I-FGC21765 Y-DNA

Connections to an ancient Viking DNA sample in Iceland
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The estimated Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) for these branches is about 700 years before present (ybp) or around 1300 AD

The heat maps for the Jackson, Lee and Waugh surnames indicate an overlap in what was the Kingdom of Northumbria that was invaded by the Vikings "Great Heathen Army" c 866 AD

Map show extent of the Kingdom of Northumbria c. 700 A.D.

The Viking's "Great Heathen Army" (of "Danes" comprised mainly of men and women from Denmark and southern Sweden) invaded East Anglia in 865. "They arrived under the leadership of Ivar the Boneless and his brothers, Halfdene and Hubba and after camping the winter, turned their attention to Northumbria... One part of the huge Danish army under Halfdene continued the settlement of Yorkshire, while another took control of the East Midlands. The shires of Derby, Nottingham, Leicester, Lincoln and Stamford in the East Midlands would come to be known as 'the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw' while the West midlands, like Bernicia remained AngloSaxon. It was possible to talk of their being two Northumbrias and two Mercias each under the resepective influence of Danes or Angles." - from History of Northumbria: Viking era 866 AD - 1066 AD

I-BY160105 (Jackson)

This line has traced back to James Jackson, b. abt 1790, Coleraine, Ireland, and probably goes back to the Jackson family of Carrickfergus, Antrim, Ireland (based on autosomal DNA matches and their trees). Carrickfergus was the home of the the seventh US President Andrew Jackson. Carrickfergus was also the home of Samuel Wauchope (b. about 1690) & Nancy Alexander.

Heat Map for distribution of the Jackson surname in the UK

Distribution of the Jackson surname in the UK

The distribution of the Jackson surname indicates a very strong connection to Viking York and Cumbria

Scandinavian York (referred to at the time as Jórvík) or Danish York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria (modern-day Yorkshire) during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, it is used to refer to York, the city controlled by these kings. York had been founded as the Roman legionary fortress of Eboracum and revived as the Anglo-Saxon trading port of Eoforwic. It was first captured in November 866 by Ivar the Boneless, leading a large army of Danish Vikings, called the "Great Heathen Army" by Anglo-Saxon chroniclers, which had landed in East Anglia and made their way north, aided by a supply of horses with which King Edmund of East Anglia bought them off and by civil in-fighting between royal candidates in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria between the leaders of its two sub-kingdoms; Bernicia and Deira. Declaring a truce, the rivals for the throne of Northumbria joined forces but failed to retake the city in March 867, and with their deaths Deira came under Danish control as the Kingdom of Northumbria and the Northumbrian royal court fled north to refuge in Bernicia. - Wikipedia


Place-name[46][47][48] and sculptured stone[42][49][50] evidence suggests to one historian that the main Scandinavian colonization took place on the west coastal plain and in north Westmorland, where some of the better farming land was occupied. The warriors who settled here encouraged stone sculptures to be made. However, the local Anglian peasantry seems to have survived in these areas as well. Some, less successful, occupation of other lowland areas took place, along with, thirdly, occupation of 'waste' land in the lowland and upland areas. This occupation in the less-good farming areas led to place-names in -ǣrgi, -thveit,, -bekkr and -fell, although many of these may have been introduced into the local dialect a long time after the Viking age.[51] "Southern Cumbria", including the future Furness region (Lonsdale Hundred) as well as Amounderness in Lancashire, was also "entensively colonized".[52]The occupation was likely to have been largely by the Norse between about 900 and 950, but it is unclear whether they were from Ireland, the Western Isles, the Isle of Man, Galloway, or even Norway itself. Just how peaceful, or otherwise, the Scandinavian settlement was remains an open question. It has been suggested that, between c. 850 and 940, the Scots on the one hand, and the Norse of the Hebrides and Dublin on the other, were in collusion as regards what seems to have been peaceful Gaelic-Norse settlement in west Cumbria.[53] It has also been suggested that the Hiberno-Norse in Dublin were prompted to colonise the Cumbrian coast after being temporarily expelled from the city in 902. The successful attempt by Ragnall ua Ímair to conquer the Danes in York (around 920) must have led to the Dublin - York route through Cumbria being frequently used. In Westmorland, it is likely that much colonization came from Danish Yorkshire, as evidenced by place-names ending in -by in the upper-Eden valley region (around Appleby),[54] especially after the eclipse of Danish power in York in 954 (the year of the death of the Norse King of York, Erik Bloodaxe, on Stainmore). - Wikipedia

I-BY70495 (Lee)

One of our BigY FGC21765 matches has traced his ancestry from Virginia ("Hancock Lee, son of Richard the Emigrant") back to Nordley, Shropshire, England (not far from a place called Danesford), to about 1617. The Vikings were in Shropshire along the River Severn from at least around 893-896. See Richard Lee in Alfred the Great's Lineage, Richard Lee I and Lee Family Member FAQs. A new SNP BY70495 has been identified by FTDNA under FGC21765 (June 15, 2018) for this line. The TMRCA for I-FGC21765 (700 ybp) indicates that the common ancestor pre-dates the use of surnames.

