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Recently many new SNP's have been discovered for this unique haplogroup which is located below DF13. 

The majority of this family group have 5 main Patriarch SNP's (S1051, FGC9655, FGC9661, FGC9658 and FGC9657). The current age estimate for these Patriarch SNP's is approximately 3,200 to 4,500 years old and likely originated within what is known as the Bell Beaker culture. When examining other haplogroups of a similar age the S1051 people are very few by comparison.

Evidence suggests that the geographic origin of this family group could have been from what is now modern Scotland.


 S1051 Project SNP results spreadsheet page 1 of 6. Various


 S1051 Project SNP results spreadsheet page 2 of 6. Various


S1051 Project SNP results spreadsheet page 3 of 6 - FGC17906+


S1051 Project SNP results spreadsheet page 4 of 6 - FGC17906+


S1051 Project SNP results spreadsheet page 5 of 6 - FGC17938+


S1051 Project SNP Results spreadsheet page 6 of 6 - S1050


S1051 Project MRCA Genealogy Results


On the above spreadsheet links I've placed "SNP dates" which are an approximation as these mutation rates can vary. So far on average there is 1 Sanger SNP verified per 139 years so it's important to stress that these dates could change slightly as more research needs to be completed. There are instances like the single defining McCeney SNP which likely exceeds 200 years since it's mutation and other examples which were fewer than 139 years. Other factors to consider are the number of SNP's captured from the various sequencing types and the number of raw SNP's which are culled due to reliability issues. The age estimate 139 years per SNP was calculated by using known genealogy, full Y testing, Sanger verification, STR calculations and averaging the number of raw SNP's located below DF13. It's also important to understand that chronology of many of the SNP's (including the 5 main oldest ones) are still unknown.