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Polynesian DNA

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The below remarks regarding Polynesian connections are based on information from FTDNA, ISOGG, and/or the following papers as well as other papers referenced therein:

Kayser, et al, 2006
Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y Chromosome Gradients Across the Pacific
Molecular Biology and Evolution 2006 23(11):2234-2244; doi:10.1093/molbev/msl093
and Supplementary Material - Supplementary Tables S1-S5 and Figures S1 and S2

Oppenheimer, S. and M. Richards. 2001
Fast Trains, Slow Boats, and the Ancestry of the Polynesian Islanders.
Science Progress 84(3):157-181.

Information regarding haplogroups is subject to change as scientific research on this subject progresses over time.

In the below Y-DNA and mtDNA results tables:
~Most Distant Ancestor section contains information provided by the participant.
~hanai indicates adopted - Hawaiian word for formal or informal adoption.
~Haplo refers to Haplogroup - deep ancestry going back thousands of years.
~Match information, if any, is NOT highlighted. That is available to the participants at their Personal Pages at FTDNA (requires kit # and pass code).
~No explanation about the results (numbers, etc.) is provided. Participants can find explanations on their Personal Pages at FTDNA. Others can use the many links at FTDNA's home page for more information, including DNA tutorials and explanations about both Y & mtDNA results.


~ Y-DNA RESULTS (Males) ~

These are reported as:

HAWAIIAN PATERNAL - Direct paternal line reported as Native Hawaiian

According to researchers, Y-DNA (direct paternal lines) in Polynesia has more haplogroup variations than mtDNA (direct maternal lines); however, about 75% reporting their paternal line as Polynesian are in one of the below three Y-DNA haplogroups:

1) Haplogroup C2 [M38]
This is the haplogroup of about 34% who report their paternal line as Polynesian.
C2 is found in Polynesia, Melanesia, New Guinea, and Indonesia.

2) Haplogroup O [M122]
This is the haplogroup of about 24% who report their paternal line as Polynesian.
O is typical of populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and culturally Austronesian regions of Oceania [includes Polynesia], with a moderate distribution in Central Asia [ISOGG tree - O3 M122] .

3) Haplogroup K [M9]
This is the haplogroup of about 18% who report their paternal line as Polynesian.
K is an old lineage presently found only at low frequencies in Africa, Asia, and in the South Pacific. One descendent line of this lineage is restricted to aboriginal Australians, while another is found at low frequency in southern Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East.

~ mtDNA RESULTS (Males and Females) ~

- mtDNA Haplogroup B -
This lineage is found in eastern and southeastern Eurasia, Native American Indians, and Polynesia. B is estimated to be the mtDNA haplogroup of about 93% of the males and females living today who report their maternal line as Polynesian. The group of mutations 16189C, 16217C, 16247G, and 16261T collectively define the "Polynesian Motif" ("PM"), a special subgroup of haplogroup B which is found almost exclusively in Polynesia. This "PM" subset of B is estimated to be the haplogroup of more than 75% of the males and females living today who report their maternal line as Polynesian. (In some cases these mutations are reported as 189C, 217C, 247G, 261T - without the preceding number 16).
The above mutations are based on the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) (based on the mitochondrial DNA sequence first sequenced in 1981). It was used as a basis for comparison with mtDNA test results until it was replaced with the RSRS (Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence).


If you are new to Y-DNA, you may ignore the technical remarks from FTDNA in the *Haplogroups section.

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