In early 2008, the new Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) Y-DNA SNP tree was introduced by Karafet 2008. The new tree changed the topography of the I Haplogroup. It also introduced P109 as a newly discovered subclade. With the 2010 update the the YCC Tree, additional expansions have taken place.
As positive results from P109 accumulate, its geography should become apparent.
Results will be made available (anonymised) at http://p109.haplogroup.org/
A closed discussion group also exists on Facebook. If you are not directly re-rooted, search for "P109".
Standards of practice
As a Haplogroup Project, The I-P109 yDNA Haplogroup Project serves the Genetic Genealogy by:
- Exploring the history of the subclade since its members' most distant shared ancestor.
- Tracking the geography the subclade.
- Examining the age of the subclade.
The project is open to all Family Tree DNA clients who meet one of these qualifications:
- Have tested positive for P109 at Family Tree DNA.
- Have tested positive for P109 at another lab and send a copy of their results certificate to project administration.
- Have a Y-DNA match who shares a paper trail ancestor in under eleven generations.
If this describes your kit or a kit that you have proxy rights for, you may join by following this link and filling in your kit number and password. You do not need to order a new kit.
In addition to the Family Tree DNA Administrator's Guidelines, the project shall:
- Inform all project members before allowing their results to be used outside of the project.
- Inform all project members of policy changes.
The I-P109 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project is created.
It is August 22, 2008. I find myself at ground zero for this new project. It is the first time in a long time that I have had a project this small. That shall change with time. Meanwhile I will savor the ability to focus on getting everything just right.
- Deoxyribonucleic acid is the storage unit for all living things. It is made up of four bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T), and is held together by a combination of esthers, phosphates, and sugars. Although DNA contains genes much of it is structural. DNA Genealogy utilizes these structural and non-coding regions.
- A mutation is any change in one of the base pairs of DNA.
- This is the upper bound or highest value in a range of results.
- This is the average that most of us use in daily life. It is found by finding the sum of a group of and dividing it by the number in the group.
- This form of average gives us the middle score from a group of values.
- This is the lower bound or lowest value in a range of results.
- This is the third type of average. It tells us, given a sample, what value occurs most often.
- Mutation Rate
- Mutation rates for STRs and SNP are predictions of how likely a mutation is to happen over a length of time. They should not be considered set or predictable like the ticking of a clock. Individual mutations are unpredictable like the number of times a year one forgets the car keys. They can be plotted over time though to create a backwards dating system with a reliability range. For the first 37 markers the I-P109 Project uses the mutation rates from Chandler 2006.
Locus Rate Locus Rate DYS393 0.00076 DYS447 0.00264 DYS390 0.00311 DYS437 0.00099 DYS19 0.00151 DYS448 0.00135 DYS391 0.00265 DYS449 0.00838 DYS385* 0.00226 DYS464* 0.00566 DYS426 0.00009 DYS460 0.00402 DYS388 0.00022 Y-GATA-H4 0.00208 DYS439 0.00477 YCAII* 0.00123 DYS389i 0.00186 DYS456 0.00735 DYS392 0.00052 DYS607 0.00411 DYS389ii 0.00242 DYS576 0.01022 DYS458 0.00814 DYS570 0.00790 DYS459* 0.00132 CDY* 0.03531 DYS455 0.00016 DYS442 0.00324 DYS454 0.00016 DYS438 0.00055
- A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism is a change to a single position in DNA. That is a point in DNA that had read TTAGATA might now read TTAGACA.
- Standard Deviation
- Calculated as the square root of the variance, the standard deviation of a population tells us how much the values vary about the mean.
- A Short Tandem Repeat is a pattern of DNA that is repeated. GATA is a common repeat and a three repeat long segment might be CAGATAGATAGATATT.
- This is one of a male's 23rd chromosome pairs. While females have two x-Chromosomes that they inherit from both parents men have one y-Chromosome that they inherit from their father and one x-Chromosome that they inherit from their mother.
- Athey, (2005) Resolving the Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55.
- Balanovsky, (2008) Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82 (1) , Pages 236 - 250
- Capelli, (2005)Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective Annals of Human Genetics.
- Cinnioglu, (2004) Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia Human Genetics. 114:127-148.
- Karafet, (2008) New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree Genome Research.
- Karlsson, (2006) Y-chromosome Diversity in Sweden - A Long-time Perspective European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-8.
- Lappalainen, (2006)Regional differences among the Finns: A Y-chromosomal perspective Gene 376 (2), 207-215
- Marjanovic, (2005)The Peopling of Modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome Haplogroups in the Three Main Ethnic Groups Annals of Human Genetics 69 (6) , 757–763.
- Rootsi, (2004)Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137
- Scheinfeldt, (2006) Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia Society for Molecular Biology.
- Sengupta, (2006)Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221.
- Underhill, (2000) Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361.
- Underhill, (2001) The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62.
- Underhill, (2007) New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42.
- Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC), (2002)A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups Genome Research, 12:339-348.
- Family Tree DNA's public y-Chromosome Database: ySearch
- The Sorenson Family of Companies non-profit Foundation's proprietary database: SMGF Database
- Family Tree DNA Forums
Journals and News Letters
- American Journal of Human Genetics
- Annals of Human Genetics
- European Journal of Human Genetics
- Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes
- Family Tree DNA Newsletter: Facts & Genes Archives
- Genome Research
- Human Genetics
- Journal of Genetic Genealogy
- Society for Molecular Biology
- ISOGG, International Society of Genetic Genealogy
- YCC, The y-Chromosome Consortium
- NHGRI, National Human Genome Research Institute
- HGP, The Human Genome Project
Please contact the project administration before using project member's results. The results of individual project members are their own and the right to reuse them outside this project is reserved to their individual consent.