R U152 and Subclades

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Maps and frequencies 

FTDNA Database Bias Study by Steve Gilbert
U152 and Subclades Ancient DNA by Richard Rocca
U152 and Subclades FTDNA Automated Map
U152 and Subclades based on Academic Studies by David Faux
U152 and Subclades Frequencies by Tibor Fehér
Upstream History of P312 and U106 by Tibor Fehér

Phylogenetic Trees

FTDNA U152 Haplotree
The BigTree U152 and Subclades
YFull U152 and Subclades

Iain McDonald's Tree Structure for R-P312 (includes U152)



Chromosome Browsers

NCBI Genome Data Viewer


American Journal of Human Genetics
European Journal of Human Genetics
Forensic Science International: Genetics
Genome Research
Journal of Genetic Genealogy
PLoS Genetics


DNAeXplained by Roberta Estes
DNA - Genealem by Emily Aulicino
Eurogenes Genetic Ancestry Project by Davidski
European Genetics and Anthropology by Davidski
Gene Expression
 by Razib Khan
Genealogy and DNA by Doris Wheeler
My Genes and Me by Ana Gerschenfeld
On Genetics by Steve Mount
On-line Journal of Genetics and Genealogy by Steve Perkins
Polish Genetics and Anthropology by Davidski
The Genetic Genealogist by Blaine Bettinger
The Legal Genealogist by Judy G. Russell
The Spittoon by 23andMe
Your Genetic Genealogist by CeCe Moore 

Forums, Mailing Lists and Newsgroups

Family Tree DNA Forums
iGenea Forums
Rootsweb Genealogy DNA Mailing List

General Information

On U152 and Subclades
A short essay on U152 and Subclades by Tibor Fehér
U152 Resource Page by David Faux
Wikipedia R1b
U152 by Richard Rocca

On European Population Genetics
The peopling of Europe by Jean Manco
Ancient DNA by Jean Manco
Eupedia Origins of European Haplogroups
Wikipedia Y-DNA Haplogroups in European Population
Wikipedia Genetic History of Europe
Wikipedia Genetic History of the British Isles
Wikipedia Genetic History of Italy
Wikipedia Genetic History of the Iberian Peninsula

On European Population and Demography
Wikipedia Ethnic Groups in Europe
Wikipedia Human Migration
Wikipedia Life Expectancy
Wikipedia Medieval Demography
Wikipedia Migration Period
Wikipedia Prehistory Settlement of the British Isles

On Population Genetics
Wikipedia Population Genetics
Wikipedia Archeogenetics
Wikipedia Ancient DNA

On Genetics
Wikipedia Introduction to Genetics
Wikipedia Genetics

On Y STR Interpretation
Wikipedia Deletion
Wikipedia Indel
Wikipedia Mutation
Wikipedia Null Allele
Wikipedia Point Mutation
Wikipedia RecLOH
Wikipedia Unique-event Polymorphism

On Molecular Biology Technology
Wikipedia Polymerase chain reaction

Research Studies and Papers


David Faux Studies
The Angles of England and U152
The Belgae of England and U152
Halstatt and La Tene Celts and U152
Danelaw in England and U152

Richard Rocca Studies and Reports
U152 along the English Channel
Celtic Italy and U152
Brabant Project Report
Myers et al. 2010 Report
Cruciani et al. 2010 Report
Ramos-Luis et al. 2009 Report
Niederstätter et al. 2009 Report


Busby et al. 2011 The peopling of Europe and the cautionary tale of Y chromosome lineage R-M269

Recently, the debate on the origins of the major European Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2-M269 has reignited, and opinion has moved away from Palaeolithic origins to the notion of a younger Neolithic spread of these chromosomes from the Near East. Here, we address this debate by investigating frequency patterns and diversity in the largest collection of R1b1b2-M269 chromosomes yet assembled. Our analysis reveals no geographical trends in diversity, in contradiction to expectation under the Neolithic hypothesis, and suggests an alternative explanation for the apparent cline in diversity recently described. We further investigate the young, STR-based time to the most recent common ancestor estimates proposed so far for R-M269-related lineages and find evidence for an appreciable effect of microsatellite choice on age estimates. As a consequence, the existing data and tools are insufficient to make credible estimates for the age of this haplogroup, and conclusions about the timing of its origin and dispersal should be viewed with a large degree of caution.

