The British Isles and Beyond
  • 344 members

About us

Project Summary
as of September 23, 2018
Updated Annually

See DNA Results in the left sidebar for your Y alleles compared to those of other project members.

The summary on our Haplogroups page was last updated September 7, 2018.

Your Genealogical Matches

Your true genealogical matches are best identified as those with whom you share STR mutations (off a parent haplogroup), within a reasonable genetic distance. The more your alleles match another tester's, the closer you two are.

Some STR marker mutations are more important than others in determining how closely you match. Generally, the slower the mutation rate, the higher the significance. A genealogy cluster (see "Explanation of Y Results Groupings" below) with some of its members showing a mutation on a slow marker, while others do not, could indicate where a lineage split into two branches.

Sometimes it is possible, even at 111 markers, to have matches that are false positives. Two testers experiencing this problem probably belong in conflicting SNP haplogroups. SNP testing would help separate false matches from true ones.

Explanation of Y Results Groupings

There are multiple numbered clusters in the Y results. We categorize them as UNMATCHED, LINEAGE, and PEDIGREE. We may introduce a fourth type: INSUFFICIENT DATA.

UNMATCHED members mean they have no Collins (or project related) surname matches within a significant number of markers tested. There are two possibilities for why this occurs: 1) Very few men have Y tested, let alone men named Collins. It is entirely possible that none of your genealogical relatives have tested. This is probably the most likely. 2) Your direct paternal line may have had another surname and changed it to Collins. For this possibility, you might see a number of matches with that other surname.

It may be possible that you have Collins matches, but if they are not in the project and have not granted LIMITED or better access to the administrators, they will remain UNclustered and your cluster may remain labeled UNMATCHED.

PEDIGREE members are grouped with other members sharing the same documented common ancestor and are genetically very close, showing small Genetic Distances between them.

LINEAGE members are genetically related, as evidenced by the similarity of their markers and also by sharing certain mutations. They may not be as genetically close as pedigree members. Or they may be very close but lack the documentation to push them back to a named common ancestor.

INSUFFICIENT DATA means that insufficient testing has been done to know with reasonable confidence whether testers are related. 12 or 25 markers are usually not sufficient, unless you have a well-documented paper trail showing your relationship to other Collinses in the project.

Your cluster label has a number, then a description of a parent haplogroup. The label shows a stream of SNPs separated by ">". These labels are shorthand for longer SNP streams. Our project website has a haplogroup page covering your major haplogroup that includes your subclade. Use these pages to see where your subclade fits in your major haplogroup tree.

DNA results can at times be fuzzy. Few members have done extensive deep SNP testing, and even those results may show differences. Some SNPs are not as stable as others, sometimes an SNP is badly copied between generations resulting in a bad read, etc. If a son has spawned a new SNP, it is theoretically possible for his terminal SNP to differ from his father's.

Without further information, we may try to estimate your terminal SNP by looking at your matches (whether named Collins or not) at 67 markers or better. Sometimes terminal SNPs conflict. In such cases, we'll try to label your group using a parent SNP that we think contains the conflicting child SNPs.


As a first step, look at your genealogical matches in your own FTDNA account at the highest level of markers you've tested. Further testing is usually recommended if you've tested 37 markers or less. If you have lots of matches at high levels of markers (67 or 111), consider BigY testing to help you separate out the noise. Result cluster labels do change. If you are in a PEDGIREE or LINEAGE, your results are clustered with your genetic matches, though not necessarily adjacent to your closest relatives. This assumes you and your matches all match at a high level of markers (67 or 111 markers).