H4 mtGenome

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About us

The frequency of each of the mtDNAhaplogroups (under H4) and the birth locations of our earliest maternalancestor gathered from the project in  February8th 2018  (the focus is onEurope origins so USA or unknown birth locations not listed in this part of thetable, only in the second part below). The bold numbers are where they are larger numbers and it is to draw the eye to them.

H4 7                                         (Italy1, Armenia 2, Croatia 1, Germany 1, Romania1)

H4a 3                                       (CzechRepublic 1, Slovakia 1)

H4a1 41                                  (Austria1, Bulgaria 1, Czech Republic 1,England 9, France 4, Germany 5, Italy 2, Lebanon 1, Poland 1, Slovakia 1, Spain1,Sweden 1) NB no Ireland

H4a1a 14                                 (Finland1, Germany 4, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Poland 1)

H4a1a1 46                               (England5, Germany 2, Ireland 13,Norway 11, Scotland 1, UK 3)

H4a1a1a 91                             (Bulgaria 1, England 7, Finland 18,France 1, Germany 1, Hungary 3, Ireland 6, Italy 1, Latvia 1, Macedonia1, Norway 2, Poland 1, Russian Fed 3, Scotland 5, Sweden 6, UK 3, Wales 2)

H4a1a1a1a1 7                         (England2, Scotland 1)

H4a1a1a1a 12                         (England2, Germany 2, Hungary 1, Norway 1, Portugal, (Azores) 1, Sweden 3)

H4a1a1a2 3                             (Germany2)

H4a1a1a3 8                             (France1, Germany 1, Poland 1, Portugal 1, Switzerland 1)

H4a1a2 2                                 (England1)

H4a1a2a 13                             (Denmark1, Germany 1, Ireland 4) 

H4a1a2a1 2                             (Germany1)

H4a1a3 4                                 (Ireland1)

H4a1a3a 6                               (France1, Germany 1,  Morocco 1, Norway 1,Ukraine)

H4a1a4a 3

H4a1a4b 43                             (Croatia 1, England 2, Finland 1, Germany 5,Ireland 2, Netherlands 2, Norway 8, Scotland 2, Sweden 6, UK 3)  

H4a1a4b1 2                             (England1)

H4a1a5 3                                 (Denmark,1 Sweden 1)

H4a1a-T195C! 3                      (England 1, Netherlands 1)

H4a1c 2                                   (Sweden2)

H4a1c1 2                                 (Algeria1)

H4a1c1a 14                             (Germany3, Ireland 3, Norway 2, Switzerland 1)

H4a1c2 1                                 (Bulgaria)

H4a1d 1                                  

H4b 2                                       (Iran)

H4b1                                        (Italy)

H4c1 3                                     (Germany1, UK 1)

H4d 3                                       (Italy 1,France 1, Switzerland 1)


By country. To a certain extent the bias in these resultsare due to where maximum numbers of testers live and our ancestors came from,namely USA, UK and Australia and Germany

Algeria                  1                              H4a1ac1

Armenia               2 related              H4

Austria                  1                              H4a1

Bulgaria                3                              Ha1,H4a1a1a, H4a1c2

Canada                 6                              H4a1, H4a1, H4a1a,H4a1a1a

Croatia                  2                              H4, H4a1a4b

Czech Rep           2                              H4a, H4a1

Denmark             2                              H4a1a2a, H4a1a5

England                                29                           H4a1, H4a1a-T195C!, H4a1a1,H4a1a1a, H4a1a1a1a, H4a1a2, H4a1a4b

Finland                 20                           H4a1a, H4a1a1a,H4a1a1a4b

France                  8                              H4a1, H4a1a1a,H4a1a1a3, H4a1a3a, H4d

Germany             30                           H4, H4a1, H4a1a,H4a1a1, H4a1a1a, H4a1a1a1a, H4a1a1a2, H4a1a1a3, H4a1a2a, H4a1a2a1, H4a1a3a,H4a1a4b, H4a1c1a, H4c1

