H4 mtGenome

  • 635 members

About us

Ancient DNA

Even 10 years ago ancient DNA results for mtDNA were a rarity but now there are many more being published in the technical literature. Now full genomes are available too which gives an even more detailed understanding of where people have come from. It is changing the overall understanding of people movement in pre-history.

The Eupedia states that H4 was not found in Europe before the Bronze Age and that is from the ancient DNA found at the time of writing. But the situation is always changing and the Spanish early farmer  result of Olade in the table below changes that statement.

A fun thing to do is to use GEDmatch and the files for the ancient DNA to find out how much you personally match some prehistoric and also later historic populations. This uses autosomal DNA rather than mitochondria, but that might help us know which original population we match to best, which is useful if your genealogy is from a focused area. European populations have been found to be made up of 4 basic original populations, a Western Hunter Gatherer (WHG), Northern Hunter Gatherer (NHG), and early Neolithic farmers (ENE), and Steppe herders, the Yamnaya. The farmers include both the Eastern Hunter gather (EHG) and ones from the Caucasus. The Yamnaya also include the Eastern and Caucasian hunters.

The British Isles are made up of Celtic tribes, Saxons and Vikings overlaid onto the earlier pre-historic structure. Samples of Saxon,Celtic and Scandinavian Vikings are also in GEDmatch.

There are some H4 people from the Bronze Age too, and their details are below. Eventually we may get their aDNA results loaded into GEDmatch so that we can play with them too.

This web page describes the samples in more detail http://www.y-str.org/p/ancient-dna.html  

 

You could try using a very small match threshold of 50 SMP and 1.5cM and compare your aDNA results (or your mother’s)  on the one to one compare tool as well as the general fun compare to all archaic DNA link on the top menu.

FTDNA now offer an ancient DNA button for your autosomal DNA and it does all the arithmetic for you and gives you the finished percentages of hunter gatherer, farmer or bronze age steppes (metal age invader). But you can not choose the samples that are the most relevant for you. If you are Scandinavian only the Northern Hunter gather is relevant for example.

Summary of useful samples

 

GEDmatch no

Represents

mtDNA

Age ago, years

 

Motala 12

F999917

NHG

U21e

7000

Sweden

Loschbour

F999918

WHG

U5b1a

8000

Luxemburg

NE1

F99937

ENE early farmer

U5b2c

7200

Hungary

Samara

M218547

EHG

 

 

Russia

Rise 552

F99946

Yamnaya

T2a1a

4000

Steppe, Russia

BR2

F999933

Late Bronze age

K1a1a

3200

Hungary

Corded ware

Rise 1

 

M669778

Late bronze Age

 

 K1b1a1

 4700

Poland

Ballynhatty

M427312

Early Irish

 

5100

Ireland

Raithin Island

M232268

Bronze Age Irish

 

3800

Ireland

Hinxton 4

F999925

Briton

 

2000

Cambridgeshire UK

Hinxton 5

F999926

Saxon

 

1300

Rise 174

F999943

Viking

 

1500

Sweden

HG


Author & Journal

Site found and   ID

Age

 

 

Culture

H4a1a1a2

M396326

Nature 2015

Unetice EUL41A

4000

 

Unetice EBA

H4a1a4

 

 Fernandes 2016

 JAZ 1

 late bronze


 Croatia


H4a1a M285637 Olade 2015 Cova de l'Or G21 6300 H3C6 Cardial Ware

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Jaz 1 above looks like the modern Bulgarian population, so it is virtually local.


The ones below are only mtDNA (so far) so can not be played with on GEDmatch, but it is useful to see the early spread

HG


Author & Journal

Site found and   ID

Age

 

 

Culture

 H4a1

 Germany

 Nature 2015

 Quedlinburg XII1

 3800

 

 Bell Beaker

 H4a1

 Germany

 Brotherton

 Quedlinburg XII2

 3650

 

 Bell Beaker

 H4a1a

 Portugal 

 Olade 2015

 Almonda F19

 7250

 

 Cardial ware


 H4a1a

 East Spain

 Olade 2015

 Cova de l'Or G21

 7300

 

 Cardial ware

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Olade 2015

http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/09/23/molbev.msv181.full

Fernandes 2016 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303044230_Preliminary_results_of_a_prehistoric_human_ancient_DNA_time_series_from_coastal_and_hinter land_Croatia

Brotherton 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978205/

There are more samples of these early bronze age people in GEDmatch if you find it a fun investigation. Search Anthrogenica.com or ask the admins for more information.