Larmuseau et al. 2011 Micro-geographic distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in the central-western European region Brabant

One of the future issues in the forensic application of the haploïd Y-chromosome (Y-chr) is surveying the distribution of the Y-chr variation on a micro-geographical scale. Studies on such a scale require observing Y-chr variation on a high resolution, high sampling efforts and reliable genealogical data of all DNA-donors. In the current study we optimised this framework by surveying the micro-geographical data of all distribution of the Y-chr variation in the central-western European region named Brabant. The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries containing three contemporary Belgian provinces and one Dutch province (Noord-Brabant). 477 males from five a priori defined regions within Brabant were selected based on their genealogical ancestry (known pedigree at least before 1800). The Y haplotypes were determined based on 37 Y-STR loci and the finest possible level of substructuring was defined according to the latest published Y-chr phylogenetic tree. In total, eight Y-Haplogroups and 32 different sub-haplogroups were observed, whereby 70% of all participants belonged to only four su-haplogroups: R1b1b2a1 (R-U106), R1b1b2a2* (R-P312), R1b1b2a2g (R-U152) and I1* (I-M253*). Significant micro-geographical differentiation within Brabant was detected between the Dutch (Noord-Brabant) vs. the Flemish regions based on the differences in sub-haplogroup frequencies but not based on Y-STR variation within the main sub-haplogroups. A clear gradient was found with higher frequencies of R1b1b2 (R-M269) chromosomes in the northern vs. southern regions, mainly related to a trend in the frequency of R1b1b2a1 (R-U106).

Myers et al. 2010 A Major Y Chromosome Haplogroup R1b era founder effect in Central and Western Europe

The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past <10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23 (xM412) components in South-East Europe and elsewhere

Cruciani et al. 2010 Strong intra- and inter-continental differentiation revealed by Y chromosome SNPs M269, U106 and U152

More that 2700 unrelated individuals from Europe, northern Africa and western Asia were analysed for the marker M269, which defines the Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2. A total of 593 subjects belonging to this haplogroup were identified and further analysed for two SNPs, U106 and U152, which defines haplogroups R1b1b2g and R1b1b2h, respectively. These haplogroups showed quite a different frequency distribution patterns within Europe, with frequency peaks in northern Europe (R1b1b2g) and northern Italy/France (R1b1b2h)

Balaresque et al. 2010 APredominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages

The relative contributionsto modern European populations of Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithicfarmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2(R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing infrequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men. Previousstudies suggested a Palaeolithic origin, but here we show that the geographicaldistribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from asingle source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic. Taken withevidence on the origins of other haplogroups, this indicates that most EuropeanY chromosomes originate in the Neolithic expansion. This reinterpretation makesEurope a prime example of how technological and cultural change is linked withthe expansion of a Y-chromosomal lineage, and the contrast of this pattern withthat shown by maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA suggests a unique role formales in the transition

Ramos-Luiset al.2009 Phylogeography of French males lineages

The geneticlandscape of European Y-chromosomes has been widely surveyed. However, Frenchmale lineages are still poorly characterized, being scarce the current geneticcontribution to the demographic history of France. We have studied, atY-chromosome level, French population from 7 different regions throughoutFrance: Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Lille), Bretagne (Rennes), Alsace (Strasbourg),Île-de-France (Paris), Auvergne (Clermont-Ferrand), Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur(Marseille) and Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse). More than five hundred male sampleswere genotyped for 27 Y-chromosome bi allelic markers and 17 Y-STRs, in orderto assess the degree of population sub-structuring of male lineages on thispopulation. The results obtained show a significant level of populationsub-structuring when Bretagne was compared with the remaining regions groupingtogether as a single cluster, obtaining a value of 6.83% (p = 0.0000)for the proportion of the total variance explained by differences betweenpopulations, when using Y-SNPs data. Our data will contribute to elucidate thegenetic composition of France as well as to reconstruct the demographic historyof European populations. Likewise, the population sub-structuring detectedentails that special care must be taken when Y-chromosome databases of Franceare used for forensic casework

Niederstätteret al.2008 Recentlyintroduced Y-SNPs improve the resolution within Y-chr haplogroup R1b in acentral European population sample (Tyrol, Austria)

Three recentlydescribed Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) were typed in asample of 135 men from Tyrol (Austria). These SNPs define sub-clades ofhaplogroup (hg) R1b. The derived states of U152 (hg R1b3h) U106 (R1b3i) andU198 (R1b3i1) were found within the Austrian R1b population sub-sample (N = 42)in 9 (21.4%), 25 (59.5%), and 1 (2.4%) individuals, respectively. Only 8(19.0%) of the hg R1b Y-chromosomes remained unresolved. These novel SNPsproved to be promising tools for distinguishing R1b lineages in theevolutionary as well asin the forensic context

