Saturday, 11 February 2017: A new Big Y result has shown that SNPs that were previously thought to be equivalent to L21, namely Z245, Z260 and Z290, have been found to be older. This means that a branch marked by L21, L459 is a direct descendant of the branch marked by Z245, Z260 and Z290. P312 is the SNP that marks the direct ancestor of Z245, Z260 and Z290.
Thursday, 22 December 2016: Our fearless leader, founder and visionary, Richard Stevens, is stepping aside as the lead project administrator to become our "chairman of the board". Thank you so much, Richard. R-L21 is the largest Bronze Age Y haplogroup project and Richard has done a brilliant and steadfast job of getting us going on multiple fronts and seeing us through to 5,347 members. Richard appointed Mike Walsh to become the lead administrator.
February 2015: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2015/02/10/013433 Haak et al,
Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe:
Seven sets of remains from kurgans (burial mounds) in the Samara and Orenburg oblasts (regions) in Russia dated to the late 4th to early 3rd millennia BC and belonging to the Yamnaya cultural horizon have tested R1b (one R1b-P297, one R1b-L23, and five R1b-Z2103/Z2105). A 7,600-year-old hunter-gatherer whose remains were recovered from a burial site near Samara tested R1b1-L278, the oldest R1b yet found anywhere. A body recovered at a Bell Beaker site near Quedlinburg, Germany, and dated to about 2200 BC, tested P312+. Unfortunately, Haak et all were unable to get reads on him for L21, DF27, and U152, but this result does at least confirm that P312 was present among males of the Beaker Folk. It seems likely that L21 was spread to the British Isles and Ireland by them.
Haak et al is a monumental paper which apparently confirms that R1b was spread west into Europe from the steppe by Indo-European steppe pastoralists of the 5th-3rd millennia BC.Tuesday, 08 July 2014: Our Y-DNA Results categories have been reduced to the major branches of DF63 and DF13. We did this because Big Y and other NGS testing is growing the L21 tree exponentially, making creating and maintaining separate categories for every sub-branch, sub-sub-branch and branchlet impractical. See the individual L21 subclades projects for greater subcategory detail.
Wednesday, 26 February 2014: Project name changed from "R-L21 Plus" to R L21 and Subclades.
*The Current State of L21: The discovery of the SNP DF13 has split L21 into a very large DF13+ group and a thus far much smaller DF13- group. All of the known L21 subclades, except DF63 and its subclades, are DF13+, meaning they are downstream of DF13, as well as L21.
Older Stuff (Working backward in time)
July 16, 2012 -- BIG NEWS! The Royal House of Stewart is R-L21! Richard Scott, the 10th Duke of Buccleuch, was tested and found to be L744+ L745+ (L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745) and an exact match (on how many markers?) of a descendant of Charles Stewart of Ardshiel, who fought at Culloden. The House of Stewart produced a number of famous kings and queens of Scotland and England, including James VI/I (of Scotland and England, respectively) of King James Bible fame. If you are interested in this and have tested DF13+, test for DF41 first. If you get a DF41+ result, then follow up by testing for L744. If you get an L744+ result, then test for L745.
May 3, 2012 -- HUGE NEWS! R1b is found in ancient Bell Beaker remains near Kromsdorf, Germany. One of the bodies tested M269+ and U106- (not sure why they didn't test for P312 at least)
The Beaker Folk
March 2011 -- YCC updates its phylogenetic tree. R-L21 is now R1b1a2a1a1b4! Best to stick with the shorthand: R-L21!
-- 1,000 members!
June 19, 2010 -- A second Spanish/Portuguese (Iberian Peninsula) R-L21 haplotype cluster is discovered, with the following characteristic marker values: 19=15, 459b=9, and YCAIIb=19.
-- An apparent Spanish R-L21 haplotype cluster is discovered, with the following characteristic marker values:385a=12, 439=11, 459a=10, 447=24, 449=31-32, 464a=14, 456=15, 607=16, 438=11, 481=19. So far, there are least 11 different Spanish surnames connected with this cluster, with ancestry in various parts of Spain and Latin America. We are currently trying to recruit members of the cluster for testing in an effort to see just how extensive it is and how far flung.
April 2010 -- 800 members!
-- Eastern European Ashkenazi R-L21 Haplotype Cluster discovered with characteristic marker values 388=11, 392=14, 459b=9, and 464c=15. Commenting on the comparison of several cluster haplotypes, Dr. Anatole Klyosov wrote (translated from Russian by Lena Govor):". . . [A]ll these haplotypes have 8 mutations in 25 markers and 14 mutations in 37 markers. This places the common ancestor of all 7 haplotypes 650±240 years back if calculating on the basis of 25-markers and 550±160 back if calculating on the basis of 37 markers. In other words these seven people have a common ancestor who lived in the 14-15th century. It is possible to reconstruct that these families fled Central Europe around 650 years ago when Europe was depopulated by the bubonic plaque and Jews were often massacred as alleged culprits of the epidemic. The surviving Jews fled to Lithuania and Poland, who offered them protection. Jews at that time experienced a genetic bottleneck. That is why the most distant common ancestor of many Jewish clusters lived in the middle of the 14th century or later – that corresponds to the time of their migration to the new territories in Eastern Europe." -- The YCC (and FTDNA) updates its R Tree. R-L21 is now "R1b1b2a1b5." -- 200 members! -- 100 members -- 50 members
October 2008 -- FTDNA control test results posted for L21; commercial testing begins