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I-P109 Y-DNA

  • 803 members

About us


In early 2008, the new Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) Y-DNA SNP tree was introduced by Karafet 2008. The new tree changed the topography of the I Haplogroup. It also introduced P109 as a newly discovered subclade. With the 2010 update the the YCC Tree, additional expansions have taken place.

As positive results from P109 accumulate, its geography should become apparent.

Results will be made available (anonymised) at http://p109.haplogroup.org/

A closed discussion group also exists on Facebook. If you are not directly re-rooted, search for "P109".

Standards of practice

As a Haplogroup Project, The I-P109 yDNA Haplogroup Project serves the Genetic Genealogy by:

  • Exploring the history of the subclade since its members' most distant shared ancestor.
  • Tracking the geography the subclade.
  • Examining the age of the subclade.

The project is open to all Family Tree DNA clients who meet one of these qualifications:

  • Have tested positive for P109 at Family Tree DNA.
  • Have tested positive for P109 at another lab and send a copy of their results certificate to project administration.
  • Have a Y-DNA match who shares a paper trail ancestor in under eleven generations.

If this describes your kit or a kit that you have proxy rights for, you may join by following this link and filling in your kit number and password. You do not need to order a new kit.

In addition to the Family Tree DNA Administrator's Guidelines, the project shall:

  • Inform all project members before allowing their results to be used outside of the project.
  • Inform all project members of policy changes.


The I-P109 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project is created.

It is August 22, 2008. I find myself at ground zero for this new project. It is the first time in a long time that I have had a project this small. That shall change with time. Meanwhile I will savor the ability to focus on getting everything just right.


Deoxyribonucleic acid is the storage unit for all living things. It is made up of four bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T), and is held together by a combination of esthers, phosphates, and sugars. Although DNA contains genes much of it is structural. DNA Genealogy utilizes these structural and non-coding regions.
A mutation is any change in one of the base pairs of DNA.
This is the upper bound or highest value in a range of results.
This is the average that most of us use in daily life. It is found by finding the sum of a group of and dividing it by the number in the group.
This form of average gives us the middle score from a group of values.
This is the lower bound or lowest value in a range of results.
This is the third type of average. It tells us, given a sample, what value occurs most often.
Mutation Rate
Mutation rates for STRs and SNP are predictions of how likely a mutation is to happen over a length of time. They should not be considered set or predictable like the ticking of a clock. Individual mutations are unpredictable like the number of times a year one forgets the car keys. They can be plotted over time though to create a backwards dating system with a reliability range. For the first 37 markers the I-P109 Project uses the mutation rates from Chandler 2006.
DYS393 0.00076DYS447 0.00264
DYS390 0.00311DYS437 0.00099
DYS19 0.00151DYS448 0.00135
DYS391 0.00265DYS449 0.00838
DYS385* 0.00226DYS464* 0.00566
DYS426 0.00009DYS460 0.00402
DYS388 0.00022Y-GATA-H4 0.00208
DYS439 0.00477YCAII* 0.00123
DYS389i 0.00186DYS456 0.00735
DYS392 0.00052DYS607 0.00411
DYS389ii 0.00242DYS576 0.01022
DYS458 0.00814DYS570 0.00790
DYS459* 0.00132CDY* 0.03531
DYS455 0.00016DYS442 0.00324
DYS454 0.00016DYS438 0.00055
Please reference that work for confidence intervals and other details.
A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism is a change to a single position in DNA. That is a point in DNA that had read TTAGATA might now read TTAGACA.
Standard Deviation
Calculated as the square root of the variance, the standard deviation of a population tells us how much the values vary about the mean.
A Short Tandem Repeat is a pattern of DNA that is repeated. GATA is a common repeat and a three repeat long segment might be CAGATAGATAGATATT.
This is one of a male's 23rd chromosome pairs. While females have two x-Chromosomes that they inherit from both parents men have one y-Chromosome that they inherit from their father and one x-Chromosome that they inherit from their mother.

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  • Family Tree DNA's public y-Chromosome Database: ySearch
  • The Sorenson Family of Companies non-profit Foundation's proprietary database: SMGF Database
E-mail Lists/Forums
  • Family Tree DNA Forums
Journals and News Letters
  • American Journal of Human Genetics
  • Annals of Human Genetics
  • European Journal of Human Genetics
  • Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes
  • Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes Archives
  • Genome Research
  • Human Genetics
  • Journal of Genetic Genealogy
  • Society for Molecular Biology

Please contact the project administration before using project member's results. The results of individual project members are their own and the right to reuse them outside this project is reserved to their individual consent.