The Polk-Pollock-Pogue (PPP) DNA Project is open to all persons claiming Polk-Pollock-Pogue, etc, ancestry through blood or marriage who are interested in discovering or clarifying their common family genealogy through DNA testing and sharing of results. All variant surname spellings are welcome. Our family is known to be of Scottish origin tracing back to the ancient area, Pulloc, in Renfrewshire, along the White Cart River near present day Glasgow. The place name was first taken as a family name in the 12th century when these lands were given to Peter (Petrus), Robert and Elias (Helia), sons of Fulbert, by Walter FitzAlan, the first High Steward of Scotland. The main line of the family, Pollok of that Ilk, held these lands in fealty to the King under the feudal system established in Scotland by David I. The main male line of descent died out with the death of Sir Robert Pollok, 18th of that Ilk, 2nd Baronet, in 1783, but a great number of descendants of the original family are found around the world to this day. As should be expected with any ancient family, different genetic branches have emerged from DNA testing. Not everyone with the family surname descended in a direct line from the original Pollok family of Renfrewshire. We are not all genetically related to each other. As surnames became more generally used in late medieval times they were not all acquired by direct birth or descent but in some cases by clan association with a family or identification with a location of origin. Surname changes in a genetic line can also be due to what is termed an NPE (Non-Paternal Event) due to an adoption, name change or infidelity. As it turns out, two principle genetic branches of our family have emerged from Y-chromosome DNA testing, plus several other much smaller ones. The largest branch is a small subclade (branch) of a much larger and older haplogroup known as I-M223. The second branch is a subclade of a different large haplogroup, R-M269. Both of these parent haplogroups originated thousands of years ago so there is no chance that these two branches of the family could have had a common origin in comparatively recent times. Accordingly, only one of them could be descended from the first Polloks of Renfrewshire. Based on paper trail family research and on its larger diversity it is clear that the I-M223 branch is the one that actually traces back to the original family of Renfrewshire. Among the persons belonging to this group are the descendants of Robert Polke (c.1638-1703), the immigrant from Donegal, Ireland, to the eastern shore of Maryland. Among those belonging to the R-M269 branch are most of the Polks of North Carolina and Tennessee, descendants of William Polk (c.1700-1758), including President James K. Polk. Also the descendants of Charles Polke (d.1753), the Indian Trader. DNA can be tested in different ways which are quite distinct and complementary. These include STR marker testing, SNP testing (Big Y-700), autosomal DNA (Family Finder) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing. All help in determining lines of descent. Click on the "Results" tab above for more explanation on these. See also the note in Activity Feed for a chart showing the genetic family tree of the I-M223 and R-M269 branches of the family. Clan Pollock International was established to promote family kinship and an appreciation for its history, genealogy and traditions. It is a member in good standing of the Council of Scottish Clans and Associations (COSCA). Interested persons are encouraged to join. Please visit the website at https://www.clanpollock.com/ A forum for discussing family history and genealogy will be found at the Pollock, Polk and Associated Surnames Genealogy Group on Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/groups/pollockgenealogy/ Any interested person may join; there is no requirement for kinship or testing.