R1b-CTS4466 Plus- Background
The Irish Type II subclade was identified by the respected physicist and nonpareil citizen scientist Dr Ken Nordtvedt in 2006, distinguishing it by its distinctive haplotype, prior to the discovery of any SNPs associated with it. In 2011, multiple attempts to find a defining SNP through the Walk Through The Y test offered by Family Tree failed, but at the end of 2012, the more comprehensive Geno 2.0 test through National Geographic finally gave us success with two SNPs – CTS4466 and CTS5714. Then the 1000 Genome project added two more – CTS3974 and CTS8358. Since then, a number of other SNPs have been discovered through the other extensive SNP tests mentioned at the bottom of the page.
The R1b-CTS4466 Plus project will research the parameters of this major subclade which features strongly in the south of Ireland, but it is found as well in other areas of the Isles, including some in the west of Ireland, Wales, western England, an apparent branch in Northern Ireland and Scotland and a few continentals.
To meet the objectives of the project, we seek to limit membership to those who have tested positive for at least one of the SNPs defining Irish Type II or have a haplotype consistent with that identified through research in the Family Tree DNA database.
Interested parties are invited to join, even if not SNP tested, with the understanding that the Project Administrators will review the participant’s haplotype and, at their discretion, determine if there is a likelihood of it proving positive for the defining SNPs. If accepted, we expect that the participants will be willing to test for further SNPs as suggested, based on the discoveries as we progress.
Those who are deemed not to meet these criteria will be asked to leave the project or accept that the Project Administrators will remove them from it.
The Irish Type II Modal
A modal is merely a compilation of the most common values of a particular haplotype. It would be a misnomer to describe it as the ancestral modal, since we do not and cannot know what the actual haplotype was of the first man to carry the distinguishing SNP/s that define the Irish Type II haplotype, or any other subclade for that matter.
The modal for the SNP L21 super subclade is the base used to arrive at the Irish Type II modal. There are twelve markers where the value for the Irish Type II differs from the L21 modal. Five are one step up from the L21 and seven are one step down. The following chart indicates what those values are. There is a tendency for those values to sometimes be a further step up or down, which is then no longer the actual modal, though that shift is usually consistent with the haplotype being a valid Irish Type II.
A few markers tend to mutate more frequently than others. For example, it is not unusual to see a 16 at DYS385b in numerous surname projects where the Irish Type II is common. This is obviously a parallel mutation, occurring with some regularity, and not indicative of any particular group. DYS442, while modal at 13, is also seen often enough throughout the surname projects with a value of 12, the L21 modal. While some surnames may have more 13s or more 12s, again, this type of mutation or lack of one is seen with some frequency.
The defining modal of the subclade is:
The SNPs associated with Irish Type II
Our analysis of the various extensive SNP tests, spearheaded by Lance, has enabled us to develop this current haplotree