When the results for certain Y-DNA tests began to be returned from the Lab designated as belonging to haplogroup F or F*, there was a great amount of skepticism as to whether these results were indeed F, or in fact whether F (xGHIJK) actually existed. Much of this opinion centered on the fact the few results designated as F usually showed great similarities to modal haplotypes of other haplogroups (usually G,I or J), while sharing few similarities with each other. And indeed, as it turns out, many of these initial Fs did in fact turn out be members of other haplogroups. This issue was discussed in detail by Whit Athey in the following article: http://www.jogg.info/12/Pitfalls.pdf But since this article was published, more F has been reported, and these remaining haplotypes have shown a level of affinity that suggest they do indeed belong in the same haplogroup. Currently, a partial list of surnames with their number of confirmed or predicted F results would include the following: BAGHDOYAN (1), BERRY (1), BOYER (1), BOYT/BOYETT(E) (34), BOND (8), BROWN (2), BUURSINK (1), CRITCHLEY (2), JIMENEZ (1), (2), LAZAR (1), PHELPS (1), BUTLER (1),COE (2), CLARKE (2), CRAWFORD (1), DUBOVOS (1), FISHER (1), GARTH (1), GIESSEL (1), GRALL (1), HEIDA (1), JONES (1), KEPPLER (3), KEUNING (1), LARSEN (1), LEWIS (1), MALLETT (2), MOHNS (1), OFFLEY (3), OVERSTREET (1), REGENBURGH (1), REEVES (2), ROOT (1), ROSE (1), RÖTHLISBERGER (1),SADLE (1), SCHUSKE (1), SHARP (4), SLAGLE (1),TOLLIVER (2), TOWNSEND (1), WALKER (1), WISE (1),WRIGHT (1), and YOCKEL (1) Most of the haplotypes represented by these surnames are fairly close matches, and display several common characteristics, including a typical 17-17 or 18-18 pattern at YCA II (a)(b). Among known or predicted Fs are the following counties of paternal origin: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Scotland, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and Wales. Displaying Users with Haplogroup F at YSearch.org In addition, there are 6 additional haplotypes at Ysearch labeled as F or F* - J5TUC, 49SYZ (PILLAI), N64772 (FERNANDES), D8H9M, F769Q and 97RA8, which do not match as closely with the other F haplotypes. This suggests that they may belong to another haplogroup, or at least a different subclade of F from the others. It is interesting to note that 5 of these haplotypes indicate origin in South Asia, a fact which tends to cast doubt on the view that F in Europe is the result of imperial era contact with the subcontinent. Of course, further testing should help resolve many of these questions.