This is my analysis of the results of the Kits which have been tested. I am not a specialist in this field and my results are based on my knowledge of the genealogy and history of the various Lumsden families and individuals (Archie Lumsden).
As at 25 May 2022 tests have been carried out on 57 male Lumsdens, plus eleven non-Lumsden surname. The results so far fall into four groups with a total of seven sub-groups. Three haplogroups have been identified, I - M325, R - P25 and R- M269. Results have been received from Lumsdens and non-Lumsdens who, at present, do not match the other groups or with each other. These will be included as a separate group 3 until further evidence emerges.
Group 1a - Haplogroup R - P25
This is a family group, all members having a known relationship to one another and are all members of the group with the oldest known Lumsden history. They have a common ancestor in Gilbert Lumden of Blanerne who received charter of that estate in 1329. This family was a branch of the original Lumsdens of Lumsdaine, who are recorded using the surname in 1170. We refer to these members as "the historic Lumsdens".
Kits 96922 and 80086 have a common ancestor in Captain William Lumsdaine of Innergellie (1792-1830) and have an identical 25 marker match to one another.
Kits 72159, 72828 and 102419 are also descended from Gilbert Lumsden and are members of the Aberdeenshire Lumsdens.
They have a common ancestor in Hary Lumsden of Pitcaple (1753-1833) and 72159 has an identical 25 marker match to 96922 and 80086. 72828 and 102419 differ by only the one same marker from the other three members of this group.
Group 1b - Haplogroup R - P25
The Members of this group have no proven record of a descent from the historic Lumsdens but the DNA results show a close genetic relationship.
Group 1c Haplogroup R - P25
Another family group, all appear to be descended from George Lumsden who lived in the North America about 1730s but closely related to Group 1a
Group 2a Haplogroup R - M269
Another family group, all having a common ancestor, John Lumsden, who lived in about 1730 in North America. It was thought at one time that there was a relationship with the members of Group 1c, but the DNA results rule this out.
Group 2b Haplogroup R - M269
There is no recorded relationship between these members, but from the DNA results, they appear to have a common ancestry.
Group 3 - A mixture of Lumsdens and Non-Lumsdens. From the DNA evidence it is not possible to allocate these members at present to a specific group.
Group 4 Haplogroup M - 253
These members are not all related by paper record, but show a close DNA and geographical relationship.
Summary Group 4 – It is interesting that there seems to be a strong connection in this group. It is probable that these members had a common ancestor in about 600AD. Further results are required to gain more understanding of the relationship between these lines. The I1a haplogroup was in the Balkans area at the end of the Ice Age and moved north into Northern Europe. There is no way they can be related to the R1b1 Lumsdens in the last 20,000 years. This haplogroup comprises about 15% of the present Scottish male population and must have arrived in as either Mesolithic settlers or in the waves of Norse/Anglo-Saxon invaders in the period after the fall of the Roman occupation. The surname was probably adopted.