R-M222 and Subclades

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About us

 

PLEASE READ ALL SECTIONS BELOW TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THIS PROJECT CAN BE EXPECTED TO PROVIDE IN HELPING YOU UNDERSTAND YOUR Y-CHROMOSOME ANCESTRY

 

I.               INTRODUCTION

II.             MODAL STR VALUES

III.          RESEARCH HISTORY

IV.          THE NIALL QUESTION

V.             THE IMPORTANCE OF SNP TESTING

VI.          THE CONSENSUS BRANCHING STRUCTURE

VII.        DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

 

INTRODUCTION

The R-M222 branch of the Y-DNA tree is defined by a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) called M222. This diagnostic marker is associated with many individuals whose roots lie in the counties of Northwest Ireland, Ulster and Lowland Scotland.

The R-M222 project is open to all individuals who have a derived (i.e.,positive) test result on the M222 SNP or any SNP known to lie downstream from that marker. The project will also consider admitting individuals who have not been SNP tested, but whose haplotypes show most of the Short Tandem Repeat (STR) values below. Still, because of the complex branching structure within R-M222, all individuals will be encouraged to undertake additional testing to refine the branch of M222 to which they belong. This is discussed in SECTION V below (The Importance of SNP Testing).

 

THE MODAL STR VALUES THAT COLLECTIVELY INDICATE R-M222 STATUS

DYS390 = 25
DYS385b = 13
DYS392 = 14
DYS448 = 18
DYS449 = 30
DYS464 = 15-16-16-17
DYS456 = 17
DYS607 = 16
DYS413 = 21-23
DYS534 = 16
DYS481 = 25
DYS714 = 24

In most cases the first three STRs in the list above are adequate to establish membership in this group. If you have at least two of those three values and differ by only one at the mismatching marker, you are very probably (though notcertainly) a member of the R-M222 Haplogroup. If you are uncertain about whether you belong to Haplogroup R-M222, please contact a project administrator for advice.

 

RESEARCH HISTORY

The cluster now known as the R-M222 group was first recognized in late 2004 following manual cluster analysis of several hundred R-M269 haplotypes in Ysearch. A preliminary modal haplotype was established at that time based on roughly six dozen similar haplotypes. It was noted that family names associated with the cluster were almost entirely Irish or Scottish. The cluster was initially referred to as the 25/11/14 cluster based on the dominant values for DYS390, 391 and 392. In late 2005 a research team from Trinity College Dublin published a report that identified this cluster based on the distinctive values at DYS390 and 392. The research team called this pattern the Irish Modal Haplotype, or IMH, and provocatively suggested that the haplotype was to be associated with the Ui Neill kings of Northern Ireland who descended from the fifth century warlord Niall of the Nine Hostages. Since the haplotype is not in fact modal in Ireland – though a distinctive haplotype with a large population, it is not the dominant one – one should perhaps more properly call this pattern the Northern Irish/Lowland Scots Variety of Haplogroup R1b. That recognizes the fact that it is most concentrated in Donegal (nearly 20 percent of the population) and nearby counties to the south and west (five to 10 percent). It is also found in Lowland Scotland and the Western Isles at a percentage that is hard to determine but may also be in the five to 10 percent range. In February of 2006, one of the administrators (DCW) predicted that this distinctive variety would be found to correlate with the rarely tested SNP M222 and commissioned a custom lab analysis to test the hypothesis. The result, returned in March 2006,was positive. Immediately afterwards different labs began offering M222 as part of deep clade testing programs, and hundreds of individuals have now been found positive for the M222 SNP. In recent years, the new options of full genome and SNP bundle testing have led to the recognition of numerous downstream divisions that seem to have emerged between roughly 2000 and 1200 ybp (Years Before Present, in which “Present” is taken to be the year 1950). There is some uncertainty about the age of the M222 SNP itself, but the most recent common ancestor of all individuals who have tested positive for M222 seems to have lived about 2000-2200 years ago.

The modal haplotype for the Northern Irish/Lowland Scots Variety, and therefore for R-M222, can be seen on Ysearch as record M5UKQ.

 

THE NIALL QUESTION

Commentary to be added.

