R P312 and Subclades

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About us

Welcome to the R1b-P312, P312* and Subclades of DF19, DF99, L238 and ZZ37 project!


R1b-P312 is the branch of the human family tree marked by the mutation P312+. S116 is a synonym (another name) for the same SNP as P312. They are one and the same. R1b-P312 is the most common Y chromosome clade of paternal lineages across much of Western Europe. There are several large subclades of R1b-P312 so there are several large subclade projects, one of which may be important to you. This project is intended for people who are SNP tested P312+ or one of its descendant SNPs, like DF19+, DF99+, L238, U152+, L21+, DF27+, ZZ37+, S27900+, Z30600+ etc.

An important goal of this project is to discover the full deep ancestral family tree of paternal lineages for all R1b-P312 people. This will help us understand the origins of R1b-P312 as a whole, at the subclade levels and down to the genealogical family tree level. The primary method of marking branches in the tree are SNPs so this project is for people who are interested in SNP testing.  

The goals of the R1b-P312 and Subclades project are to gain deeper understanding of the origins and migrations of our male lineages, as R1b-P312 people, while helping you find family paternal lineages and deep ancestral origins. An important role of the project is to support DNA testing steps that will help identify where you fit within R1b-P312. This may lead you to one of the large subclade of P312 projects, which are highly recommended.

Even if you are in other projects and deeply tested, please join or to continue in the R1b-P312 project, but in the role as a model for others. We need people who have tested deeply to stay in the project and be included in the R1b and R1b-P312 Haplotypes comparisons so the new people can learn what testing they might consider and the compare themselves with role model haplotype results. Leaders want potential matches to find them and test for their SNPs as documented on the tree. The best role models are those with Big Y500 and 111 STR results, or GOLD haplotypes.

Discovering the giant family tree of paternal lineages is an important task for this project. This will help us understand the origins of R1b-P312 and R1b as a whole, at the subclade levels and down to the genealogical family tree level.

Y Giant Tree

The primary method of marking branches in the tree are SNPs so this project is for people who are interested in SNP testing. Please read this WELCOME page entirely. Below you will find:

Key Steps to Take

Project Considerations and Operations

More about SNPs

Frequently Asked Questions


Key Steps to Take

1. You must have a Y test result with Family Tree DNA (FTDNA). For frequently asked questions and answers about Y DNA testing check the ABOUT/FAQ item in the menu above. All members must order Y STRs or they will not appear on the project reports and in the Y matching system.

2. To join this project click on JOIN in the graphic banner above and login with your FTDNA account ID and password.

3. Update your FTDNA account by going to MANAGE PERSONAL INFORMATION. This is critical to finding potential relatives and origins. We must share data to be successful. I recommend using the tested person's last name as the Contact Last Name. If the kit owner is different than the tester, please use the First Name field to include "c/o" and the kit owner's full name (for mailing purposes).

3A. Go to PRIVACY & SHARING to check the below settings or you will not be a part of analyses.
Group Project Profile - Opt In
Origin Sharing - Opt In
Y DNA Matching level - All

3B. Go to PROJECT PREFERENCES to check Advanced or Limited Access for the project administrators. We can't help you if not granted at least Limited Access.

3C. Go to GENEALOGY to Update your Paternal Ancestor. Enter only information that is not speculative. Example: “James Welch, b.c.1812, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland”. Enter your COUNTRY or leave blank if you don't know. Do not enter "U.S." unless truly of Native American paternal lineage. Please try to be specific if UNITED KINGDOM; pick either ENGLAND, IRELAND, NORTHERN IRELAND, SCOTLAND or WALES. Use current country borders so use NORTHERN IRELAND if accurate even if the ancestor predated its formation. Update the map location.

3D. Go to ACCOUNT INFORMATION to check your Contact information. Please add a backup email address and a beneficiary. Talk to your beneficiary.

4. Join the Yahoo email message group for this project. Several project administrators and advanced R1b-P312 hobbyists are available on the R1b-YDNA yahoo forum so you can get help and share ideas. You can use a nickname rather than your actual name for this forum. You can email R1b-YDNA-subscribe@yahoogroups.com to subscribe or visit http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/R1b-YDNA/info

5. If you have not yet tested to 111 Y STRs (Short Tandem Repeats) please upgrade. R1b is young so it is hard to discern between subgroups and potential relatives oftentimes without 67 STRs as a bare minimum. 111 STR testing is clearly preferable and a better deal in terms of cost per STR. To learn more, read http://www.familytreedna.com/learn/y-dna-testing/y-str/upgrading-markers-improve-information/

More STRs can help...
a) identify your signature markers, guiding you on SNP/haplogroup testing and saving money on that kind of testing,
b) provide additional and better matches on your myFTDNA matches screen, even new matches can show up,
c) improve precision for Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) estimates,
d) and going all the way to 111 Y STRs supports family tree building when you reach brick walls in your genealogy, since the 111 STR panel is estimated to have a change once every three generations.

6. Move forward with an Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) testing plan so your subclade can be identified and haplogroup labeled properly. Evaluating matches you have at 67 or 111 STRs can be very helpful and should not be overlooked. Clear patterns among your best matches may help you decide what SNPs or SNP Packs to buy.

