There needs to be a proven paper trail on most of the lines. Many claim descent from the Bishops Cannings group or a particular individual. Testing proves there is a deviation in some expected returns and substantiated others! Of the subgroups, the larger group will be further divided by the higher number of markers. --------------------------- When a Pyle(s)/Pile(s) male is tested by FTDNA, his results will allow us to determine, with a fair degree of certainty, if he is descended from the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of one of the (to date) eight distinct "clans" so far defined by Y-DNA testing results, or if he belongs to a new, as-yet unidentified and "genetically" undefined Pyle(s)/Piles "clan". The clans defined so far are 1) Bishops Cannings (haplo I1): descendants of one of three sons of Nicholas Pyle (1625-1691) of Bishops Cannings, Wiltshire: 15 members 2) Wallops (haplo I1): descendants of Richard Pile (b. ca. 1520) of Wallops, Hampshire, England: 4 members Note that (1) and (2) most likely share a common ancestor several generations back of the MRCA for each 3) DYS447 = 31 (haplo I1): 2 members; each member of this clan traces back to a different most-distantly known male ancestor (William Pyle, b. 1775, Pa(?), and John Ingraham Pyle, b. 1805, western VA), but these two men match 35/37, so there is little doubt that the most distantly-known Pyle ancestor of each share a common ancestor not much farther back (3-5 gen?) in time 4) Henry Pyle, ca. 1800, western PA: (inferred haplo I1, but likely M227+ (I1b)). 1 member, genetically quite distant from both Bishops Cannings and Wallops. 5) Osceola/John Vinton Pyles (haplo I2): brothers born in 1837 (Osceola) and 1823 (John Vinton), sons of William Henderson Pyles/Piles (b. ca 1783, Prince Georges Co., MD), and paper trail descendants of Francis Piles (b. 1660, PGC, MD) 2 members, matching each other 12/12 6) Francis Piles (Haplo R1b): paper-trail descendants of Francis Piles (b. 1660, PGC, MD). 3 members, matching only 10/12. Recent addtions (May 2010) suggest that the presence of 6 copies of DYS464 (which 2 members have) may be a fingerprint for this genetic group. Note that members in groups (5) and (6) can not descend from the same Francis, because groups (5) and (6) are of different haplogroups. So, if members of either group truly descend from Francis Piles, then members of the other group can not. This of course assumes that the Francis taken as the MRCA of both groups is the same man. (7) Coonrod (haplo R1b): descendants of Coonrod Pile (b. ca. 1766, TN), putative son of Conrad Poyle or Pfeil, (b. Germany (?). 3 members, with matches on the order of 24/25 to 25/25, 36/37, and 64/67. The 4th member is an adoptee, but a putative Pile descendant, and matches the other 3 at 12/12. (8) Zacariah Pyles (Haplo R1b): 1 member. Paper trail ends at John H. Pyles (b. 1837, Western VA) with a skip-generation to alleged grandfather of John H.; namely, Zacariah (b. ca 1775, PGC MD(?)). The closest match to (8) is a member of (6), with genetic distance of 3 at 12 markers, and 14 at 37 markers. (9) Conradus Pyles (Haplo R1b): 1 member: Paper trail ends at Conradus Pyles (b. ca 1740, VA), who could be a son (or grandson?) of Vincent Godfrey Pyles of VA. Kit 111232's closest match is to 81931 of the Francis R1b haplotype group, with a genetic distance of 11 at 37 markers. Based on this distance, it is unlikely Conradus' line and Francis' (R1b) line are related in genealogical time (10) Samuel J Pyles line (haplo I2): 1 member. Paper trail ends at Samuel J Pyle (b. 1826, Missouri). The values (11,21) on YCAII(a,b) are a dead giveaway that this member (kit 115083) is haplo I2. This being the case, the only group he could be related to are to the members of the William Henderson Pyles/Piles (family 5) group. 115083 and 5594 (in family 5) have a g.d. of 11 at 25 markers, making it highly unlikely that they are related. (11) John Piles of NC/Joshua Piles (Haplo R1b): 3 members. Paper trail ends at John Piles, born ~1800 in (censuses conflict) Tennessee or North Carolina. No know connection to Joshua, but existence of null 439 in all three members essentially requires relationship betwwwn John and Joshua. Predicted haplogroup R1b1b2a2g (aka S28+), but genetic distance from all other R1b modals precludes relatinship with any of them. Mid 2009 test results indicate that all 3 members are null 439, and inferred L1+, therefore giving membership in haplogroup (2010 ISOGG convention) R1b1b2a1a1c. (12) Joshua Piles/Pyles (Haplo J2: 1 member. Paper trail ends at John Piles/Pyles (spelled as Pyles in 1850 Census for Washington Co., PA), born approximately 1786 in Pennsylvania, died 1873. First J2 haplogroup member in the study; predicted as such by first 12 markers. As sole J2 haplogroup member, not genealogically related to any members of the other genetic families.