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About us

This project began as an outgrowth of the research of the administrators of the Beatty, Burns, and McLaughlin surname projects. The administrators of these projects noted that certain families in their projects had extremely similar DNA test results suggesting common ancestry prior to the adoption of surnames. Later they learned that most of these men receive similar and distinctive results if they order the test known as the DYS464X test, and they realized that use of the DYS464X test could help them confirm many of the relationships between their families and others with similar DNA results. The number of men whose test results suggest that they are members of this cluster of families is quite large, and men from many of these families have tested and received the distinctive "2c2g" results that are the norm for this group, but are quite uncommon in the larger R1b haplogroup which includes it. We use the names BeatyByrnesMcLaughlin cluster, BeatyByrnes cluster, and Leinster cluster to refer to this group. To find out more about early research on the Leinster cluster, please visit the following website:


The DYS464X test used by the project was developed by Thomas Krahn, who is a scientist with FTDNA. The test returns data on the same DYS464 markers that are tested by FTDNA's 25, 37, and 67 marker tests, but additional information is included in DYS464X results. Most men in our project receive distinctive "2c2g" results on the DYS464X test, while an overwhelming majority of men in Haplogroup R1b receive "3c1g" results on the test. Because the "2c2g" configuration is so uncommon, it is unlikely that two men with similar test results overall would share "2c2g" results unless they were related. This fact makes "2c2g" results on the DYS464X test a good confirmation that men with similar haplotypes are related. For more details on the DYS464X test, please read the last section of this page. There are men with 2c2g test results whose haplotypes (test results) do not closely match those of the men thought to be members of the BeattyByrnesMcLaughlin cluster. We call these men unclustered 2c2gs, because we do not know whether any of them inherited their 2c2g DNA from common ancestors. With additional data, it may be possible to group some of these unclustered 2c2gs together into additional 2c2g clusters, and it may also become possible to classify some as members of the BeatyByrnesMcLaughlin group.

Researchers of the BeattyByrnesMcLaughlin cluster have been able to develop a DNA profile, or modal haplotype, which shows the most common results at each marker for the men known to be members of the group. This profile is called the Leinster Modal, because early research showed that many families in Leinster in Ireland are members of the group. The group also appears to be plentiful in other parts of Ireland and Scotland, and there seem to be a number of English matches to the modal as well. Some historical records suggest that the ancestors of some of the Irish and British lines came from Gaul about 2,000 years ago, while some of the surnames indicate Norman ancestry for at least a portion of the group. One member of the cluster with an Irish line and a French surname, Gaston, does have a family tradition of Norman origins. Some of our recent research has focused on looking for cluster members with a known origin on the continent of Europe. See our News page for the latest updates.

Because the DYS464X test is not part of the standard Y chromosome DNA tests, many 2c2g men have no idea that they are 2c2g. Those whose DNA test results match the results of one of our Beatty-Byrnes cluster members or one of the unclustered 2c2g members of our project are encouraged to join the project and order the DYS464X test through the Advanced Orders system at FTDNA. This test is relatively inexpensive, at a cost of $18.00, with a one-time $9.50 transfer fee for those customers who have never used the Advanced Orders system before. If you wish to order this test online, go to your personal page at FTDNA, select the Order Tests and Upgrades option, select Advanced Orders, check the box marked Advanced, scroll down the page to Y-STR DNA-FP Panel 5 Palindromic Pack, check the box labeled DYS464X, click on the Next button at the bottom of the page, and continue in a similar fashion through the remaining pages to complete your order. You may also order by phone, and if you need assistance, please do not hesitate to contact one of the project administrators. Most men in the Beatty-Byrnes Cluster who have been tested for the L159 SNP which was discovered in a sample from one of our project members have been found to be L159+. Men with positive results for this SNP should definitely join the R-L159 project, and any who do not have DYS464X results should also do DYS464X testing. For more information on R-L159, please visit the R-L159 project website:


Some of the historical questions that the project may be able to help answer include: 1. Were the Lagin of Ireland related to the Dumnonii of W Scotland and SW England? 2. Did the Lagin originate from Armorica? 3. Were the Brigantes of N. England related to the Lagin & Dumnonii? 4. Were the Brigantes of N. England related to the Brigantes in E. Ireland on Ptolemy’s map?

This research cannot be carried out via YSearch as individuals are not able to enter their Advanced Test results. It therefore seems that an FTDNA Y-DNA Geographical project would be the most appropriate method to enable accurate data capture, analysis and reporting on DYS464x ccgg distribution and relationships. The project is working in co-operation with the contributors to the 2c2g database of all 2c2g individuals being gathered at: The Group Website http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Beatty_Byrnes_DNA

The DYS464X Test

There are two types of DYS464 marker, and the DYS464X test is able to distinguish the two types. Some have the amino acid cytosine at a particular position, while others have the amino acid guanine at that postion. Those that have cytosine are referred to as c type alleles, and those containing guanine are called g type alleles. Most men in the R1b1b2 haplogroup have 3 c type alleles and one g type allele, and are said to be 3c1g. Men who have 2 of each type of allele are said to be 2c2g. The test does not directly link the repeat counts and types to their physical locations on the Y chromosome, but the lab can associate the repeat count and type for each marker. For instance, the lab might see the following results: c type: 15, 15, 17 g type: 17 Results are reported in alphanumeric order, using the repeat counts followed by the letters c and g to show the types. There are two standard ways to report the results. For the above results, the standard notation would say: 15c-15c-17c-17g OR DYS464a 15c DYS464b 15c DYS464c 17c DYS464d 17g The order of the c and g type alleles in alphanumeric order may be used to classify the results. The above result is cccg, as well as 3c1g.