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To see the full DNA chart for this project, pull down the "Y-DNA RESULTS" menu on this page (the one you are now reading) and select "Colorized". You will see the results of the project so far. The tests have been allocated to major branches of the surname based on how similar/dissimilar the DNA is when compared to the other results in the project. 

If you are curious to see how the exact but ancient DNA profile is extracted from present day descendants, notice the line (or row) in the table called "Mode" this is a computer generated deduction from the test results immediately below it. The computer looks at the values in the group for each marker and deduces that the most frequent value is the ancient value. Thus the Mode line is what the DNA of the ancient common ancestor would have to be in order for his descendants to exhibit their results. The mutations from that ancient DNA are highlighted (very dimly) in the present day DNA results.

As a demonstration of the research value of DNA we have seen this: there were two known Pemberton lines, A and B, both running back through Virginia. Line A is traceable into Cheshire, England. Line B has only been documented back into the Virginia colony. Researchers working on these lines found several contemporary Pemberton families in the colony and supposed that the lines would merge in Virginia. All their efforts were coloured by that assumption. There was a presumption that the two researchers were rather close cousins and that the two tests would show only one or two different markers. However, there were four markers that were different! This completely changed the mind set and goals of the researchers for now they knew that instead of looking for a common ancestor in Virginia, they had to watch for clues that would keep the two lines completely separated for at least several more generations. This was an important break through for it changed both the kind of data sought and the interpretation of the data found. It is quite possible that the expense of DNA testing can be recouped by reducing the costs of documentary research.  

Still another indication of the value of DNA is this: two documentary lines with a common ancestor 5 generations back were tested and indicated that the common ancestor would probably be a few generations farther back. This sent the respective researchers back to their books where they checked their work. Not finding any errors, they conclude that the probabilities are just that - probabilities. Meanwhile the review was a healthy exercise and the tests prove clearly that the two are indeed relatively close cousins.