Francis

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1.Confirm the hypothesis that the Francis surname is polyphyletic, meaning that not all Francises are descended from a single individual. Although there are some cases of surnames in which everyone who has the name is descended from the same individual, this is not usually the case. Since Francis is a fairly common surname, it appears in different parts of Britain, and there are at least three different possible origins for the name, the likelihood of a common origin for all holders of the name seems slight.

2.Confirm the generally British origins of the Francis surname and most Francis lines. The Francis surname is almost always given as English, or at least British.
Additional information from Ancestry.com – shipping records, records of the distribution of the surname in Great Britain etc – verify this origin. Additionally, all participants in this project who listed a country of origin listed some part of the British isles. Therefore, the DNA of this group should be consistent with those found in England, even though some individuals from other countries have changed their names to Francis upon arriving in English-speaking countries.

3.Determine the deep ancestry of Francises in Britain. Since the end of the Ice Age, Britain has seen wave after wave of invaders, including Picts, Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans. Work by Bryan Sykes and others has isolated the haplotype characteristics of these groups (although some, such as Anglo-Saxons, Vikings and Normans are too close to separate by DNA alone.) By looking at the haplogroups found in the Francis DNA, we should be able to determine, in a general sense, which of these groups the Francises belong to.

4.Determine whether the men who traced their ancestry to the Baltimore line are, in fact, related, and therefore, presumably, descended from Samuel Francis. Also, determine whether any other individuals in the project are related, and determine the modal haplotype. This is sort of an average haplotype made up of the most common markers in the group. It is assumed to be closest to that of the common ancestor.

5.Determine whether any other related groups of individuals exist in the Francis surname project. Determine what can be learned from most distant ancestor, country of origin and available marker information. In cases where there are three or more related individuals, attempt to identify the modal haplotype.

6. Uncover the relationship between the Wethersfield Francises and the descendants of Robert Rose of Wethersfield and Branford. Two participants who have a paper trail leading back to the Wethersfield line of Francises have close matches with descendants of Robert Rose, who also lived in Wethersfield in the 1600s.

7. Finally, discover lines of Francises still living in, or recently migrated from Great Britain, and explore their relationships to Francis lines in North America and elsewhere.