Hungary               4                              H4a1a1a, H4a1a1a1a

Iran                        1                              H4b

Ireland                  31                           H4a1a, H4a1a1, H4a1a1a, H4a1a2a,H4a1a3, H4a1a4b, H4a1c1a

Italy                       8                              H4, H4a1,H4a1a, H4a1a1a, H4b1, H4d

Latvia                    1                              H4a1a1a

Lebanon              1                              H4a1

Macedonia        1                              H4a1a1a

Morocco              1                              H4a1a3a

Netherlands       3                              H4a1a-T195C,H4a1a4b

Norway                                25                           H4a1a1, H4a1a1a, H4a1a3a,H4a1a4b, H4a1c1a, H4a1a1a1a, H4a1a4b

Poland                  5                              H4a1, H4a1a, H4a1a1a, H4a1a1a3, H4a1a4b

Portugal               2                              H4a1a1a1a,H4a1a1a3

Romania              1                              H4

RussianFed        4                              H4a1a1a

Scotland              9                              H4a1a1, H4a1a1a, H4a1a1a1a1, H4a1a4b,H4a1a4b

Slovakia                2                              H4a, H4a1

Spain                    1                              H4a1, H4a1a1a

Sweden                               19                           H4a1, H4a1a1a,H4a1a1a1a, H4a1a4b, H4a1a5, H4a1c,

Switzerland        3                              H4a1a1a3,H4a1c1a, H4d

Ukraine                                1                              H4a1a3a

UK                          11                           H4a1a1, H4a1a1a,H4a1a1a1a, H4a1a4b, H4c1

USA                       21                           H4a, H4a1, H4a1a1, H4a1a1a, H4a1a1a1a1,H4a1a1a3, H4a1a2a, H4a1a3, H4a1a4a, H4a1a4b, H4a1a5

Unknown            25

Wales                    2                              H4a1a1a

In August 2016, frequencies of FTDNA designated mtDNA haplogroups (under H4) of members of the project were:

HG Total

H4 5

H4a 2

H4a1 21

H4a1a 9

H4a1a1 32

H4a1a1a 66

H4a1a1a1a 6

H4a1a1a1a1 4

H4a1a1a2 3

H4a1a1a3 4

H4a1a2 2

H4a1a2a 8

H4a1a2a1 2

H4a1a3 4

H4a1a3a 3

H4a1a4a 3

H4a1a4b 34

H4a1a4b1 2

H4a1a5 2

H4a1a-T195C! 2

H4a1c 1

H4a1c1 10

H4a1d 1

H4b 1

H4c1 2

There is no scientific reason why so many of us are in the 3 sub-clades marked in bold above, namely H4a1a1, H4a1a1a and H4a1a4b except our initial expansion must have been at a period of high population growth. The ancient DNA has told us that in Behar's date the reality is in the older part of the range so H4a1a1 becomes 8700 to 6600 years ago, H4a1a1a becomes 7700 to 5900 years ago and H4a1a4b becomes 5100 to 3500 years ago. These dates correspond to the first crop based farming with animal raisng for meat and wool and then the second dairy farming revolution. So we will expect to see H4a1a1(a) in early farmers and H4a1a4b in late farmers and early bronze age populations.

Registering your mutations with GenBank

The world-wide scientific data base holds all the mtDNA mutations that go to make up the phylotree. Esko has found some predicted new groups for some members of this project, but they will not become actual new branches until they are available to be built into the phylotree on the next build. To have your mutations included in the next build you need to upload them to GenBank. That way you are contributing to the science!

Ian Logan offers a web based program which makes it easy and Judith has tried it and it is indeed straight-forward.


New papers and the implications for us

A large number of ancient DNA samples from archaeological sites have recently been published and it helps our interpretation of how H4 dispersed through Europe a little.