 

THE IMPORTANCE OF SNP TESTING

While the STR values of even a limited haplotype can usually rule someone in or out of Haplogroup R-M222, STR values are by themselves almost useless for categorizing individuals in the sub-haplogroups below R-M222. For that reason, it is strongly recommended that members of the project order the M222 SNP Pack test of 115 different SNPs.  (This suggestion is less important to individuals whose known close relatives have already done such testing, but maybe a good idea anyway just to have a specific haplogroup associated with your kit in the FTDNA data base.) There are instances among project members in which individuals separated by only a few steps of genetic distance have been shown to belong to completely different branches of the R-M222 group and thus cannot share a recent common ancestor within the last 1500-1800 years. Similarly,there are cases in which individuals separated by a genetic distance of 10-11over 67 or 111 markers belong to the same subdivision despite the implied timespan of generations. SNP testing is extremely important not only for understanding the development of branches below M222, but also for determining those other members who may share recent common ancestors whose identities might be worked out through document-based genealogical research.

Every project member will find on the Y-DNA Haplotree Page a diagram that contains what FTDNA has determined about the branching structure below M222. The recommended R1b-M222 SNP Pack tests 114 SNPs that are located on that tree as well as 13 more that have not yet been added to the tree. These SNPs are:

R1b-M222 Pack SNPs on Haplotree

A1147

A822

BY3345

FGC19844

PF2028

A1206

A883

BY3346

FGC19845

PF3292

A1742

A887

BY3347

FGC19846

PF3988

A1743

A982

BY470

FGC19856

PF7301

A1774

BY198

BY471

FGC19860

PF910

A223

BY199

BY472

FGC19862

S566

A224

BY200

BY586

FGC23592

S568

A2299

BY201

CTS12173

FGC23595

S588

A2317

BY202

CTS3771

FGC35551

S590

A259

BY203

CTS6

FGC35553

S595

A260

BY204

CTS8580

FGC35555

S658

A359

BY205

CTS9501

FGC4077

S668

A5902

BY2667

DF104

FGC4113

S673

A6925

BY2681

DF105

FGC4133

S7049

A694

BY3338

DF109

FGC4134

S7814

A725

BY3339

DF85

FGC440

Z29319

A7360

BY3340

F1265

FGC5856

Z70

A7361

BY3341

F1400

FGC5939


A7362

BY3342

FGC12183

FGC8739


A7363

BY3343

FGC12948

M222


A744

BY3344

FGC12950

M4491



R1b-M222 Pack SNPs NOT on Haplotree

A360





A361





A363





A7359





BY197





F3952





FGC29785





FGC29786





FGC29788





FGC452





PF1169





S592





S7050






The Haplotree also reports some SNPs that were uncovered in Big Y testing, but which have not yet been included in the R1b-M222 SNP Pack.

 

THE CONSENSUS BRANCHING STRUCTURE OF R-M222

Project Administrators and independent researchers have separately worked out a branching structure for the R-M222 Haplogroup that includes not only SNPs discovered by FTDNA but also through testing procedures conducted by other laboratories. It is very close to the FTDNA Haplotree but in some cases adjusts the placement of rarely-seen SNPs. It is FTDNA’s policy to base their tree only on SNPs that they have confirmed from DNA samples that were provided by their own customers and analyzed in their own or cooperating labs. The consensus tree undergoes constant revision, and changes will be reflected in the branching diagrams that presented here.

Consensus diagrams are under construction. Overall and detailed sectional diagrams will be posted in this location.


DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Most discussion of testing strategies and results will be found in the Yahoo Group devoted to the R-M222 and Subclades project: https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/R1b-M222-Project/inf

Members of the R-M222 and Subclades Group are urged to join and participate in the Yahoo group. Yahoo requires a separate identification to participate in any of their groups. Membership in the Yahoo R-M222 group is not available to individuals who are not also members of the FTDNA group. It is necessary to use the same email address for the Yahoo group that you use for FTDNA messages.

Useful email addresses for the Yahoo R1b-M222 group:

Subscribe: r1b-m222-project-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

Unsubscribe: r1b-m222-project-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com

List Owner: r1b-m222-project-owner@yahoogroups.com

Post Message: r1b-m222-project@yahoogroups.com







*Always check for the most recent SNP discoveries 






Please note:


Our yahoo discussion group "R1b M222 and Subclades" requires an email address to join and the email address you use may be the same as you use here at FTDNA.   You may also use a different email address IF you include your FTDNA kit number in the join request.    Other join requests will usually be rejected.