I-M253. Another characteristic of the Scandinavian I-M253 Y-chromosomes is their rather low haplotype diversity (STR diversity): a greater variety of Haplogroup I-M253 Y-chromosomes has been found among the French and Italians, despite the much lower overall frequency of Haplogroup I-M253 among the modern French and Italian populations.


I1-Anglo Saxon is the most common form of I1. It is most frequent in the Netherlands, northwestern Germany, and Denmark and is present at lower frequencies in eastern and southern Germany, southern Sweden, and the British Isles. The most common form of I1-AS is AS1. AS 5, 6, and 7E are uncommon.