U3 mtDNA Haplogroup

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Detailed summaries of U3 Subclades 
[underconstruction - June 16, 2014]

Haplogroup U3 is estimated to be about 33,000 years old and appears to have its origins in south-west Asia. It has 2 major branches, U3a'c (which includes both U3a and U3c), and U3b.

Among ancient remains, the earliest known U3 in Europe is dated to around 5400 BC in the Dnieper-Donets culture in Ukraine. However, full sequence results are not available for this sample, so its relationship to modern U3 is uncertain.

Subclades U3a and U3c 


The subgroup U3a'c is defined by three mutations, A2294G  T4703C  G9266A, and the common ancestor of this group probably lived in southwest Asia approximately 22,000 years ago.

U3a is defined by four mutations C6518T  A10506G  C13934T and is estimated to be about 15,000 years old. The greatest diversity of U3a is in the Near East and north Africa with U3a* samples from Georgia, Armenia, Syria, Morocco, Algeria and Switzerland.  

U3a1 is estimated to be about 8000 years old and is found widely distributed across Europe. Among ancient remainsMost people with in U3a with European ancestry are in U3a1. I would guess U3a1 arrived in Europe, perhaps in multiple waves of migration, in the Neolithic and perhaps more recently with people who brought Indo-European languages to Europe.  The FMS test would identify a more specific subclade of U3a. Most people in U3a1 have 2 or 3 extra mutations that are useful for identifying subclades.