"In 896 the Danes stayed here briefly during a raid and the Saxon Chronicles state that 'they made their way overland until they arrived at Quatbridge on the Severn, and there constructed a fort. They then sat that winter at Bridge'. The Danes were not allowed to build a permanent settlement as Ealdorman Aethelred kept harrying them on behalf of King Alfred until they moved on.... The Domesday Book entry for this area records only a new house and borough yielding nothing, ie no rents. No mention is made of a bridge so, having been replaced in importance by the one at Bridgnorth, it is likely that the Quatford bridge had fallen down or been washed away. It was probably as a result of this that the name Quatbridge became Quatford. Earl Roger Montgomery built a timber castle there in 1085 and it would be an obvious thing to reuse an existing fortification. Any trace of the Danish occupation would have been destroyed when building the Norman fortification. A documentary source records that the settlement of Quatford was transferred to Bridgnorth in 1102, when Robert de Belmese established his castle there." - From  Danish Shropshire

"The Lee family of Virginia and Maryland has been found to belong to haplogroup I1-L22 > P109 > S10891 > Y13930 > Y14227 > Y14225 based on descendant testing. Famous members include Richard Lee I (1617–1664), founder of the family and wealthy landowner, Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794), one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, and General Robert E. Lee (1807-1870), who was commander of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War." - Eupedia

Heat Map for distribution of the Lee surname in the UK

Distribution of Lee surname in the UK
I-S7005 (Waugh)
One of our BigY matches goes back to a Lyman Waugh (1814-1882) of Jefferson County, New York. Lyman Waugh may be a descendant of the Waughs of Litchtfield, Connecticut, and it's not known where these Waughs originated but based on the closeness of the match and the surname they were probably from the Border area between Scotland and England within what was once the old Kingdom of Northumbria

"Waugh" (foreigner) was the name given to Scandinavian settlers by the Anglo-Saxons of Northumbria. Our Waugh "cousins" settled in Northumbria from the mouth of the River Tyne to the rich fishing and farming area around the Solway Firth in Cumbria and Dumfriesshire. Place-names and archaeological evidence confirm a strong "Norse" (Scandinavian) cultural presence throughout these areas. A recent "Viking hoard" discovered in Galloway and Dumfriesshire attests to the wealth of some of the Norse inhabitants.

Heat Map for the distribution of the Waugh surname in the UK

Distribution of the Waugh surname

I-FGC21763 (Waugh)
This branch represents the Waugh family of Dumfriesshire, Scotland...

"Tinwald (Thing Völlr) 'field of the meeting'
- a short way N.E. of Dumfries (on the Roman Road from Lochmaben) seems to have been, as its name suggests, the centre of local Norse control"

Tinwald, Dumfriesshire

In 840 Alcluyd (the Pict and Scots kingdom) fell after a siege of four months by Danes and Norse. Five years later Halfden with his Danes traversed the country into Northumbria and is recorded to have wasted the Strathclyde Welsh, or Strathclydians, or as in a third place, and for the Cumbri. This was an enterprise of Danes from Ireland and does not seem to have been more than a foray of exceptional destructiveness... Permanent settlement was the work of the Norse-bearing elements of Irish culture. Tinwald (Thing Völlr) 'field of the meeting' - a short way N.E. of Dumfries (on the Roman Road from Lochmaben) seems to have been, as its name suggests, the centre of local Norse control - the first serious settlement would be in Cumberland ..." - from "The Royal Commission of Ancient Historical Monuments and Constructions of Scotland," Edinburgh, 1920, Historical Introduction XVIII, Early History II, Page XX, see back page XXIII (as per David Jardine).

Viking legacy in the names

The name Middelby was recorded in about 1280, middel was the Old English/Danish Norse form of middle. It has been written that Middlebie took its name, signifying the "middle dwelling" or "middle station" from the Roman Camp of Birrens south of the village, and midway between Netherbie in Cumberland and Overbie in Eskdalemuir. However there are nine places ending -bie or -by in the Dumfries area and it is a frequent suffix in the north of England. James B. Johnston tells us that this indicates that Danish Vikings were in this area. These name endings derive from the Old Norse by-r and Icelandic boe-r meaning a dwelling, hamlet or town. Middlebie lies within Annandale, the suffix -dale derives from the Norse dail meaning a field or meadow. The main rivers running through the parish are the Mein Water and the Kirtle Water which reach the sea via the Solway Firth, firth being the Norse word for estuary. The -beck of Waterbeck is Icelandic/Danish for a brook, and rigg from the same language is a ridge of land. Satur derives from the Norse word saetor meaning summer pasture. - from Middlebie Parish History Group Website

List of -bie (and -byre) place-names in Dumfriesshire (in process of being compiled by Jeff Waugh)
-by: Alby, Bombie, Canonbie, Corbie, Denbie, Dunnaby, Esby, Gotterbie, Gillesby, Gillenbie, Gimmenbie, Lammonbie, Mallaby, Middlebie, Millby, Mumbie, Newbie, Perceby, Pearsby, Sibbaldbie, Sorbie, Warmanbie
-byre: Yetbyre,
Other: Tinwald, Torthorwald, Sautaur

Norse Sites in Galloway & Dumfriesshire

Norse sites in Galloway & Dumfriesshire
Historical distribution of Waugh surname (blue dots) in Dumfriesshire
Norse Sites and Viking Hoards in the Irish Sea & Western Britain