SNPs in BLUE can be purchased from Family Tree DNA. Do not order these! Even the SNP in red whch is available from YSeq is too distant to be of use to anyone in this project. If you want to test a SNP the FGC14605 would be the first one to consider. But since we expect you to even be positive for that SNP, you might want to start with one of the "personal" SNPs of RUTYNA, SPIER, RADU or SALIDO depending on which man you are more closely related to. We're here to help you figure this out!
What we have discovered through Big Y:
R-M269 > R-L23
L584 (This is the most downsteam SNP available at FTDNA. Don't waste your money.)
PF7580, FGC14590 ca 4700 ybp (These are also a waste of money to test. Notice the date).
FGC14598, FGC14606, FGC14610, FGC14617
L539, P22 (Kit #170600 SLIMAN)
FGC14605/Y11410 ca 1200 ybp (First SNP to consider testing).
FGC14600 ca 660 ybp (each has on average 5 personal SNPs that you may also have)
SPIRA - from Trebic, Moravia
SPIER (YF03999)- from Kestrich, Hessen
CTS10050/M10145 - SALIDO ybp= years before present
For additional information check out the Phylogenic Tree on the R1b-M269 (P312- U106-) DNA Project Website. You can also find recent information on Big Y SNP testing on the YFull Experimental Tree.
What is a SNP:
SNP is short for single nucleotide polymorphism. They are the most common type of genetic variation among people. Each SNP represents a difference in a single DNA building block, called a nucleotide. For example, a SNP may replace the nucleotide cytosine (C) with the nucleotide thymine (T) in a certain stretch of DNA. When this occurs it is a mutation (or change in your genetic code) that we can then use to determine how people are related to each. A SNP occurs approximately every 120-140 years.
How you can use SNP testing to discover how you fit on this tree:"Big Y" is the most helpful test because you can discover your own personal SNPs, and you will have your own branch on the R1b-FGC14605 SNP tree. Big Y looks at 12 million locations on the genome and you will get more than 400 STRs/markers. An inexpensive option is to test some of the private SNPs that were discovered by the Big Y testing of Rutyna, Radu, Spier, Spira or Salido. For example, we know that RUTYNA, RADU, SPIRA & SPIER share a common SNP dated ca 1350. We also know that each of them have an average of 5 "private SNPs/mutations each that occurred AFTER the birth of their common ancestor ca 1350. Multiplying 5 x 120 (years) we arrive at around 600 years for the common ancestor of these three men. So if their common ancestor lived around 1350 CE, based on probability we can predict that there may have been a mutation in 1470, 1590, 1710, 1830 and finally around 1950 when they were born. Of course SNPS are random and not likely to be so predictable.
If you share a private SNP with one of them, and if we can date that SNP within the time frame that one of you has a known common ancestor, then that ancestor becomes your ancestor! These private SNPs will NOT be available at Family Tree DNA. They can be requested at a private company called YSeq, and are available almost overnight. We can help you figure out the most cost effective way to proceed. We also may be able to help you find coupons or some other cost savings if you decide you want to do Big Y.
Naming of SNPs:
SNPs have different names depending on where they were discovered. For example a SNP whose name starts with FGC was discovered by the company Full Genome. A SNP that begins with a Y was discovered at YFull. Sometimes Family Tree DNA will name a SNP and because it was found doing Big Y, the name will start with BY. So one single SNP can have three or even more names!