Dymond, Diamond, Dimond
The Clove, Beekman Patent New York Province
(Y6131 is the Dymen lineage terminal SNP)
Updated: 11.15.2017On this page:
I. Purpose and Method
II. Dymen of Hudson’s River Y DNA Project History
III. Edward Dymen Lineage Pre-History
IV. Pre-Historic Lineage Genetics
V. Dymen of Hudson’s River Published Outlines
VI. Dymen Lineage Historic Era
(Please report any error of fact on these pages)
I. Purpose and Method
The study is uses yDNA technology in combination with traditional research to confirm direct descendancy from Edward Dymen1700, and to better understand branch linkage among early patriarchs in an era where there are few, if any, records. It is a means to bring cousins together that family history may be shared. Participation from all branches is needed and welcome. Even if you find that your branch line already has a participant in the study, it could be that your participation will greatly aid our research and understanding.
Contact the study managers to discuss whether your participation makes sense.
Y DNA testing participation, though welcomed and encouraged, is not required. We would like to hear from you if you have branch family information to share, or to correct/add to our Lineages histories, or to discuss the project. Please feel free to post on MyGroups.
II. Dymen of Hudson's River Y DNA Project History
The introduction of yDNA technology as a tool in 2002 led, in 2003, to the yDNA study of the D*mon(d) surname in colonial America. The goal was to learn whether any of these early family groups were/are linked. This goal was reached in the spring of 2007.
In July 2007 the Dymond Lineage of Hudson's River Study was created and spun off the greater Diamond Surname Study to focus attention on the primary lineage of interest. The greater Diamond and surname variant study is ongoing and currently has identified over 25 unique paternal linages.
Link to Diamond and Diamond variants Surname Project at FTDNA
Between 2007 and 2009, a second signature among the Stephentown, New York D*mond families was discovered. Previously researchers assumed they were members of the Edward Dymen (Dimond) lineage.
In 2011 a second Dymond/Diamond paternal lineage, as defined by Y chromosome DNA, was discovered to have been living in the vicinity at the same time as the Edward Dymen lineage. This second lineage has colonial maritime roots in Newfoundland, the Gulf of Maine, Boston, and Albany, NY. It has been determined that the Stephentown branch of the lineage goes to Greenbush NYP in the 1770s. They later spread to Albany, Sand Lake, and Stephentown. The lineage has now been linked, by yDNA, to Devon, England which may be the origin of this family of D*mond's.
In 2015 the Greenbush NY, Newfoundland, Devon lineage was spun off the the Dymond of Hudson’s project to a project of its own. Newfoundland-Dimond
Link to Dimond of Newfoundland-New England-Devon, England
III. Edward Dymen Lineage Pre-History
The lineage is rooted in Northeastern Archaic cultural region, either the Maritime or Lake Forest Culture who inhabited the region 8k to 3k years before present. Their ancestors migrated from the Columbian Plateau east to the Atlantic coast and spread from Labrador and Newfoundland south to North Carolina and extending west to northern Wisconsin and the UP of Michigan, surrounding the Great Lakes and along both sides of the St. Lawrence Valley.
About 3700 years BP the Susquehanna tradition emerged and expanded east to the mid Atlantic region. A sudden expansion northward to the Gulf of Maine resulted in the Maritime tradition being somewhat replaced by Susquehanna culture adaptations from the Mid-Atlantic coast.
About 500 CE Algonquian speaking population stretched from Manitoba eastward across the Great Lakes to the coast of Northern New England. The inhabitants of the Gulf of Maine began migrating back southward retracing their earlier advance north. The Appalachian Mountains was the western boundary. The expansion brought adoption of adapted Meso-american maize, bean, and squash cultivars suited to shorter growing seasons. The result was those to the north remained nomadic hunter gatherers and those to the south a more stationary existence.
