U5b FMS mtDNA Project- Background



U5b, U5b1, U5b1b, U5b2, U5b3, Ursula


This is a project for all U5b members who have completed a Full Sequence (FGS) test. The administrator group also runs the U5 General Project and the U5a FGS project. We expect U5b members to also be part of the U5 General project which is open for all U5-testers at all levels.

The U5 General Project will be the core project where all U5-testers will be members. The U5b and U5a Projects will include those with Full Sequence (FGS) results only. Joining one of the U5 projects will thus mean that you will also be entered in the other relevant project, based on the level of testing. All U5a FGS and U5b FGS should be members of their respective U5 FGS projects, and also be members of U5 General, the "mother project".

Our aims
To provide the best help for all U5-members to learn and understand as much as possible about their subclade.
* for the U5 general project: to add HVR1/HVR2-testers to their tentative groups, and thus give advice about further testing for those who are interested
* encourage more research for U5 FGS-results, so we all can learn more.
* encourage and help those interested in donating their FGS-sequences to GenBank, to be accessible to researchers all over the world
* maintain the best level of privacy for our members, at the same time as we try to learn from each other's results

Important:  If you have completed the FGS test, please consider sharing your FGS coding region results with the project administrators.  The coding region results are not shown on the project page and will not be made public, and by default they are also hidden from the project administrators. The coding region results are essential for identifying your lowest level daughter group, for estimating the age of each daughter group, for identifying new daughter groups and for filling in the fine details on the U5 tree.  To share your coding region results with the project administrators:
o share your coding region results with the project administrators, you can:

1. log into your FTDNA account, click on the tab "My Account" and select "Results Display Settings".

2. check the circle next to “Yes” for "Show my mtDNA Coding Region Mutations to Administrators of these Projects" for the U5 and U5b FGS projects.

Subclades and Coding Region results

The U5b FGS-project will assign members to subclades according to current research results. However, without the full genetic scan (FGS) results it may not be possible to put your results into the proper subgroup. It is a requirement of the members of this project to allow the administrators to have access to the FGS / CR results of all tests. No other members will have access to the FGS / CR results, and they will not be displayed on the public results page. After your initial join request has been approved, please take special note that you must then do one more step: Please be sure to have your preferences set to allow project administrators to see the coding region results of the FGS.

GenBank Submission
If you have completed a Full Sequence test (FGS, "mega") you can upload your sequence to GenBank to make it accessible to researchers worldwide. Your results could help define further subclades of your haplogroup. You can remain anonymous to the researchers. If you wish to submit your results, please study Ian Logan's page with detailed descriptions on how, or contact the project administrators Gail or Anne. GenBank submission is recommended especially for those who have few or no matches on FGS or rare mutations. 

Published articles that discuss mtDNA U5b
  • Malyarchuk et al. (2010), The Peopling of Europe from the Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5 Perspective Abstract: "It is generally accepted that the most ancient European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5, has evolved essentially in Europe. To resolve the phylogeny of this haplogroup, we completely sequenced 113 mitochondrial genomes (79 U5a and 34 U5b) of central and eastern Europeans (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Russians and Belorussians), and reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree, that incorporates previously published data. Molecular dating suggests that the coalescence time estimate for the U5 is ~25–30 thousand years (ky), and ~16–20 and ~20–24 ky for its subhaplogroups U5a and U5b, respectively. Phylogeographic analysis reveals that expansions of U5 subclusters started earlier in central and southern Europe, than in eastern Europe. In addition, during the Last Glacial Maximum central Europe (probably, the Carpathian Basin) apparently represented the area of intermingling between human flows from refugial zones in the Balkans, the Mediterranean coastline and the Pyrenees. Age estimations amounting for many U5 subclusters in eastern Europeans to ~15 ky ago and less are consistent with the view that during the Ice Age eastern Europe was an inhospitable place for modern humans."
  • Pala et al. (2009), Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5b3: A Distant Echo of the Epipaleolithic in Italy and the Legacy of the Early Sardinians Abstract: "There are extensive data indicating that some glacial refuge zones of southern Europe (Franco-Cantabria, Balkans, and Ukraine) were major genetic sources for the human recolonization of the continent at the beginning of the Holocene. Intriguingly, there is no genetic evidence that the refuge area located in the Italian Peninsula contributed to this process. Here we show, through phylogeographic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation performed at the highest level of molecular resolution (52 entire mitochondrial genomes), that the most likely homeland for U5b3—a haplogroup present at a very low frequency across Europe—was the Italian Peninsula. In contrast to mtDNA haplogroups that expanded from other refugia, the Holocene expansion of haplogroup U5b3 toward the North was restricted by the Alps and occurred only along the Mediterranean coasts, mainly toward nearby Provence (southern France). From there, ~7,000–9,000 years ago, a subclade of this haplogroup moved to Sardinia, possibly as a result of the obsidian trade that linked the two regions, leaving a distinctive signature in the modern people of the island. This scenario strikingly matches the age, distribution, and postulated geographic source of a Sardinian Y chromosome haplogroup (I2a2-M26), a paradigmatic case in the European context of a founder event marking both female and male lineages."

  • General Fund

    Current balance: $60.00

    Type Amount Date Donor Note KitNum Donation Type
    Credit $10.00 3/3/2014 Ronald just a little something.Use it where you want.   Unknown
    Credit $50.00 3/29/2010 Roy Silfven     Unknown