I Haplogroup mtDNA

The mtDNA Haplogroup I Project
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Project Results

                                           

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Your mtDNA sequence is an heirloom that was passed down to you, generation by generation, for thousands of years in an unbroken chain of maternal ancestors, mother to daughter. (Sons also receive mtDNA from their mothers, but only daughters pass it to the next generation.) Along the way, out of 16,500+ base pairs in the mtDNA sequence, a small set of rare and random changes (mutations) accumulated over myriad generations. In each lineage, as these mutations or variants occurred, they were passed down to subsequent generations, creating patterns in the mtDNA that spread as groups migrated. These patterns are recognizable and have been classified into branches called haplogroups, clades, and subclades.  

In ancient times, a woman -- often referred to as "Iris" -- became the clan mother of mtDNA Haplogroup I. Everyone who belongs to Haplogroup I is her descendant through a solid line of daughters...our direct maternal ancestors.


The set of mutation
al differences (defining motif) for Haplogroup I is:
T100
34C  G16129A.

Over thousands of years, as additional rare genetic changes accumulated in Iris' descendants, haplogroup I diverged into a number of separate branches (clades), and each main branch went on to develop its own set of subclades.

Here are the main branches of I and the number of project members (with known or predicted subclades) in each one who have mtDNA test results at FTDNA. The totals were gathered on February 19, 2016, and May 4, 2019:


Branch

Members

in 2016

Members

in 2019

Percent of

Project* 2019

I1

268

458

36.55%

I2

210

362

28.89%

I3

65

112

08.93%

I4

115

215

17.15%

I5

53

88

07.02%

I6

6

7

0.55%

I7

1

1

0.07%

Unidentified

branches

<10

10

0.79%

   * Project members with mtDNA testing by FTDNA


Below is a list of specific
subclades of mtDNA Haplogroup I that have been identified as of June 9, 2019. The defining mutations of each can be found on our Members' DNA Results page. The subclades in blue text are published on the Phylotree1 (Build 17), last updated on February 18, 2016. Subclades listed in pink are among the newest subclades to be identified--by a company called YFull2 --which launched its own independent mtDNA tree (called the MTree) in March 2019, incorporating data from the PhyloTree as a starting point, and then adding newly-found subclades based on (1) mtDNA data uploaded to its site from customers and (2) on researcher-submitted sequences at GenBank. // NOTE: As of September 2019, YFull removed all the newly-added subclades from its tree. // Since some of our project members have uploaded their mtDNA data to YFull and have been found to belong to subclades identified by YFull, we have added and kept many of those subclades on project pages, especially subclades that are well-substantiated by evidence. These are likely to eventually be formally recognized. Retaining those subclades in the project enables matches to be grouped together in smaller, more closely related groups. In the list below, subclades in brackets indicate that no project members have yet been assigned to them as of June 9, 2019.

Subclades of I1: 
I1a, I1a1, I1a1a, I1a1a1, I1a1a2, I1a1a3, I1a1a3a, [I1a1a4],
I1a1b, I1a1c, I1a1d, I1a1e, [I1a1e1], I1a1f, [I1f1a], I1b, [I1b1], [I1b2], I1b3, I1b4, [I1b5], [I1b5a], I1c, I1c1, I1c1-a, [I1c1-a1], I1c1a, I1c1a1, I1d, I1e, [I1e1], I1f, I1f1, I1f2

Subclades of I2'3:
I2, I2a, I2a1, I2a1a, I2a2, I2a3, I2b, I2c, I2c1, I2d, I2d1, I2d2, I2e, I2f, I2g, I2h, I2i, I2i1, [I2i1a], I2j, I2k, [I2l], I2m, I2n, I2o, I2p, I2q, I2r
I3, I3a, I3a1, I3a1a, I3a2, I3a3, I3b, I3c, I3d, I3d1

Subclades of I4:
I4a, I4a1,
I4a1a, I4a1a1
, I4a1b, [I4a1b1], I4a2, I4a4, I4a4a, [I4a4b], I4a5, I4a6, I4b

Subclades of I5:
I5a, I5a-a, I5a-a1, I5a-a1a, [I5a-a2], [I5a-a2a], I5a1,
I5a1-a
, I5a1-a1 I5a1a, I5a1b, [I5a1c], [I5a2], I5a2-a (aka I5a2-T16086C), [I5a2-a1], I5a2a, [I5a2b], [I5a2b1], [I5a3],