About 650 CE a population we know today as Iroquoian migrated northward into central Pennsylvania and New York west of the Hudson River and eventually the full length of the St. Lawrence River Valley. The Algonquian population was thus separated into east and west. The closest known relations of the Iroquoian are the Cherokee having separated into two distinct groups about 3500 to 4000 years ago. Iroquoian Archaic root is distinct from the Algonquian having come from the southeast and south.
The Little Ice Age, 1430 CE, brought tribal competition, migratory shifts, and conflict resulting in the tribal confederacies of the 1500s. Population estimates of Native New England at the time of European contact are 160,000 to 190,000. In the years following contact Algonquian and Iroquoian societies collapsed as Bands were displaced by European colonial expansion. Some cultures dwindled to extinction while others, those that survived colonial wars and disease, became refugees adopted into reconstructed tribes. Tribal genetics became even more heterogeneous.
Y Chromosome genetics *cannot* define or identify tribal affiliations. Y chromosome genetics can be used to create a phylogeny or tree of descent that in some cases be associated with cultural groups but it is imperative to understand that specific cultural groups may very well contain members associated with other genetic subclades due to Native Life Ways, trade networks, and historic dislocation explaining geographic genetic outliers among historic historic lineages. Dating is a critical factor.
IV. Prehistoric Lineage Genetics
The existence of a coastal Algonquian genetic Y chromosome subclade based on Short Tandem Repeats (STR) phylogeny was known in 2006. A model was constructed using infinite allele mutational model of Y chromosome haplogroup Q-M3 known to be composed exclusively of Pre-Columbian Amerindians. The data set was based on 35 marker STR haplotypes and run with 95% probability, a mutation rate of 0.044, and 30 years per generation. Phylip v3.65 using Kitsch program and the Fitch-Maroliash method with a random seed of 9 and 99 jumbles. The model was then drawn with Mega v.3.1. Sixty haplotypes primarily from North and Central America were used. Dating based on 111 marker haplotypes in 2014 indicates the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) between the Algonquian subclade members is 110 generations. The age estimates are calculated using ASD method (ie. quadratic). The result calculation is 3350 years ago. (D. Adamov) The Dymen ancestral haplotype is separated from our time by about 300 years so it is necessary to add an additional 150 years resulting in a MRCA time of ~3500 years BP placing it at the Late Archaic-Early Woodland boundary.
In 2013 NextGen Micro-Array Sequencing was utilized among haplogroup Q men to test for known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and to discover new SNPs. Chip Build 37 (GRCh37) was used with Gene By Gene’s Big Y test and Full Genomes Elite Y test. The reference sequence GRCh37 is a reference genome or reference assembly digital nucleic acid sequence database.
Raw data .bam files were analyzed by YFull. These results were then added to the experimental tree based on the 1000 Genomes Project, ISOGG tree and other Big Y and Full Y testers.
The results identified 64 SNPs defining an Algonquian Subclade, tentatively named Q-Y-4273, but with more granularity than the previous STR analysis. Each Algonquian rooted lineage discovered potential lineage defining SNPs.
The Naumkeag-Wampanog rooted Dymen lineage NextGen sequenced five participants. Descendants of each of Edward Dymen’s1700 sons, Johannes1723, Marcus1726, and Jacob1744 were represented. From Johannes1723 an additional descendant was tested for a the purpose of learning the utility of testing 5th cousins from the same ancestor. In this case descendants from Johannes1723 grandson Henry1772. The overall result was that 27 SNPs were discovered that tentatively define the 300 year old Dymen lineage and is considered a success. The more granular cousins study looking for branch SNPs was not especially successful using Gene By Gene’s BigY. Full Genomes Elite sequencing produced 25% more SNPs and holds better promise for branch SNP definition. It seems that Big Y tentatively defined 1 SNP per 150 to 175 years where as Full Y Elite defines ~1 per 90 years.
