MacLennan DNA Project

MacLennan DNA Project
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About us

Y-DNA Results:

Only males can test Y-DNA because they have a Y-chromosome while women do not.  It is passed directly from father to son.  A haplogroup is a genetic family that descend from a single progenitor.  A haplogroup is subdivided into subclades, which are younger descendant branches.  Haplogroups and subclades contain lineages and surnames.  Haplogroups and subclades are defined by markers called SNPs.

The test kits have been sorted into their respective haplogroups, subclades and lineage groups.  More people are doing SNP tests because it can further refine what branch of a subclade they descend from.
Some test takers are not assigned to specific subclades because their STR 12, 25, 37, 67 or 111 marker haplotype are either too similar or too different from other test takers.  Only a SNP test can confirm the haplogroup/subclade or terminal SNP. 

• Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b is the most prolific haplogroup in Europe and its frequency changes in a cline from west (where it reaches a saturation point of almost 80% plus in areas of Western Ireland) to east (where it becomes uncommon in parts of Eastern Europe and virtually disappears beyond the Middle East).

mtDNA Results:

mtDNA test kits are arranged by mtdna Haplogroups. mtDNA is passed from the female to all of her children, so both females and males have mtDNA, but males cannot pass it to succeeding generations.  mtDNA is traced along the straight female line which changes surnames with every generation. It is more unusual to find exact mtDNA matches even if the person has tested the full mtDNA sequence. mtDNA Haplogroups with the same name as Y-DNA Haplogroups have no relationship with each other. An example is that mtDNA Haplogroup K has a different history from Y-DNA Haplogroup K. mtDNA Haplogroups show the deep ancestry of the test taker.

• mtDNA haplogroup H (also known as Helena) comprises 40 to 60 % of the mtDNA gene pool in Western Europe and as such is considered the most successful of the mtDNA haplogroups in reproducing itself. It also comprises about 20 % of southwest Asian lineages, 15 % of central Asian lineages and 5 % of northern Asian lineages.

•mtDNA Haplogroup J (also known as Jasmine) has a very wide distribution, being common in eastern and northern Europe, and is present as far east as the Indus Valley bordering Indian and Pakistan and as far south as the Arabian peninsula. mtDNA haplogroup J is largely considered one of the main genetic signatures of the Neolithic expansion and is associated with the spread of agriculture.

•mtDNA Haplogroup T began about 40,000 years ago and is present as far east asthe Indus Valley and as far south as the Arabian Peninsula.  It is also common in eastern and northeastern Europe and is considered one of the genetic signatures of the Neolithic expansion.