Project for the R-ZZ37 and R-ZZ38 SNPs, and all of their child SNPs including Z30597, Z39300, S27900, and BY20464. The R-ZZ37 is a branch of the R-P312 SNP which likely arose around 4000 years ago. R-ZZ38 is a very early branch of R-ZZ37 that appears to include a majority of ZZ37 men. R-P312 is common among men of Western European paternal ancestry. ZZ37/ZZ38 is strongly associated with men in Britain and Northwestern Europe with ancient Celtic paternal ancestry. Because the ZZ37 SNP arose around 4000 years ago before the adoption of surnames, it includes men with English, German, Finnish, and other non-Celtic surnames, in addition to many men of historical "Celtic" paternal ancestry with Scottish, Irish, and Welsh surnames. ZZ37 men are found in the British Isles as well as in Northern Continental Europe. Per the analysis of Alex Williamson published on his BigTree website, an ancient DNA sample that is a little under 3000 years old found in Covesea Cave in northeast Scotland is positive for the Z30597 branch of R-ZZ37. The two largest known subgroups are the Z30597 haplogroup which is largely made up of men of Scottish paternal ancestry and the S27900 haplogroup which is most often found in men of Welsh paternal ancestry. The third largest known subgroup is the Z39300 haplogroup which appears to be more widely spread at low levels in Northwestern Europe. A fourth subgroup, BY20464, is also known. One finding that the project has been able to make thus far is that while all of the known immediate subgroups of ZZ37 and ZZ38 are concentrated in particular areas (i.e. Scotland for Z30597 or Wales for S27900), none of the subgroups are found exclusively on one particular place. So, for instance, men in the Z30597 subgroup are found throughout Britain at low levels in addition to being concentrated in Scotland. Another finding is that while most ZZ37 men are of British paternal ancestry, at least some members of the Z39300 branch of ZZ37 are found in Northern Europe outside of Britain. Because there is no easy way to test directly for ZZ37 or ZZ38, there are almost certainly new branches of ZZ37 and ZZ38 still to be discovered. It is requested that all members review their privacy settings and give administrators of this project at least "limited access." This will enable administrators to see matches and Big Y results, which is necessary for administrators to be able to meaningfully analyze your results. As a SNP project, it is very important for administrators to have at least "limited access" as a part of doing deeper analysis of your results. Members considering upgrades and additional testing are encouraged to contact the project administrators. All members are encouraged to also join the R-P312 project.