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About us

Eesti projekt on duaalne, hõlmates nii Y-DNA (meesliin) kui ka mtDNA (naisliin). Peamiselt on projekt loodud ja suunatud etnilistele eestlastele, kelle kaugeim dokumentaalselt tõestatav isaliin ja/või emaliin (piisab ühe liini kriteeriumi täitmisest) on geograafiliselt pärit tänapäeva Eesti territooriumilt või piirialadelt, mis ei pruugi enam kuuluda tänapäeva Eesti Vabariigi koosseisu.

Kuna naistel puudub Y kromosoom, ei ole võimalik isapoolset Y haplogruppi teada saada, ilma enda isa või muu meesliini sugulast (samast isast põlvnev vend, isapoolsed onud, vanaisa, vanaonud jne) testimata.

Kahjuks ei ole üldse või on väga vähe avaldatud konkreetselt eestlaste kohta käivaid või neid kas või puudutavaid uurimusi Y-DNA ja mtDNA haplogruppide jaotuse kohta populatsioonis. Eeldusel, et käesoleva Eesti projektiga liitub tulevikus piisav hulk eestlasi, et neid andmeid võiks küllalt representatiivseks pidada, on võimalik saada selles aspektis selgem ettekujutus. Erinevate valdkondade teadlased üle maailma rekonstrueerivad spetsiifiliste Y-DNA ja mtDNA haplogruppide ja vanaDNA andmeid kaasates võimalikke populatsioonide rändeid teatud geograafilistel aladel, seostavad neid iidsete arheoloogiliste kultuuridega ja kunagi elanud hõimudega, kellest tänapäeva inimesed põlvnevad. Mõned hüpoteesid Y-DNA ja mtDNA haplogruppide jaotuse kohta eestlastel on väljatoodud allpool.

Meesliini pidi (tähed-numbrid tähistavad ühise esiisa järglasi) jagunevad eestlased Y-kromosoomi järgi haplogruppidesse:

N1c1a 34–40,6%; 
R1a1 32–37,3%;
I 18–18,6% (sh I1 15%);
R1b 8–9%

ja tühise osakaaluga E1b1b, J, T(+L) ja Q jne (Wikipedia).

Eestlastele lähedane Y-DNA haplogruppide jaotus esineb Läti, Leedu, Karjala ja Põhja-Vene meestel.

Naisliini pidi (tähed-numbrid tähistavad ühist esiema) jagunevad eestlased mtDNA haplogruppidesse:

H 43,5–49,3% (neist H1+H3 19%);
U 24,5–26,9% (sh U4 5,7% U5a 10%, U5b 4,3%);
J 10–10,3%;
T 7,8–8,0%

ja samuti vähesel määral V, K, I, W, X2 (Eupedia, 2013).

Eesti naiste ja nende laste (ka soomlaste ja saamide) jagunemist mtDNA haplogruppide järgi iseloomustab kõrge U-liini esindatus. Teiste liinide osakaalu poolt on eestlased, soomlased ja saamid üsna erinevad.


Family Tree DNA learning center:
Family Tree DNA webinars:    

ISOGG algajatele mõeldud juhendid:'_guides_to_genetic_genealogy

Geneetilise genealoogia mõisted ja nende seletused võib leida siit:

Wikipedia on samuti suhteliselt usaldusväärne geneetilise genealoogia allikas.


The Estonia project is a dual Y-DNA (paternal) / mtDNA (maternal) project, which is mainly created for ethnic Estonians, descended from paternal and/or maternal line from families that have their earliest-known origins in what is now Estonia. Over past centuries, territory of Estonia or parts of it belonged politically at various times to: German crusaders' and their descendants' states, Kingdom of Denmark, various Christian bishops, Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Sweden and Russian Empire. Populations moved to and from the neighbouring states of Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Finland. DNA of families of Estonian origin could exhibit Finno-Ugric, Baltic, Western European, Eastern European or other characteristics. This group will allow those who have a family ethnic and geographic origin in Estonia to compare their DNA with that of their geographic neighbours and, possibly, find family matches.

How to join if you have already tested with FTDNA:
1) log in to your FTDNA account with your kit number and password;
2) click “my FTDNA home”;
3) click “join project”;
4) write Estonia in the search field;
5) click the highlighted project name “Estonia”;
6) click “request to join” at the bottom of the page, with an additional comment on your direct paternal/maternal line.


1. You must have a test result with Family Tree DNA (FTDNA). To read more about Y DNA testing check the DNA FAQ item in the menu above. National Genographic Project testers can easily join, but first you must transfer your test results to FTDNA by following the instructions at your National Genographic web page. Genographic customers, like all members, must order Y STRs or they will not appear on the project screens and in the Y matching system.

2. Update your myFTDNA dashboard by clicking on "PERSONAL PROFILE". This is critical to finding potential relatives and understanding origins.

2.1. Make sure your privacy settings are correct for the project. Click on the tab PRIVACY & SHARING. Look under MY DNA RESULTS for the question "Who can view my DNA results in group projects?". Change to ANYONE, if not already.

2.2. Update your paternal & maternal ancestor name and origins. Click on the tab PERSONAL PROFILE tab and scroll down to update your paternal & maternal origins information from the MyFTDNA dashboard after logged into. Select MOST DISTANT ANCESTORS and complete the information for your PATERNAL DIRECT most distant (oldest) ancestor and do the same for MATERNAL DIRECT ancestor. Please enter only information that is not speculative. Enter first and last names, birth year and as specific a birth and origin location as you can in the NAME field. For the COUNTRY OF ORIGIN field, please pick ESTONIA (in most cases). Add the latitude and longitude information as well so that the automatic maps can be drawn properly.

Male members, who have not yet tested at least to 37 or better to 67 Y STRs (Short Tandem Repeats), please upgrade. It is hard to discern between subgroups and potential relatives oftentimes without 67 STRs. 111 STR testing is clearly preferable and a better deal in terms of cost per STR, but 67 is the minimum needed. To learn more, read

More STRs can help...
a) identify your signature markers, guiding you on SNP/haplogroup testing and saving money on that kind of testing;
b) provide additional and better matches on your myFTDNA matches screen, even new matches can show up;
c) improve precision for Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) estimates:
d) and going all the way to 111 Y STRs supports family tree building when you reach brick walls in your genealogy, since the 111 STR panel is estimated to have a change once every three generations.

4. Male members could move forward with an Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) testing plan so your subclade can be identified and haplogroup labeled properly. Evaluating matches you have at 67 or 111 STRs can be very helpful and should not be overlooked. Clear patterns among your best matches may help you decide what SNPs or SNP Packs to buy.

SNPs can be ordered one at a time from FTDNA by logging into your myFTDNA account, selecting the blue UPGRADES button and then scrolling down to the ADVANCED TESTS box and the BUY NOW button. SNP Packs can also be ordered here.

Big Y is the preferred test.  It is probably the most important test you can take. It is a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) test that discovers new SNPs by scanning over 10 million locations on the Y chromosome. The tremendous benefit in this is you will discover SNPs for just your paternal lineage as well as identify ancient SNPs that you may share with many, many other people. Big Y has the ability to discover SNPs that are pertinent to the genealogical timeframe, the last couple of hundred years. The Big Y learning web site has more details. Please read the Lewis and Clark Expedition analogy for Big Y exploration on the FAQ page.


Family Tree DNA learning center:
Family Tree DNA webinars:    

ISOGG beginner's guide to genetic genealogy:'_guides_to_genetic_genealogy

A glossary for those unfamiliar with the terminology used by genetic genealogists can be found at:

Wikipedia is also relatively reliable source for information on genetic genealogy.