Little Scottish Cluster

R1b - CTS2187 / S190
  • 477 members


* FAQs Used with Permission from R1b ALL Subclades Project by Tiger / Mike Walsh *
What are SNP Packs and which should I consider?

I can not recommend SNP Packs  right now as there have been too many changes to the haplotree and many packs need updating.

What are terminal SNPs? novel SNPs? private and public SNPs?

Terminal SNPs are the SNPs that mark an individual's placement on the haplotree on their most youthful known branch. An individual's terminal SNP is not permanent as updates to the hapotree may change the known branching. This is particularly apparent when new Big Y results show up as good matches for an existing Big Y result. Big Y testers invariably have their own list of novel SNPs.

Novel SNPs are just SNPs that are not known and/or documented. We find novel SNPs from Big Y discovery testing. The new SNPs are oftentimes unnamed, but even if named they are private to just that tester. These are also called singleton SNPs. The first Big Y tester with a set of new or novel SNPs may find they sit there, latent.

Novel SNPs often become public as additional people test. As new Big Y results come in and some of the novel SNPs are found in another individual, a new subclade or branch on the haplotree is discovered. When the branch is documented and submitted to those who maintain haplotrees, the novel SNPs are no longer novel. They are now public SNPs on the haplotree, shared by more than one person. This will cause a new haplogroup label to be generated for both the new Big Y tester and the original Big Y tester within whom the then novel SNPs were discovered. This is why Big Y testing is so important. It's how we build out the tree. See above, "Why Big Y Next Generation Sequencing for discovering SNPs?"

What myFTDNA Account Profile Settings are important and what should they be?

Please take some time to review and update the information in your kit at Family Tree DNA.

Go to
Click the LOGIN TAB on the top of the screen and enter your kit number and password to open your MyFTDNA page.
Click the 
MANAGE PERSONAL INFORMATION link on the left of the page. Or, use the drop-down menu at top right to open your profile.
There is a lot you can configure. Please take some time to click around and setup your profile.
In particular, please check and consider the following.


Input your current mailing address. This is used in case FTDNA needs to send you a new test kit to upgrade your kit. It is also useful if a DNA Project Administrator wants to contact you and your email is not working.
Input multiple email addresses if you can. This is helpful if your email address stops working for any reason. If you have a beneficiary or relative that you might want to take over your kit someday, input their email address too. If you want, input the email address of your DNA Project Administrators. Any email that you input here could someday takeover management of the kit if you are no longer able to do so.
If the contact person is not the person who gave the DNA sample, then please input the name of the DNA donor and put the contact person as c/o (Care Of) in the address line. For example, John James Smith, c/o Donna Smith Jones.


Change the Personal Information default from Private to Basic or Full. This allows others with FTDNA login access to view the information you share in your profile. This is useful for people who match you and for others in any DNA project groups you join.
If you have a web site or family tree online, you can show the link in the ABOUT ME box. If the DNA donor has passed, or is no longer able to donate additional DNA, then you might want to include a note explaining this in the ABOUT ME box.


Even if you have not yet created a family tree on FTDNA, please change the default Family Tree privacy settings. Hopefully, someday you will create or upload a tree. Or, a project admin might do it for you. So, it will help if these settings are configured. In order to use DNA for genealogy, you want people to check your tree. I set my tree to Public for deceased people, but individually select those I wish to retain as Private (because they are living). If you have a gedcom file of your family tree, please upload it by clicking on the FAMILY TREE button on your kit's main page.
If you don't have a gedcom file, and can't make one, then you can manually create a tree by clicking on FAMILY TREE then clicking the profile icon. If you have a tree on or elsewhere then you can get a gedcom.

Or, if someone else has you in their tree, they might be able to give you a gedcom. If you need help creating a gedcom or extracting your tree from Ancestry, go to


Input your Most Distant Ancestors. These should be the most distant known ancestors you have in your direct paternal and direct maternal lines. Only input names that you know with high confidence. It helps if you include dates and location info with the name, although you may have to abbreviate words.
If the date is approximate, use the letter "c" as abbreviation for circa in front of the date. Circa is the standard term meaning around or about.
For example, John Henry Smith, bc.1822, Scotland

Input all the surnames of your known ancestors on all branches of your lineage. This is very useful because the matching tools allow people to search matches for surnames. If you have a surname with variations in spelling, it can help to input each variation. That way you will show up whichever variation some uses to search their matches.


Input the name and contact information of someone you want to take over the kit should you pass away or become unable to manage it. If you don't have anyone to make your beneficiary, then ask one of your DNA Project Administrators for their contact information to make them your kit beneficiary. It is very sad that many people pass away without designating a kit beneficiary. That makes their DNA kit of limited use for future researchers.

7. On the PRIVACY & SHARING tab:

Change most of the default settings here. Make sure to have all levels of matching selected and to opt in to sharing your origins.
Matching Preferences/Y DNA - All Levels
Origin Sharing - Opt in to Sharing
Project Sharing/Group Profile - Opt in to Sharing
mtDNA Coding Region - Opt in to Sharing (if you want your maternal side lineage shared to)

8. On the PROJECT PREFERENCES tab and select Advanced or at a minimum Limited Access for the project administrators.

Note: These project web pages and the project in general are geared towards genetic genealogy as a hobby and should not be considered a platform for forensic, legal or academic research.