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1.The Francis surname is polyphyletic. Not all Francises are descended from one individual, at least not any individual who has lived within tens of thousands of years. The Francis surname project contained a total of seven different haplogroups, including E3b, G, J2, I1, I2b, R1a and R1b. This strongly supports the hypothesis that Francis is a polyphyletic last name. These haplogroups diverged tens of thousands of years ago. Therefore , so there is no way that all Francises could have a single common ancestor within the time frame

2.Although the DNA evidence is not really precise enough to be conclusive, it is consistent with British origins.All haplogroups found in the study so far have been found in Great Britain, although some are quite rare. Bryan Sykes found all but one of him in the study that he described in his work “Blood of the Isles.” The following table lists data regarding distribution freq about all of the haplogroups in the U.K. All data comes from Kevin Campbell’s work.

HaplogroupGroupNicknameEnglandScotlandWalesFrancis surname onlyFrancis surname(non-Francises)
I(I1 & I2b)GermanicWodan14%8.9%6.2%99

The data is still incomplete and even fragmentary, but all evidence so far supports the English origin of the name.

3.Although the DNA is clearly British, Britain has itself been a melting pot from ancient times and was subject to many invasion by people from different parts of Europe. The Francis surname project seems to include individuals descended from Celts, Germanic invaders and even Mediterraneans

Based on the haplogroups discovered and the work done by researchers such as Nordvedt, Sykes, Robert Oppenheimer, Whit Athey and Kevin Campbell, the Francises seem to be divisible into three broad groups: Germanic, Celtic and Mediterranean & Middle Eastern.

The Germanic group consists of the I1s, probably the I2bs and possibly even the single R1A in the study. When found in the U.K., I1 and I2b are typically associated with German invaders, such as Anglo-Saxons, Vikings/Scandinavian settlers, and Normans. Given that the surname Francis often means “from France,” the Norman conquest seems the most likely for this group Since I1 is more common in East Anglia than in any other part of Great Britain, and all I1 Francises who can provide an ancestral origin in Britain have come from East Anglia or nearby, Eastern England would seem to be a center of concentration of Germanic Francises. R1a is found as far east as India, when found in England, Bryan Sykes has associated it with Swedish/Norwegian Vikings because it shows up more frequently in Sweden than in any other part of Europe that has provided invaders to England.

The Celtic group consists of the R1bs and possibly the R1As. When found in the United Kingdom, R1b is usually associated with the Celts who arrived there about 500 B.C. from Central Europe. In the case of one matching pair, all evidence, from self-reported origin to DNA suggested a Welsh origin. In the case of the other R1bs, the DNA seems more Irish than Welsh, although there certainly could have been Irish migrations to Wales. Of the five R1b individuals who did not match other Francises in the study, three had haplogroups that did not appear in Sykes top 60 list. The final two, who had surnames other than Francis, corresponded to OGAP 3 and OGAP 43.

The Mediterranean and Middle Eastern group consists of the the two Es, the G and the two J2s. Whit Athey and others have theorized that this group is associated with the Neolithic spread of agriculture from the Middle East into Europe. On the other hand, a more recent paper by Steven C. Bird argues for a Roman origin for J2 and E3b at least. This was based in part, on the fact that the two groups Whether this also applied to G is unknown.

4.Four individuals who traced their ancestry to Samuel Francis proved to be related to each other. No others did.

After one of the first three subjects failed to match, additional testing showed there was a recent non-paternity event (NPE) in the ancestry of one of the participants. The NPE can be localized to two generations out of the last three and the participants now conjecture that it was the result of an undocumented adoption. The genetic evidence supports a conclusion that three of the original lines descending from Samuel and Ann Francis are genetically related. It is also possible possible that Henry and Samuel were not related. One descendant of Captain Henry Francis, Revolutionary War hero of Virginia, was also included to test a theory that Henry and Samuel were siblings. This participant did not match the Baltimore group. It is possible that Henry and Samuel were not related, but it is also possible that there is an NPE between Henry and his apparent descendant. More men from this group should be tested. The haplogroup is I1. Based on Ken Nordvedt’s research on STR markers in the I1 haplogroup, the Baltimore Francis line was closest to the Ultra-Norse sub-group, which is most common in Norway. This suggests that the branch is descended from Anglo-Saxons, Vikings or Normans (Vikings who lived in Northern France). Based on the Francis name, the Norman origin seems most likely.

