This group includes descendants of persons who lived in the old Orangeburgh District in SC (modern SC counties of Orangeburg, Lexington, Calhoun, Barnwell, Bamberg and parts of Aiken and Allendale). Family Finder (autosomal DNA, inherited from all ancestors) male line (yDNA) and female line (mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA) studies are included. There are several kinds of outcomes that are anticipated from this on-going study. Documents identify many maternal ancestors only by first name, or not at all. Female ancestral lines might be identified as individuals from the same local area match mtDNA results. The Orangeburgh study could help resolve issues related to other circumstances in which documentation doesn’t identify biological parentage, such as adoption. Subgroups within the District can also be studied. For example, it is suspected that many of the Swiss families that immigrated together were previously related; this study may permit identifying some of these earlier connections. Many participants in this group will also be members of surname studies. These approaches should complement one another. For example, comparison of results within a surname study might establish whether or not an adoptee came from the same direct male line as the adoptive father. If not, the regional Orangeburgh study could help to identify paternal or maternal biological lines of descent that are not recorded in the surviving written documents. We ask that all participants identify their earliest known male line and female line Orangeburgh District ancestors. Family Finder participants will receive an email with information on how to submit a list of ancestors for inclusion on our website at www.ogsgs.org. The website has been developed to report results to all participants, while maintaining the anonymity of individual test subjects. Full ancestoral data for the Family Finder test is listed on a password-protected web page.