V. Dymen of Hudson's River Published Outlines
At the outset the paternal linage outline was based primarily on three publications. They included:
Genealogy of the Dymond, Williams and Related Families 1981 by Robert H. Dymond covering the Luzerne County, PA branch [An expanded version now exists].
DIAMONDS ARE FOREVER by Herbert James Malone, presented to United Empire Loyalist Archives, Adolphustown, 1992 covered the Fredericksburgh, Ontario branch.
The Settlers of the Beekman Patent, Dutchess County, Historical and Genealogical Study of All the 18th Century Settlers in the Patent Vol.4 by Frank Doherty This is an amalgamation of the earlier two works with Doherty's research related to the Settlers of Beekman Patent in Dutchess County, NY.
The lineage as theorized in the Settlers of Beekman Patent begins with Edward Dimond of Beekman Patent. His sons were, Johannes1723, Marcus1726, and Jacob1744. This version was built on the two previous publications and includes the author’s document research in Dutchess County, NY. All three genealogies while close contain major errors and omissions as now proved through more recent document research and descendant yDNA testing.
There are now hundreds of Edward D*mond lineage genealogies in personal ancestry program files on the World Wide Web based on and parroting the three publications. This is to be expected. Robert H. Dymond in his book states, "A genealogy is never completed, for there are always new events occurring, new discoveries made, and ever-present errors to be corrected. Many defects spring from the very nature of what is attempted and no one can avoid them........."
VI. Dymen Lineage Historic Era
Direct knowledge of specific ancestors prior to Edward is, most likely, forever lost though the search should not be abandon. We can know a great deal about their lives and the times in which they lived through study.
They would have known contact with European seasonal fishermen in the 1500s. Into the 1600s they would have been at the very least aware of, if not part of direct contact with European colonizers.
As the English colonized the New England coast from Maine southward the Dutch took control of the Hudson River Valley. In 1621 a peace pact was signed between Plymouth Pilgrim colonists and the Wampanoag Band of Massachuset. The Massachuset once numbered 3000 in 20 villages in Boston Bay. By 1631 less than 500 had survived.
The first setback to the aboriginal population in North America occurred sixteen years later with the Pequot War, 1637-1638. The war was the result of tensions with the Puritan English of Connecticut and Massachusetts Bay colonies quest to dominate the aboriginal population and take their land. In 1600 it is estimated that the Pequot and Mohegan population was 6000. By the end of the war there were less than 1500. Many of those who survived were executed or sold to slavery. Some were distributed as ‘servants’ to colonial households.
War and the relentless westward migration of European colonists played a large role in the demise of eastern coastal Amerindians, however, epidemics of amoebic dysentery, pleurisy, yellow fever, tuberculosis and measles were major killers of the aboriginal population. The Amerindian Dymen lineage and those other few surviving lineages may very well, to some extent, owe their survival to mixing of Amerindian and European genes. Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), molecules inside most human cells are one of two primary means of defense against disease. European populations have at least 35 HLA classes where as Pre-Columbian Native American had no more than 17 HLA classes. Wherever there was contact with European explorers or colonists near extinction followed in indigenous populations.
Our ancestors were no doubt aware of the Dutch warfare against their cousins in the Hudson River Valley that began in 1643. Beginning in 1652 the English war masters fought a series of wars with the Dutch and French in Europe. The battlefields were not restricted to Europe. The battles were also fought in their colonies around the planet and in all cases aboriginals were inevitably drawn into the conflicts.
In North America in 1664 the English fleet arrived at New Amsterdam and took possession of New Nederlandt. At the end of the third English-Dutch war, 1672-1674, the Dutch Republic ceded New Netherlands to the victorious English. England’s colonial expansion from the Atlantic west to the Hudson River was complete. The lives of the early Dymen lineage members were woven into events that followed over the next one-hundred years.
There is *no* doubt that Edward’s parents experienced Metacomet’s War between 1675 and 1678. This is also known as King Phillip’s War. 1675 was the beginning of the end of independent Amerindian power and civilization in New England.