Bowden et al. 2007 Excavatingpast population structures by surname-based sampling: The Genetic Legacy of theVikings in Northwest England

The geneticstructures of past human populations are obscured by recent migrations andexpansions and have been observed only indirectly by inference from modernsamples. However, the unique link between a heritable cultural marker, thepatrilineal surname, and a genetic marker, the Y chromosome, provides a meansto target sets of modern individuals that might resemble populations at thetime of surname establishment. As a test case, we studied samples from theWirral Peninsula and West Lancashire, in northwest England. Place-names andarchaeology show clear evidence of a past Viking presence, but heavyimmigration and population growth since the industrial revolution are likely tohave weakened the genetic signal of a1,000-year-old Scandinavian contribution.Samples ascertained on the basis of 2 generations of residence were comparedwith independent samples based on known ancestry in the region plus thepossession of a surname known from historical records to have been presentthere in medieval times. The Y-chromosomal haplotypes of these 2 sets ofsamples are significantly different, and in admixture analyses, the surnameascertained samples show markedly greater Scandinavian ancestry proportions,supporting the idea that northwest England was once heavily populated byScandinavian settlers. The method of historical surname-based ascertain menpromises to allow investigation of the influence of migration and drift over thelast few centuries in changing the population structure of Britain and willhave general utility in other regions where surnames are patrilineal andsuitable historical records survive

Thomas et al. 2006 Evidencefor an apartheid-likesocial structure in early Anglo-Saxon England

The role ofmigration in the Anglo-Saxon transition in England remains controversial.Archaeological and historical evidence is in conclusive, but current estimatesof the contribution of migrants to the English population range from less than10 000 to as many as 200 000. In contrast, recent studies based on Y-chromosomevariation posit a considerably higher contribution to the modern English genepool (50–100%). Historical evidence suggests that following the Anglo-Saxontransition, people of indigenous ethnicity were at an economic and legaldisadvantage compared to those having Anglo-Saxon ethnicity. It is likely thatsuch a disadvantage would lead to differential reproductive success. We examinethe effect of differential reproductive success, coupled with limitedintermarriage between distinct ethnic groups, on the spread of geneticvariants. Computer simulations indicate that a social structure limitingintermarriage between indigenous Britons and an initially small Anglo-Saxonimmigrant population provide a plausible explanation of the high degree ofContinental male-line ancestry in England.

Capelli et al. 2006 Populationstructure in the Mediterranean bassin: A Y chromosome perspective

The Mediterraneanregion has been characterized by a number of pre-historical andhistorical demographic events whose legacy on the current genetic landscape isstill a matter of debate. In order to investigate the degree of populationstructure across the Mediterranean, we have investigated Y chromosome variationin a large dataset of Mediterranean populations, 11 of which are first describedhere. Our analyses identify four main clusters in the Mediterranean that can belabelled as North Africa, Arab, Central-East and West Mediterranean. Inparticular, Near Eastern samples tend to separate according to the presence ofArab Y chromosome lineages, suggesting that the Arab expansion played a majorrole in shaping the current genetic structuring within the Fertile Crescent.

Weale et al. 2003 RareDeep-Rooting Y Chromosome Lineages in Humans: Lessons for Phylogeography

There has beenconsiderable debate on the geographic origin of the human Y chromosome Alu polymorphism(YAP). Here we report a new, very rare deep-rooting haplogroup within the YAP clade,together with data on other deep-rooting YAP clades. The new haplogroup, foundso far in only five Nigerians, is the least-derived YAP haplogroup according tocurrently known binary markers. However, because the interior branching orderof the Y chromosome genealogical tree remains unknown, it is impossible toimpute the origin of the YAP clade with certainty. We discuss the problems presentedby rare deep-rooting lineages for Y chromosome phylogeography.

