WELCOME TO THE HOCHREITER PROJECT RESULTS PAGE!
The Results Page has been revised to reflect the newly updated Y chromosome haplogroup tree. This includes the redesignation of E3b to E1b.
The Hochreiter Surname DNA Project began in June 2007 after the Project Administrator transferred and upgraded his DNA results from the National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project to Family Tree DNA. He subsequently enlisted two known relatives (2nd cousins) to provide DNA samples for the project. Together, their 37-marker DNA tests present a baseline for the project. All three original participants descend from Hochreiter males who were born in Moosbach, Germany. Their results show that they belong to Haplogroup E1b1 (old E3b1). Although this group shares a common ancestor, there are nevertheless mutations that appear between the three participants’ DNA. For an explanation of the terms Marker, Haplogroup, and Mutation, please see below.
To help jumpstart the Project with additional participants who are not known relatives, on-line telephone directories were consulted. Search results identified Hochreiter listings in the following distribution: United States (135), Canada (10), Belgium (1), Switzerland (6), Denmark (1), South Africa (3), Australia (2), Italy (2), Netherlands (1), Slovakia (2) and Hungary (2). The most listings were in Germany (284) and Austria (690). Letters and e-mails were sent to potential participants inviting them to join the project. This effort resulted in interest from a diverse number of Hochreiters.
The Project has now expanded to include four more Hochreiter participants. Geographic dispersal of participants now covers New York, Pennsylvania, Hungary, Slovakia and South Africa. This is an exciting development since it now extends the study to other states as well as internationally. The additional test results revealed a different Haplogroup than the original three participants. The new participants belong to Haplogroup R (R1b1 and R1a). These new results show that there is not a genealogical relationship between the original participants and the new ones. Males from entirely different Haplogroups do not share a common ancestor in a genealogical sense. This difference shows that at least two branches of Hochreiter families developed in Europe. Additional DNA samples from other participants are needed to prove or disprove this concept.
The following are definitions of the terms used above:
Marker - A marker is an identifiable physical location on a chromosome with two or more forms, called alleles, that is variable between individuals and whose inheritance can be monitored from one generation to the next. In genetic genealogy, this refers to non-coding Y-chromosome DNA. Numbers designate the individual DNA segments. Example: 393=13. This means at marker #393, your allele value is 13. Marker labels, such as M173 or DYS388, have no intrinsic meaning. Family Tree DNA offers 3 levels of Y-DNA testing: 12-marker, 37-marker, and the newest 67-marker. Some testing companies still offer 25-marker tests.
Haplogroup – A haplogroup pertains to your deep ancestral origins dating back thousands of years. It is a genetic population group associated with early human migrations and often has a geographic association. A haplogroup is a larger collection of people based on similar genetic markers defined by genetic mutations. The Y-DNA haplogroups have different haplogroup designations. It is important to note that even though female and male haplogroups may have the same letters, their definitions are different. These markers link the members of a haplogroup back to the marker's first appearance in the group's most recent common ancestor (MRCA). Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations, Example: E1b1. A sub-branch or sub-clade refers to a "branch" farther down the phylogenetic tree. Example: E1b -> '1b' is a sub-clade of Y-chromosome haplogroup 'E'.
Mutation - A change in the DNA that occurs spontaneously. In genetic genealogy, mutations are utilized for distinguishing different ancestral lines. A mutation is any inheritable change in DNA sequence. Mutations usually occur as a result of miscopying by cell enzymes. A mutation in a non-gene, non-coding area of the DNA sequence has no effect on the organism and can thus be easily passed on to descendents. Many of these mutations are used as genetic markers to trace the evolution of DNA over a period of time. A mutation at a certain marker may cause a particular allele to change from 11 repeats to 12 repeats. In this example the father has the allele value of 11 but the son will carry the new mutated 12 allele.
To understand the role of DNA in genealogy requires an effort to learn the basics of genetics and then to keep up with new discoveries in this science. The research in ancestral genetics is progressing daily. Outside the very brief and cursory definition of haplogroups associated with this project, the reader is strongly advised to seek the writings of experts. The Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree (or Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree) from the FTDNA website (www.familytreedna.com/haplotree.html) helps to illustrate the evolution and relationship of all haplogroups. A fuller explanation of the history and evolution of haplogroups is described in the Genographic Project’s website at www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/ or by reading Dr. Spencer Wells’ book entitled Deep Ancestry: inside the Genographic Project (National Geographic, c2006, ISBN 9780792262152). The following is a short explanation of the Haplogroups E1b1 and R1b1. You should be aware that genetic research continues and the estimates of Haplogroup age and geographical dispersal are evolving and may vary between researchers.
