R L21 and Subclades Project (to view all results, set Page Size to 1400)- Background



CTS11722, CTS1202, CTS241, CTS2457, CTS2501, CTS3655, CTS4466, CTS6581, CTS6838, CTS6919, DF1, DF21, DF23, DF25, DF41, DF49, DF5, DF63, DF73, DF85, DF97, FGC5496, L1065, L1066, L1335, L1336, L1402, L144, L159.2, L193, L21, L226, L362, L371, L459, L513, L554, L555, L563, L583, L625, L626, L627, L643, L658, L679, L69.5, L705.2, L706.2, L720, L744, L745, L746, L96, M222, M529, P314.2, P66, PF825, rs11799226, S145, S168, S169.2, S175, S176, S190, S191, S192, S193, S215, S218, S219, S220.2, S253, S280, S299, S300, S310, S388, S393, S424, S425, S463, S474, S521, S522, S524, S530, S836, Z2185, Z246, Z251, Z253, Z255, Z290, Z2961


R1b-L21 Phylogenetic Tree

Our thanks to Mike Walsh for the use of his beautiful and extremely useful R1b-L21 Descendant Tree above. It shows in an easy-to-understand graphic the latest known configuration of the L21 phylogenetic tree.


A positive test result for an SNP (such as M222, L226, etc.) established as downstream of L21 can be inferred as the equivalent of an L21+ test result.

Project Members
: Please check the project web site periodically for announcements, news, and the latest information on pertinent FTDNA sales.

Welcome to the R L21 and Subclades Project! Please read everything on this Background page. It contains important information.

L21 is a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism that characterizes a major R haplogroup.
There are a number of subclades downstream of L21 (see the YCC phylogenetic tree on your "myFTDNA" pages' "Haplotree & SNPs" page or the ISOGG phylogenetic R tree).

What is a SNP or Single Nucleotide Polymorphism? A "SNP" (generally pronounced "SNiP") - Single Nucleotide Polymorphism - represents a change at a single nucleotide (A=adenine, C=cytosine, G=guanine, T=thymine) on the y chromosome. In the case of L21, that change occurred at the position known as rs11799226, where we have a change to "G" from the "C" most everyone else has. You can trace our shared ancestry by using the YCC phylogenetic tree on your "myFTDNA" pages' "Haplotree & SNPs" page or the ISOGG phylogenetic R tree. The ancestry of all L21+ men, in terms of SNPs, runs like this:

M207+ . . . M173+ . . . M343+ . . . P25+ . . . P297+ . . . M269+ . . . L23+ . . . L51+ . . . L11+ . . . P312+ . . . L21+

Think of that as a pedigree, with R-M207 as the patriarch and 8th great grandfather, so to speak, of R-L21.

WHO CAN JOIN: Anyone who has received an L21+ result from Family Tree DNA (check the top of your "Haplotree & SNPs" page to be sure). If you tested L21+ with some other company, please let us know by email.

Although anyone with an L21+ result can join, we strongly recommend that a member have the full panoply of Y Haplogroup R SNP testing by means of the Big Y or Geno 2.0 test or other extended deep clade testing through Family Tree DNA.

HOW TO JOIN: First, you MUST have an L21+ result and you must be an FTDNA customer.  To join the R L21 and Subclades Project, just go to your "myFTDNA" pages and click on "Join Projects" on the left side of the screen. Next, scroll down to "Y Haplogroup Projects". Click on the "R" under that heading. It has a number next to it, but that number is unimportant (it's the current number of y haplogroup R projects). On the next screen, scroll down until you find "R L21 and Subclades". Click on it and then on the little orange "Join" button in the lower right. That should do it.

Or click on "Join Request" at the top of the screen and follow the instructions.

You can join this project with just 12 y-dna STR markers, but 37, 67, or, better still, 111 markers will be of more help to you and to the R L21 and Subclades Project in figuring out our shared ancestry.


*The Current State of L21: The discovery of the SNP DF13 has split L21 into a very large DF13+ group and a thus far much smaller DF13- group. All of the known L21 subclades except DF63 are DF13+, meaning they are downstream of DF13, as well as L21.

If you are L21+ and have not yet tested positive for one of the L21 subclades, you should test for DF13. If you get a DF13+ result, then you can focus on testing for the ten known major DF13+ subclades: CTS4466, DF21, DF41, DF49, FGC5496, L513, L1335, Z251, Z253, and Z255. If you get a positive result for one of those subclades, then you can focus on the branches of those subclades. If you have already tested positive for one of the DF13 subclades, you do not need to test for DF13. If you get negative results for all nine of the DF13+ major branch SNPs, you can try the smaller, less populous branches: L96, L144, L371, and L679. Please be aware that your chance of success with these smaller branches is much less than with the major branches.

If you get a DF13- result, you should test for DF63. Thus far, it is the only known subclade of L21 that is DF13-. If you get a DF63+ result, then you can test for CTS6919, which is downstream of DF63.

It is possible to be both DF13- and DF63-, however. We have a few men in that category already.

Note: A number of new L21+ SNPs have recently been discovered as a result of the Geno 2.0 test. A number of them are classed under "R1b Investigation" by ISOGG and have not yet been added to ISOGG's Tree. Check the ISOGG R Tree: http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html. If your SNP gets added to it, and you find out about it before I do, let me know, and I will create a project category for it. I don't want to jump the gun and create categories for new SNPs before they have been added to ISOGG's R Tree. Thanks for understanding!


: All of the administrators of the R L21 and Subclades Project are unpaid volunteers with full time jobs of their own. We don't get any money or other favors for selling dna tests. When we send out a bulk email to project members about a new SNP test or some other type of dna test, we do so simply because we think the members ought to know about it.

If you decide you do not want to receive such emails, follow the instructions below.

To stop receiving bulk emails from the R L21 and Subclades Project:

1. Go to your myFTDNA pages.

2. Click on "My Account" at the top left and then on "Personal Profile".

3. Click on "Account Settings".

4. Click on "Match and Email Settings".

5. Find "Project E-mail Settings" on the right. Click on the "No" button beneath "Subscribe to 'bulk' e-mails sent by my project administrators".

That should do it.

General Fund