5.Aside from the Baltimore line, the surname project has identified six clusters of individuals who are probably related: three R1b groups, one E3b pair, one I2b pair, and one additional I1 pair.

The first group of related R1bs consisted of two men who traced their ancestry to two different individuals from Wales and who matched on 24 of 25 markers. According to a paper by Kevin Campbell, they matched one of the most common sets of 10 markers in the data collected by Bryan Sykes for his Oxford Genetic Ancestry Project (OGAP). Campbell concludes that this cluster, called OGAP1, is one of the “core haplotypes for the full British isles.” It is, he says one of the “ oldest and (a) progenitor of the British R1b lines.” Although highly diffused, this line has its highest concentration in Wales, but is also common in Scotland. This is not all that surprising since both individuals (kit numbers here) trace their ancestors to Wales.

A second group of R1bs consisted of four related individuals who had a genetic distance of 0/25 to 2/25 from the modal haplotype of the group. These individuals did not provide countries of origins from their ancestors or information regarding most ancient known ancestor. According to the Campbell paper, they matched the OGAP10 cluster, which, he says, is “clearly identified as an Irish haplotype” because it has a value of 25 repeats on a marker called DYS90.

The third group of R1bs consisted of three individuals. This consisted of 2 individuals who only matched each other on 10/12 markers and a third who matched each on 11/12s. This third individual also matched two members of the second group on 11/12 markers, suggesting a distant relationship between the 2nd and third groups. Although these individuals did not provide countries of origin for their ancestors or information regarding most ancient known ancestor, they also matched OGAP10, which suggests that their ancestors lived in Ireland at some point. More markers should be tested to determine how closely these men actually matched. Sub-clade testing of SNP markers could confirm the apparent Irish origin.

The pair of I2bs matched on 11 of 12 markers. One of them traced his ancestry to Woodson Francis, who was born around the 1770s and died in Missouri in the 1830s(check), but did not list the country that the ancestors came from prior to coming to the United States. Given that these two share the same haplogroup and surname and match on 11 of 12 markers, there is a good likelihood that they are related, although it does not necessarily follow that both are descended from Woodson Francis. I2b is related to I1 and overlaps very heavily with it in north Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, parts of France. This group, like the Baltimore line, is likely descended from Normans.

The pair of E3s are a father and son pair who had the paper trail to the Baltimore line, but learned through DNA testing that there was an NPE somewhere in the last three generations. They now believe that the grandfather was adopted. E3b is most common in the Balkans, particularly in the area around Pristina, Republic of Kosovo, but is also common in Italy, Greece and Bulgaria. The group has no particular reason to believe they have English ancestry, and have some reason to suspect other ancestry..A recent paper by Steven C. Bird suggests that this haplogroup, along with J2, may have been brought to Britain by Roman soldiers.

The final matching pair is discussed in #6.

The project has not yet tracked down the exact nature of the relationship with the Roses. Based on the match of two 1st cousins of the line, they have determined that the non-paternal event, if one existed, could not have occurred after the birth of Alvarez Wendell Francis in 1893 in Vernon Center, MN. A 2nd cousin has also recently joined the project, but his results are still being processed. If he matches, this will move the latest possible date for the NPE forward to George Eugene Francis, who was born in 1862 in Wisconsin. Of Ken Nordvedt’s I1 groups, both the Wethersfield cousins and the man from Lincolnshire are closest to the Anglo-Saxon modal haplotype of I1. This haplotype is most common in the Germanic lowland countries, which include north Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, as well as the British Isles and old Norman regions of France. Again, this group most likely arrived in England with the Normans, Vikings or Anglo-Saxons.

7. The study has not yet found definite matches between any American Francis line and any in the United Kingdom, but there is a 10/12 match with a Francis born in Lincolnshire, England. This is probably not a match, but he has ordered a 37-marker test, which should settle the matter. Like the Wethersfield Francises, he is I1 and closest to the Anglo-Saxon modal haplotype.