SNPs can be ordered one at a time from FTDNA by logging into your myFTDNA account, selecting the blue UPGRADES button and then scrolling down to the ADVANCED TESTS box and the BUY NOW button. SNP Packs can also be ordered here.

6A. Big Y is the preferred test.  It is probably the most important test you can take. It is a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) test that discovers new SNPs by scanning over 10 million locations on the Y chromosome. The tremendous benefit in this is you will discover SNPs for just your paternal lineage as well as identify ancient SNPs that you may share with many, many other people. Big Y has the ability to discover SNPs that are pertinent to the genealogical timeframe, the last couple of hundred years. The Big Y learning web site has more details. http://www.familytreedna.com/learn/y-dna-testing/big-y/ Please read the Lewis and Clark Expedition analogy for Big Y exploration on the R1b project FAQ page. http://www.familytreedna.com/groups/r-1b/faq/

6B. The R1b-P312 SNP Packs are a very cost effective option that provides very good coverage of the early branching and smaller subclades of R1b-L21. It can place you in the appropriate major subclades of R1b-P312. You can order it from your FTDNA account. If you don't see the option, please check the blue UPGRADES button, then the BUY NOW button in the ADVANCED TESTS box, and pick SNP PACK in the SELECT A PRODUCT box. See the R-L21 project FAQ web page for a list of packs and guidance. Please post on the R1b-YDNA yahoo group if you have questions.

If you have a true interest in genetic genealogy and breaking beyond the brickwalls of your genealogical records, please strongly consider both Big Y to determine your haplogroup down to a very recent timeframe and 111 STRs so that you can refine your close-in family and surname mutation history tree.


Project Considerations and Operations

The project administrators are volunteers and do not represent the vendors nor receive special benefits.

This is a public project. The more of us who test and share our information, the more we will all know. When you join you're making surname, ancestor and DNA related results public, from which they can never be fully retracted. Please remove yourself if you don't want to share publicly. We do not publish your full given name or contact info. Research information is shared across the R1b All Subclades project and major R1b Subclades projects.

This is a Y DNA haplogroup project. Actively participating involves Y SNP testing. SNP testing at FTDNA is required to be assigned to a subgrouping.

This project is operated as a system of record project. It is intended to operate for posterity purposes. Our descendants and family members and distant cousins can continue on when we are not able to or have new focuses in life. New generations can build upon our work. Subgroupings are done by SNP validated testing with a chain of evidence to the test results. Surnames and STR based predictions are not used to assigned subgroupings. Please validate findings with FTDNA testing so the project reports and analysis will reflect that. Outside research is fine, but please test at least your most youthful (terminal) haplogroup SNP at FTDNA.

Thank you for your consideration. Please review the Results web page. If you have specific questions please post at the Activity Feed or the R1b-L21 discussion group at http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/R1b-L21-project/info


More about SNPs

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are critical for R1b people as they are very stable, rarely mutating. R1b is both a very large group and relatively young. Most European R1b paternal lineages are related within the last several thousand years. That means that R1b STR based haplotypes often look alike. The most common pattern of Y STRs is the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (WAMH). Most R1b people match several components of it. It is just a remnant of the fact we are closely related. SNPs help differentiate the branches of R1b-L21’s descendants tree. A high level simplified version is on this project's ABOUT/OVERVIEW web page.

R1b-L21 itself, the main branch of our tree, is marked by the SNP L21. We all are L21+ since it was present in our common ancestor, a single prehistoric man. There are now thousands of known branches on the R1b tree.

Many of these branches have coincidentally matching Y STRs. In other words, their branches appear to cross. This gives us false matches.This is definitely a problem with limited haplotypes of 37 or less STRs. 67 is really the bare minimum in most cases and 111 is the new standard. There are now 6,000-10,000 L21 people with 111 STRs in FTDNA's database.

STRs are very useful for general guidance and for matching at the very recent family level, but they are not 100% reliable since some mutate relatively quickly and go both up and down and back to where they started from.

SNPs are much more reliable markers for our paternal lineages. Theoretically, they are permanent throughout eternity so they reliably show our branching of paternal lineages. The number of SNPs available for testing is growing as more and more advanced testing is developed. You will want to identify your terminal SNP, which is your youngest SNP mutation on the haplotree tree. Your youthful SNPs are the most important for genetic genealogy.

SNPs help...
a) make you more efficient by avoiding false matches when checking for potential genealogical relationships,
b) help you identify deep ancestral family, clan or historical origins,
c) show you what geographic locations might produce additional matches and pertinent genealogical or historical information and
d) benefit all R1b people in general, as well as science, because we'll have a better understanding of how and when this lineage of men spread across Europe as rapidly and as dominantly as it did.

For more information on SNP testing please visit http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/10/to-snp-or-not-to-snp/


Frequently Asked Questions are answered on the R1b FAQ page

Why Y DNA testing?

Why DNA testing at a full platform genetic genealogy company?

Why Y STRs and how are they used?

Why Y SNPs and how are they used?

Why Big Y Next Generation Sequencing?

What should I do with my Big Y results?

Should I upgrade Y STRs, even if I have limited or no matches?

What are SNP Packs and which should I consider?

What are terminal SNPs? novel SNPs? private and public SNPs?


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