Quintana-Murci et al. 200Ychromosome haplotypes and testicular cancer in the English population

Capelli et al. 2003 AY chromosome census of the British Isles

The degree ofpopulation replacement in the British Isles associated with cultural changeshas been extensively debated. Recent work has demonstrated that comparisons ofgenetic variation in the British Isles and on the European Continent canilluminate specific demographic processes in the history of the British Isles.For example, Wilson et al. used the similarity of Basque and Celtic Ychromosomes to argue for genetic continuity from the Upper Palaeolithic to thepresent in the paternal history of these populations (see also). Differences inthe Y chromosome composition of these groups also suggested genetic signaturesof Norwegian influence in the Orkney Islands north of the Scottish mainland, animportant center of Viking activities between 800 and 1300 A.D. More recently,Weale et al. argued for substantial Anglo-Saxon male migration into centralEngland based on the analysis of eight British sample sets collected on aneast-west transect across England and Wales. To provide a more completeassessment of paternal genetic history of the British Isles, we have comparedthe Y chromosome composition of multiple geographically distant British samplesets with collections from Norway (two sites), Denmark, and Germany and withcollections from central Ireland, representing, respectively, the putativeinvading and the indigenous populations. By analyzing 1772 Y chromosomes from25 predominantly small urban locations, we found that different parts of theBritish Isles have sharply different paternal histories; the degree ofpopulation replacement and genetic continuity shows systematic variation acrossthe sampled areas.

Behar et al. 2003 Multipleorigins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y chromosome evidence for both Near Eastern andEuropean ancestries

Previous Ychromosome studies have shown that the Cohanim, apaternally inherited Jewishpriestly caste, predominantly share a recent common ancestry irrespective ofthe geographically defined post Diaspora community to which they belong, afinding consistent with common Jewish origins in the Near East. In contrast, theLevites, another paternally inherited Jewish caste, display evidence formultiple recent origins, with Ashkenazi Levites having a high frequency of adistinctive, non–Near Eastern haplogroup. Here, we show that the Ashkenazi Levitemicrosatellite haplotypes within this haplogroup are extremely tightlyclustered, with an inferred common ancestor within the past 2,000 years.Comparisons with other Jewish and non-Jewish groups suggest that a foundingevent, probably involving one or very few European men occurring at a timeclose to the initial formation and settlement of the Ashkenazi community, isthe most likely explanation for the presence of this distinctive haplogroupfound today in 150% of Ashkenazi Levites

Weale et al. 2002 Ychromosome evidence for Anglo-Saxon mass migration

British historycontains several periods of major cultural change. It remains controversial asto how much these periods coincided with substantial immigration fromcontinental Europe, even for those that occurred most recently. In this study,we examine genetic data for evidence of male immigration at particular timesinto Central England and North Wales. To do this, we used 12 biallelicpolymorphisms and six microsatellite markers to define high resolution Ychromosome haplotypes in a sample of 313 males from seven towns located alongan east-west transect from East Anglia to North Wales. The Central Englishtowns were genetically very similar, whereas the two North Welsh towns differedsignificantly both from each other and from the Central English towns. When wecompared our data with an additional 177 samples collected in Friesland andNorway, we found that the Central English and Frisian samples werestatistically indistinguishable. Using novel population genetic models thatincorporate both mass migration and continuous gene flow, we conclude that thesestriking patterns are best explained by a substantial migration of Anglo-SaxonY chromosomes into Central England (contributing 50%–100% to the gene pool atthat time) but not into North Wales.

Thomas et al. 2002 Foundingmothers of Jewish communities: geographically separated Jewish groups wereindependently founded by very few female ancestors

We have analyzedthe maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA from each of nine geographicallyseparated Jewish groups, eight non-Jewish host populations, and an IsraeliArab/Palestinian population, and we have compared the differences found in Jewsand non-Jews with those found using Y-chromosome data that were obtained, inmost cases, from the same population samples. The results suggest that mostJewish communities were founded by relatively few women, that the foundingprocess was independent in different geographic areas, and that subsequentgenetic input from surrounding populations was limited on the female side. Insharp contrast to this, the paternally inherited Y chromosome shows diversitysimilar to that of neighbouring populations and shows no evidence of foundereffects. These sex-specific differences demonstrate an important role forculture in shaping patterns of genetic variation and are likely to have significantepidemiological implications for studies involving these populations. Weillustrate this by presenting data from a panel of X-chromosome microsatellites,which indicates that, in the case of the Georgian Jews, the female-specificfounder event appears to have resulted in elevated levels of linkage disequilibrium.