Metacomet was Sachem (leader)of the Wampanoag’s. Metacomet attempted to rally the bands that made up the tribes of New England in one last attempt to end English colonial theft of their lands and destruction of their Life Ways.
The war raged in Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Rhode Island Colonies, and the length of the Connecticut River valley. In the end 3,000 Native warriors, women, and children were killed. Those Natives not killed fled to bands to the west. Many were sold into slavery and some were taken as servants of New England colonial households. Some Native youngsters were taken by colonial families adopted and raised the ways of the dominant colonial culture. Metacomet was hunted down and killed in a swamp in Rhode Island.
In 1678, there were four European rooted Diamond surname or variant surname family groups in New England. They were settled at Kittery, Marblehead, New London-Fairfield, and Easthampton. All of these groups were linked to the sea by fishing, boat building, rope making, mariner, or a combination of these endeavors. Y chromosome DNA testing of direct descendants of these lineage determined the Connecticut and Long Island families were unrelated. Kittery and Marblehead are an open question at this time. All of these families are recorded as being directly or indirectly involved in by Metacomet’s War. With complete control over the land European families expanded, some left life based on the sea behind and took up plantation life based on agriculture.
There are stray remnants of D*mon(d) surnamed recorded among Natives of the coast and coastal Islands in the Gulf of Maine. Most notably among the Wampanoag of Aquinnah where descendant relations survive today.
The mariner Dimond family of Marblehead, Massachusetts Colony stands out among them.There is lore of a Wampanoag male having been adopted into the family. As with all lore there are conflicting details. We know that in the year 1700 Thomas and Margaret Dimond baptized three boys. One they named Edward.
Edward Dymen of Beekman Patent is first recorded in the year 1723 but we can fill in details of life around him in his first twenty some years of life.
King William’s War (1688-1697). The war ended in this year. It was the first of six colonial wars fought between New England and New France and allied Indians. This war stopped English expansion into southern Maine.
The next year saw a serious malaria outbreak in the Hudson River Valley.
The next of the Indian wars began. Queen Anne’s War in the North American theater was a fight between Britain and France for control over the continent. Fought on three fronts, Native Americans allied with either the English or France and Spain. The English colonies of New England fought the French and Indian’s in Acadia and Quebec. Targeted raids extended down into Massachusetts Colony. The Treaty of Utrecht ended this round but the stage was set for future conflict.
Christian mission work with Indians began in Dutchess County.
The earliest settlers of Dutchess County were the Dutch but Palatines were the first group to settle in Beekman. Other settlers came from Long Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Dutch from NYC, Esopus, and Albany as well as Quakers. The settlers of Beekman Patent were among the first to venture inland backwoods from the river. Census were taken in 1702, 1714, and 1720. Edward Dymen is not recorded among the Dutchess inhabitants in these years.
Edward Dymen is first recorded in the ‘Clove’ near the village of Poughquag with the baptism of his first child, a son named Johannes 17 April 1723, by the Poughkeepsie First Dutch Reformed Church. Edward (Ned) Dymen married Christina Snyder it can be assumed at least as early August of 1722. Christina was the daughter of Johannes Joost (Schneider) Snyder who was born about 1681 Huttengessas and Anna-Elizabeth (Lahmeyer) Meyert born 1682. Anna-Elizabeth’s parents were Marcus Lohmeyer and Magdalena Jacobs also of Huttengessas, Duchy of Hesse.
Marriage records of the Dutch Reformed Church in the region did not began 25 February 1746.
This marks the beginning of a continuous stream of records that detail the Ned Dymen family in the backwoods of what was once home to 8000 Wappinger in 30 villages. By 1720 there were only a few hundred left in the region.
The next one hundred years of family history beginning with tenant farming in the Clove, to the American Revolution, and beyond is written. Segments of family history will be posted to the activity feed of these pages over time.
7th Great-Grandson Edward Dymen