Males pass Y-DNA only to their male children. The results of the Y-DNA testing are found in Y Results and are grouped first by Y-DNA haplogroups, then by matching groups. The locations on the Y-DNA chromosome are called markers and have names such as DYS390, DYS381, etc. The numbers represent repeats of patterns and are called allele repeats. Men who are in the same haplogroup and also have similar numbers of allele repeats are grouped to form family units. Those who have tested at ONLY Y-DNA12 or Y-DNA25 are encouraged to go to Order Tests and Upgrades and upgrade to either Y-DNA37 or Y-DNA67 so they can accurately be placed in their proper grouping.
Females pass mtDNA to all their children, but males cannot pass it to the next generation. Therefore, both males and females can test their mtDNA which comes from their maternal line. In mtDNA Results, the results are grouped in mtDNA Haplogroups. HVR1 and HVR2 represent different areas of the mtDNA and the numbers listed indicate the mutation signature in each area. People with the same haplogroup and same sets of mutations in both HVR1 and HVR2 have a common ancestor, but since mtDNA mutations much more slowly then Y-DNA and people are less likely to know their straight female line back many generations, identifying and naming common ancestors is less likely with mtDNA than with Y-DNA.
• Y-DNA Haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration. E1b1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea.
•Y-DNA Haplogroup G began about 30,000 years ago on the eastern edge of the Middle East. Members of this group lived in the Indus Valley before the expansion of Neolithic farmers into the region. After the glaciers melted theG2 lineage expanded northward and eastward to repopulate Europe and Eurasia.
• Y-DNA Haplogroup I overwintered in the Balkans during the last Ice Age and some members of this group also overwintered in Iberia. Kit 99204 came from Eastern Europe. The subgroup I1 today is found mainly in northwestern Europe; some I1’s are Anglo-Saxons, and others are Norse Vikings. One of the oldest inhabitants of great Britain is the I2a group called Isles . Another I2a grouping comes from Sardinia and the last I2b group is found both in Britain and Northwest continental Europe.
• Haplogroup J, particularly J2 came out of the Near East, moved west along the Mediterranean to Italy and southern Spain. J2’s are rare in Ireland, but they did get to Wales, England and Scotland in small numbers. J1s are rare throughout the British Isles but a substantial subgroup of J1s of surname Graham can be found throughout the Scottish Borders, and into Northumberland.
• Haplogroup R1a is believed to have arisen on the Eurasian Steppe, and today is most frequently observed in eastern Europe and in western and central Asia. It is also associated with Vikings, particularly Norwegian Vikings.
• Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b is the most prolific haplogroup in Europe and its frequency changes in a cline from west (where it reaches a saturation point of almost 100% in areas of Western Ireland) to east (where it becomes uncommon in parts of Eastern Europe and virtually disappears beyond the Middle East. This group is thought to have spent the last Ice Age in the refuge found in Spain and southern France. The group labeled Hap R1b1a2 (Unassigned) is a mixed group of men who are unrelated.
Since June 2011, Y-DNA results in the Northumberland Project have been grouped at two different levels.
1. Haplogroup and Subclade.
The major grouping is by Haplogroup, and Subclade within haplogroup. People in different haplogroups or subclades cannot be closely related. Men in different major groups are unlikely to have a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) within the last 10,000 years (for major haplogroups) or within 5,000 years or so for subclades within a haplogroup.
If you share a haplogroup or subclade with a person of interest, it is likely that your Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) lived within the last 5,000 years or so.
Results for testers for whom we have not yet found a match, or have too few markers tested to allow reliable matching, will be placed in one of the Unassigned groups.
Haplogroups are determined by a small number of mutations on the Y chromosome, known as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), or Unique Event Polymorphisms (UEPs). Haplogroups in green have been confirmed by SNP testing. Haplogroups in red have been predicted by Family Tree DNA based on the individual's STR results and can be confirmed by a Deep Clade SNP test.
2. Closely related group.
To share an MRCA within recorded history, FTDNA calculates that you need a match within the following degrees of genetic distance (GD), i.e. the number of marker mismatches:
12 markers tested: 0,1
25 markers tested: 0, 1, 2
37 markers tested: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
67 markers tested: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
The closer the match, the closer the relationship is likely to be – more or less! This is only a rough guide, and other information should be factored into the match wherever possible.
“Within recorded history” is a very loose term. For Northumberland this would be since about 1100AD.
R1b Group Type 1: Scots Modal line (R1b-Pict, the 'Scots Cluster')
An important subgroup of R1b1a2, the Scots Modal is represented by a signature which has been attributed to Colla Uais, progenitor of the Dalriadic royal house, predecessor to the medieval kingdom of Scotland. Also known as the Dalriadic modal, Scots-R1b, Scots47, Scots Cluster and R1b-Pict, it is represented (for the first 12 markers) by
mtDNA test kits are arranged by mtdna Haplogroups. mtDNA is passed from the female to all of her children, so both females and males have mtDNA, but males cannot pass it to succeeding generations. mtDNA Haplogroups with the same name as Y-DNA Haplogroups have no relationship with each other. An example is that mtDNA Haplogroup J has a different history from Y-DNA Haplogroup J. mtDNA Haplogroups show the deep ancestry of the tester and are described in Spencer Wells, Deep Ancestry. Descriptions are also available on the tester's personal page under mtDNA - Results. Additional information can be found by searching the internet for the haplogroup you are interested in. Be sure to specify mtDNA Haplogroup.
•mtDNA haplogroup H (also known as Helena) comprises 40 to 60 % of the mtDNA gene pool in Western Europe and as such is considered the most successful of the mtDNA haplogroups in reproducing itself. It also comprises about 20 % of southwest Asian lineages, 15 % of central Asian lineages and 5 % of northern Asian lineages.
•mtDNA Haplogroup HV is found throughout the Near East and in parts of East Africa. Around 30,000 years ago some members moved north and west to carry their lineages into Europe.
•mtDNA Haplogroup I occurs in high frequencies in northern Europe and northern Eurasia. This group is thought to have migrated to these areas from the Middle East. They are associated with the Aurignacian culture which is distinguished by innovations in tools and tool manufacturing.
•mtDNA haplogroup J (also known as Jasmine) has a very wide distribution, being common in eastern and northern Europe, and is present as far east as the Indus Valley bordering Indian and Pakistan and as far south as the Arabian peninsula. mtDNA haplogroup J is largely considered one of the main genetic signatures of the Neolithic expansion and is associated with the spread of agriculture.
•mtDNA Haplogroup T (also known as Tara) is common in eastern and northern Europe and found as far east as the Indus Valley and the Arabian Peninsula. It is considered one of the main genetic signatures of the Neolithic expansion.
•mtDNA Haplogroup U (also known as Ursula) has a wide distribution. Most in mtDNA haplogroup U come from a group that moved northwest out of the Near East. Today they are found in Europe and the eastern Mediterranean at frequencies of almost 7% of the population.