Wilson et al. 2001 Geneticevidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in theBritish Isles

Human history ispunctuated by periods of rapid cultural change. Although archaeologists havedeveloped a range of models to describe cultural transitions, inmost realexamples we do not know whether the processes involved the movement of peopleor the movement of culture only. With a series of relatively well definedcultural transitions, the British Isles present an ideal opportunity to assessthe demographic context of cultural change. Important transitions after the firstPalaeolithic settlements include the Neolithic, the development of Iron Agecultures, and various historical invasions from continental Europe. Here weshow that patterns of Y-chromosome variation indicate that the Neolithic andIron Age transitions in the British Isles occurred without large-scale malemovements. The more recent invasions from Scandinavia, on the other hand,appear to have left a significant paternal genetic legacy. In contrast, patternsof mtDNA and X-chromosome variation indicate that one or more of these pre-Anglo-Saxoncultural revolutions had a major effect on the maternal genetic heritage of theBritish Isles.

Martin Ballauf Haplogruppe R1b1b1c10


2004 09 20: Publication of a new SNP found among M269 samples that will later be call S28 by Hinds et al.
2005 12 13: First commercial U152/S28 test begins with Ethnoancestry. Charles Kerchner and David K. Faux are the first individual to be tested positive.
2006 04 10: M126 first designation on the ISOGG Phylogenic Tree. R1b1c3. M160 first designation on the ISOGG Phylogenic Tree. R1b1c5
2006 12 05: S44 is added to the ISOGG Phylogenic Tree as a private SNP derived to U152
2006 12 05: M126 and M160 are designated as private SNPs on the ISOGG phylogenic tree.
2006 12 17: U152 first designation on the ISOGG the phylogenic tree following its publication by Simms at al. R1b1c10
2007 09 20: U152 second designation by Karafet et al. R1b1b2h
2008 03 06: R1b1c10 Project launched (now renamed R1b-U152). A project focusing of the haplogroup R1b1b2a1b4 
2008 03 17: Project hits 20 members. Initial statistics such as min, max, modal, std dev, and other stats computed on the limited data
2008 03 25: U152 members sorted by geographic origin of earliest known ancestor in Europe, if known
2008 04 18: Project hits 50 members 
2008 07 15: New U152 derived "L Series" L2 and L4 ySNPs are now offered by FTDNA to further define the sub-clades in this haplogroup 
2008 09 16: L2/S139 first designation on the ISOGG phylogenic tree. R1b1b2a1b4c
2008 11 07: L20/S144 first designation on the ISOGG phylogenic tree. R1b1b2a1b4c1
2009 02 19: Project hits 100 members
2010 01 02: New ISOGG Phylogenetic Tree released. The alphanumeric designation for U152 are: R1b1b2a1a2d and R1b1b2a1b4 on the ISOGG and FTDNA Phylogenetic Tree respectively
2010 01 05: Sorted data and statistics spreadsheets updated. Data now reflects the current 189 membership count in the project. 
2010 01 06: Tibor Fehér of Hungary joins the project as Assistant Admin responsible for doing some innovative grouping and re-grouping of members based on deep-subclade SNP test results, advanced STR marker tests, and other marker allele values to help deduce ancient ancestral relationships and patterns. 
2010 01 08: Tibor Fehér completes the regrouping of the U152+ haplotypes into five new groups. 
2010 01 12: A Short Essay about the U152 Haplogroup written by Tibor Fehér is added to the project site. 
2010 01 15: Project hits 200 members. 
2010 01 17: New group added. YCAII=19,19; DYS392=12. 
2010 01 19: Tack pin map added to Project Results page showing members as of 18 Jan 2010 depicting geographic earliest known ancestor location. 
2010 01 20: Descriptions of the project groups has been updated. See link in Project's Background and Goals sections. 
2010 04 18: Data for various subgroups analyzed and displayed with a Genetic Distance Matrix
2010 08 12: Uploaded new members map to Project Results section
2010 09 01: U152+ Frequencies World-Wide' Excel Spreadsheet by Tibor Fehér uploaded to the Project Results section
2011 01 01: Project hits 316 members
2010 01 09: Renaming of group D2 from L100+ to S47+ L100+
2011 01 12: New group added. U152+ L2+ L443+ L408+ L409+
2011 01 13: Charles Kerchner Genetic Genealogy pioneer and founder of the R-U152 project step down as the Administrator. Tibor Fehér of Hungary and Steve Gilbert of Canada become Admin and Co-Admin respectively.

