Resultsare organized by haplogroup as follows:
Haplogroup R1b (but not M222) – these are haplogroup R1b people whohave either tested or appear to be something other than M222. This has been the fastest growing sectionrecently and one that should benefit greatly by recent SNP discoveries and byrecruitment of new project members.
M222- these are people who have either tested or are predicted to have the M222terminal SNP. Three relatively largesubgroups are starting to become apparent, plus there are a few who are ungrouped,because SNP tests have shown they don’t belong to any of the other groups, theyappear to be too distant from the other M222 subgroups or they have too fewmarkers.
R-M222 Subgroup A members have a numberof random differences among them, but most are off modal at markers DYS458,DYS464c and DYS576. Those who havetested to 111 markers have been mostly off modal at DYS710 and DYS715. This group is also mostly modal in the 38 –67 marker range. It is currentlybelieved that this subgroup may have an origin in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. Recent SNP testing has shown that some, andpossibly all of this subgroup have a lower level SNP called FGC4133 thatrepresents a mutation that may have occurred shortly before surnames came intouse. This group is known to share SNPFGC4133 a few other surnames. We arecurrently doing extensive SNP testing on selected individuals in this group andhave discovered some internal branching within the group.
R-M222 Subgroup B have three off modalmarkers in common in the first 37 markers, two more in the 38 – 67 marker rangeand those who have tested to 111 markers show an additional 3 off modalmarkers. This subgroup is also believedto have originated in Dumfriesshire. Thelower level SNP A223 has been found through Big Y testing in three members ofthis subgroup and it is expected that all would have this SNP. There is one more Big Y test in progress thatmay help us to determine internal branching within this subgroup and if thatgives us useful information, we may try another one or two.
R-M222 Subgroup C are modal at the first37 markers, except for o ne fast mutating marker. Then they pick up their identifying mutationsin the 38 – 67 panel. So far, theyappear to be connected to James Mullikin of colonial Maryland.
- There are project members belonging toHaplogroups T, E, G and I and J. Theyare currently unmatched. Recruitment ofnew project members may identify additional members of these haplogroups andhopefully some matches for the existing members.