The following is a brief explanation of how the DNA chart is organized by FTDNA. In order to order to provide privacy for participants only last names and kit #s are displayed. In that way one can find their personal results from the kit # they were provided when submitting their DNA.
The order in which results are displayed is determined by haplogroup designations and the order of mutations. One may ask what is the significance of the mutations? A quick and dirty definition of some words used in genetic genealogy:
A Haplogroup places you on the genetic tree of mankind. Think of the haplogroups as the main branches on the genetic tree of mankind. This is not really used for genealogy as it determines ancient mankind, before the use of surnames, in the tens of thousands of years.
It takes a Haplotype to predict a Haplogroup.
Markers are a set of predetermined places in a DNA string that are tested, these tests are given names and numbers and are referred to as markers, the results of these tests create the marker results, which may or may not link you to a particular surname. These sets of marker results are called a Haplotype.
There are different tests:1. 12 markers
2. 25 markers
3. 37 markers
4. 67 markers
5. 111 markers
There may be other names for these tests but discussing them by the number, people will still know what you mean. The more marker results the better chance of finding someone you share a common ancestor with. Haplotypes are important in genealogical research. The more matches of markers within the haplotype the closer you are to the person whose test you are comparing to, as long as you are within the same surname group. Although, there can be mutations at markers, these can help in determining the distance in years the two tested are from a common ancestor. Normally father and son have an exact match on their markers, but a mutation can occur between father and son, or even between brothers, as one may get the mutated marker and the other not. But normally this changed marker is given to his descendants.
The Y-DNA chart is currently divided into four Subgroups each with a specific color (as of 3/18/15):1. Pink – Haplogroup I – Testees of Haplogroup I
2. Orange – Haplogroup J – Testees of Haplogroup J1
3. Green – Haplogroup R1b – Lineage 1 – Testees of Haplogroup R1b with descendancy via paper trail back to Hugh and Ann Calkins and those who match to them
4. Aqua – Haplogroup R1b – Testees of Haplogroup R1b who do NOT match members of Lineage 1
Kit # 62104 (Haplogroup R1b - Lineage 1, match to descendants of Hugh & Ann Calkins) had no documentation making a connection to Hugh and Ann Calkins. He could not go back past Elijah Calkins b. abt 1768 in CT or MA. (Page 403 Calkins Family in America by Ken Calkins). Robert Calkins, our CFA recorder, recently unearthed new information that may connect Elijah to Hugh, and this has since been confirmed by DNA. Out of 67 markers he only has 3 mutations. Furthermore there are only four other Calkins who share the same mutation of 10 at Locus 4. Their respective, well documented, genealogies show their MRCA (most recent common ancestor) to be Stephen Calkins born 1706.
Kit # 62098 is very interesting. DNA proves that a 1724 court decision regarding illegitimacy was incorrect; that indeed a Calkins was the father. He matches to Lineage 1, descendants of Hugh and Ann Calkins.
If you will note all the Null values at LOCUS 425. It has been discovered by another expert in the field of Genetic Genealogy that the Calkins with this null value are very closely related to the “Clan Colla” of Ireland who were the Chieftain Kings starting in the 4th century. This lends credence to what some Calkins Researchers believe: that they were of Irish Origin and emigrated to England at some point in time.
There are three Calkins who belong to the J1 haplogroup which is not the same as the R1b1 like most of the other Calkins. These three are first cousins. They do NOT descend from our common progenitor, Hugh Calkins. Their line goes back to John Calkins b. 25 Aug 1785 in Chenango Co. NY. He married Phoebe Wellman. (Page 408, Ken’s book) However one Calkins kit # 90197 who had thought he was third cousins to the members of this J1 haplogroup and descendant of John Calkins of Chenango Co., NY, was an R1b1 haplogroup and placed in the Lineage 1 group. What is most interesting with this group is their haplogroup: J1. Which is of Middle Eastern origin and that they match 65/67, 67/67 with people with the surname “Davenport/Deavenport” (Kit # 100780) shown for 65/67 match. Updated 3/18/15: They are now 103/111 and 105/111 matched.
There was a Roman Legion stationed in Chester that was comprised of a naval unit from the Middle East. It was common practice that Legionnaires found themselves local wives and when they retired and stayed in England. That would explain the presence of J1 in England. Furthermore there was a plague in the Chester area circa 1610. Perhaps a Calkin/Calkins family took in some surviving children that were Davenports. In any case it appears we have, at this time, two separate Calkins’ lines originating in the Chester area of Cheshire, England.
One member of this group found a more logical explanation. One of John and Phoebe Calkin’s sons, Martin Calkins b. 30 Sept 1822, married Catherine Joslyn. Her sister Cynthia Joslyn m. Edwin Davenport. According to census information for this period they were neighbors in Butler, New York. So it would appear that an unrecorded adoption or illegitimate birth of some sort took place.
We have two Calkins testees who belong to Haplogroup I which is generally associated with the Viking influence in the British Isles. Although one testee, Kit # 55779 has a well-documented paper trail back to Hugh Calkins, the progenitor of Lineage 1, it would appear there was an NPE somewhere. Going back several generations in his line there was a Calkins who was married more than once. We speculate that the last wife was widowed and brought a child into the marriage. This child was raised as a Calkins and the true biological ancestor is unknown.
The second testee, Kit # 150550, has a 65/67 marker match with the above, indicating there is a shared ancestor between them.