2011 01 30: New group added: U152+ L2+ S42+
2011 02 24: New group added: U152+ L2+ L69+
2011 03 04: New standard phylogenetic tree changes every clades designation. U152 is now R1b1a2a1a1b3, L2 is now R1b1a2a1a1b3c, L20 is now R1b1a2a1a1b3c1, L4 is now Two clades now have standard designations. L196 with r1b1a2a1a3c2 and M228.2 with R1b1a2a1a3c1a
2011 03 06: Project hits 350 members
2011 03 17: Richard Rocca of the United States joins Tibor Fehér and Steve Gilbert as Co-Admin
2011 03 18: Walk Through the Y (WTY) selection process is now completed. 4 U152, 4 L2, 5 L20, 1 L3, 1 S42, 1 S47, L100 and 1 U152, 492=14 for a total 17 are now waiting for their results that should arrive in mid-April at the earliest. These 17 new participants are adding to 6 past participants where a total of 6 new SNPs have been found. 1 U152, 1 L20 and 4 L2 where L135, L196, L209, L408, L409, L443 and M228 have been found. Chances are really great to find new Family and Regional SNPs and we are hoping to find one or two SNPs of phylogenetic importance.
2011 03 19: Adding new haplogroups distribution graphs to the the Results page
2011 03 20: Adding the first experimental clusters grouping for U152* samples to the Results page
2011 03 23: Adding the first experimental clusters grouping for L2* samples to the Results page
2011 03 24: Adding an update to the U152+, L2- vs. U152+, L2+ graph to the Results page
2011 03 25: Adding the first experimental clusters grouping for 492=14 and derived samples to the Results page
2011 03 26: Project hits 400 members! (+33% in three months)
2011 03 30: Two new SNPs have been identified in a WTY L2 sample run of French ancestry; L552 and L553. The level of penetration of these two new SNPs seem to be somewhat limited as none of the complete genome L2 samples from the 1000 Genomes Project are reported to be positive. It remain very possible that it may be wider spread among French ancestry and surrounding countries individuals. Additional test will be required for the exact phylogenic placement and their order of precedence.
2011 03 31: One new SNP has been identified in a WTY L3 sample run of English ancestry; L562. The level of penetration of this new SNP seem to be wide spread as three complete genome L2 samples of different origins are reported to be positive. L562 was first identified in a sample from the 1000 Genomes Project and temporary labelled Z50. According to the recent finding, Z50 is three level lower than L2 with Z49 and Z142 in between.
2011 04 08: Updating the U152 frequency map now including data from the Book Scots: A genetic Journey. Wilson et al. 2011
2011 04 11: The three new SNP (L552, L553 and L562) found last month are now available to order in the "Order Tests and Upgrades" section of your profile page.
2011 04 12: The long awaited SNP S47 is now available for testing for the U152=14 group members. According to some recent findings and by comparison to a positive sample, it is thought that this is a wide spread SNP and might be the one that triggered the STR mutation from 12 to 14 at dys492. U152* that are dys492=12 or 13 can also order it but chances of being positive to it are limited.
2011 04 22: No new SNPs have been found in the S47+, L100+ sample 26288 in its WTY run.
2011 04 24: U152, 492=14 sample 34105, has been reported negative to S47 demonstrating that this SNP does not cover the whole 492=14 group. SNP candidates Z42,Z43 (node), Z56 and Z45 remain possible candidates for covering the whole group.
2011 04 25: No new SNPs have been found in the U152* sample 24162 in its WTY run. 
2011 04 29: A new group is added: D2 Group: U152+, 492=14, S47+ following the positive result to S47 by sample N14983 of Sweden.
2011 04 29: The former group D2 Group: U152+, 492=14, S47+, L100+ as been renamed D2a Group: U152+, 492=14, S47+, L100+
2011 05 05: A member belonging to the U152+, 492=14, L4+ has been reported negative to S47 demonstrating that every L4+ samples are ancestral to S47.
2011 05 07: A L2* sample tested on an illumina chip has been reported positive to L473 (rs2998677). L473 was previously found in a Hg Q sample. All other U152* and L20+ were found ancestral demonstrating its phylogenic placement. No Y DNA STR markers are currently available for comparison.
2011 05 10: The project has reached 450 members. An average growth of more than one new member per day.
2011 05 14: New research paper added to the Results Page.
2011 05 17: A new L562+ sample has been found ID 101133. The sample is till not yet tested for L3 to confirm that is it well downstream of L562. This new sample having a GD of 15/37 compared to the other L562+ corroborate the fact the it is most likely a wide spread SNP according to the 1000 Genomes Project data mining effort.
2011 05 23: No new SNPs have been found in the L20* sample 155835 in its WTY run.

None of the links above constitute an endorsement of their contents by the the U152 and Subclades Research Project and Family Tree DNA