We are a fairly rare haplogroup so we need large samples before saying that there are no H4 in any particular geographical area. A further 100+ samples from the early farmers in Hungary and surrounding Central Europe areas are now available(http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2017/03/06/114488.full.pdf) and there is no H4. Plenty of H however and so either we were not there,or the authors did not test the control region which identifies us, and therefore we seem to be just H.

So assuming first that we are not in Neolithic Hungary means that the early farmer dispersal was through the Mediterranean to Spain via the Balkans and Cardial ware (a pottery style) was the first visible migration. Throughout the Neolithic the proportion of H women in Spain increased gradually over time from 5% to 40%(like the present day), so the H women were in the population which expanded fastest. She may have come direct from the Anatolia (Turkey) and the Levant region or be a local hunter gather from Spain or the Balkans who joined the farmers. Then there was a slower migration back through into Central Europe.

When the raw data from this paper is also public then we can see whether they tested the control region or not. The migration pattern is much simpler if we, as early farmers, left Anatolia going through Hungary into Central Europe with the main migration.


Farming reached the Baltic States, Finland and Scandinavia very much later because of both the more northerly climate and the abundance of natural resources such as fisheries to support hunter-gathering for much longer. There is a further recent paper which says that in Estonia the first farmers of the Corded ware culture http://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/03/02/112714?%3Fcollection=.Here the men came from the Steppe (present day Ukraine) and further east and the women from Anatolia, but no H4 (but only 8 samples). In next door Lithuania however a bronze age man from 900BC was H4a1a1a3 and R1a etc http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/03/03/113241 and there was no early farmer component just Steppe and Western Hunter-gatherer, like the modern population.

So we have lots more information, and the easiest interpretation is that we are an early farmer haplogroup which spread throughout Europe very early on. But as more data is discovered and released this story will get better refined.

Clusters of H4a1a1a

I am gradually going through our most populous sub-clade of H4a1a1a and trying to form clusters of people, to supplement the sub-clade identifying mutations work. This is from a spread sheet that I downloaded on 19thJuly 17

H4a1a1a clusters

Original: the members who have about 100+ GD=0 matches

HVR1: A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, C16519T

HVR2: C146T, C152T, C195T, A247G, 309.1C, 315.1C

Coding region: A769G, A825t, A1018G, G2706A, A2758G, C2885T, T3594C, C3992T, A4024G, G4104A, T4312C, T5004C, T7028C,G7146A, T7256C, A7521G, G8269A, T8468C, T8655C, G8701A, G9123A, C9540T,A10044G, G10398A, T10664C, A10688G, C10810T, C10873T, C10915T, A11719G, A11914G, T12705C, G13105A, G13276A, T13506C, T13650C, C14365T, A14582G, T14766C

I believe this is the original H4a1a1a mutation from which the other H4a1a1a people descend and they have had no further mutation in the about 6000 years since this sub-clade formed. Some of us have up to 5 further mutations.

So all of your more recent ancestors will also have these mutations, and hence be GD=0, but having this mutation set does not mean that your mutual ancestry is recent, it could be very remote in time, up to about 6000years.

19 members out of 357 members have this combination and they are listed by kit number below

489407, 45095, 510241, 505356, 506262, B70656, B45883, N113882, 676475, 81223, 99322, 331423, 359425, 353274, 34509, 207418, N7109,N33683, N85078

Of these 19 the Old World location of the maternal ancestor is UK (England Wales Scotland) and Ireland 9, Finland 5, unknown (mostly USA) 5

Added to this 19 are a further 18+ who are just one mutation away from this original H4a1a1a state. But not all people have the same single mutation difference, four members have a mutation which is at present unique.When it is not unique with several members and the cluster has enough people registered with GenBank then it has its’s own sub-clade name such as H4a1a1a1for example.

The singletons (unique ones) are minus 152T  on HVR2 (kit 479744-Hungary), and in the coding region minus 8269A ( kit 382594- Finland), A12956G (kit 509429-Finland), A9046R (kit 329029 -Unknown).