E1b – E1b was one of the Y haplogroups that was common among the Neolithic farmers from the Middle East who first brought agriculture into Europe about 9000 years ago. Today this group is mostly represented in the Mediterranean area. For example 12% of northern Italians, 13% of southern Italians, and 20% of Sicilians belong to this group. 20 to 30% of men in the Balkans and Greece are in this haplogroup. In Europe about 10% of the men are descended from this line. In populations of Europe, particularly among those that reside near the Mediterranean, Haplogroup E1b is believed to represent ancient genetic influences from both northern Africa and Near East, with the latter having been mediated by West Asian populations entering Europe during the Neolithic revolution (the spread of agriculture from Asia Minor). Most E1b's of European descent belong to an E1b sub-branch called E1b1 estimated at 21-25 thousand years old and originating in east Africa. E1b1 is present at high frequencies among the Greeks, Albanians, Serbs and South Italians (up to 25%). One study (Cruciani et al) concluded that the distribution of the E1b1-alpha cluster in Europe indicates a Neolithic or post-Neolithic expansion out of the Balkans into Europe that spread as far west as the Iberian peninsula, and southeast to Turkey. Their analysis gives an estimate of about 8 thousand years ago for that expansion. The alpha cluster may have been part of a pre-Neolithic group indigenous to the Balkans, or it may have "leap-frogged" from Anatolia, to the Balkans, and then into Europe. The alpha cluster signature makes it possible to distinguish the E1b1 that expanded out of the Balkans from other E1b1's that came to Europe from the Near East (E1b1-delta cluster). The Project Administrator had additional testing of his DNA done with a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) test for Haplogroup deep clade (branch) confirmation and extended testing for 67 markers . The result was E1b1b1a2. The E1b1b1a2 lineage is found in high frequencies in Europe and also in northeastern Africa. It is most frequent in the Balkans but rare in the Near East outside Turkey. Estimates of its age vary from 11,000 to 17,000 years ago. It likely originated in western Asia, reached the Balkans shortly afterwards, and from there spread into Europe within the last 5,000 years.
R1b – This Haplogroup is the most frequent haplogroup in Western Europe with more than half of men of European descent belonging to R1b. The members of R1b are believed to be the descendants of the first modern humans who entered Europe about 35,000-40,000 years ago. Haplogroup R1b originated prior to or during the last glaciation, when it was concentrated in refugia in southern Europe and the Aegean. The ancestors of R1b1 were probably the Paleolithic people of Western Europe responsible for the Aurignacian culture, famous for the cave paintings at Lascaux, France and other archeological sites. They were contemporaries of the European Neanderthals. The frequency of R1b1 is highest along the Atlantic coast of Europe (up to 90% of Welsh, Irish, and Basque populations, for example), and declines as you move east. Despite it’s Atlantic association, R1b1 is still the largest single y-haplogroup in Germany (about 50%). Haplogroup R1b1 probably originated in a group of people who "wintered" in what is now Spain during the last Ice Age and then moved north when the glaciers melted 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.
R1a - This is a common haplogroup in Eastern Europe. It is also common in Central Asia and among the Indian and Ashkenazi Jewish population. Some researchers believe that this haplogroup may also indicate Swedish Viking ancestry or Wend ancestry.
INTERPRETING GENETIC DISTANCES (Source: Family Tree DNA)
Family Tree DNA provides the following explanation for interpreting DNA tests for genetic distances between participants. Genetic distance is a measure of the similarity of genetic results between different individuals. The number of differences, or mutations, between two sets of results provides a statistical indication of the relationship of the donors. A genetic distance of zero means there are no differences in the results being compared against one another (exact match). If two people were identical in all markers except they are off in one marker by 1 point, the genetic distance would be 1. If they were off at 2 different markers by 1 point in each marker, then the genetic distance of those two samples would be 2. If they were off by 2 points at one marker and 1 point in a second marker, then the genetic distance would be 3. This is called the Stepwise Model of calculating genetic distance for shallow time depths. The following table only covers 37 marker relationship results since this is the recommended test for this project and all current participants have completed this particular test.
Distance -Relatedness -Explanation
0 -Very Tightly Related -37/37 - Your perfect match means you share a common male ancestor with a person who shares your surname (or variant). Your relatedness is extremely close with the common ancestor predicted, 50% of the time, in 5 generations or less and with a 90% probability within 16 generations. Very few people achieve this close level of a match. All confidence levels are well within the time frame that surnames were adopted in Western Europe.
1 -Tightly Related - 36/37 - You share the same surname (or a variant) with another male and you mismatch by only one 'point' at only one marker--a 36/37 match. It's most likely that you matched 24/25 or 25/25 on a previous Y-DNA test and your mismatch will be found within DYS 576, 570, CDYa or CDYb. Very few people achieve this close level of a match. Your mismatch is within the range of most well established surname lineages in Western Europe.
2 - Related - 35/37 - You share the same surname (or a variant) with another male and you mismatch by only two 'points' --a 35/37 match. It's most likely that you matched 24/25 or 25/25 on previous Y-DNA tests and your mismatch will be found within DYS 439 or DYS 385 A, 385 B, 389-1 and 389-2, from our first panel of 12 markers, or from within the second panel at DYS #'s 458, 459 a, 459b, 449, or within 464 a-d. If you matched exactly on previous tests you probably have a mismatch at DYS 576, 570, CDYa or CDYb in our newest panel of markers. Your mismatch is likely within the range of most well established surname lineages in Western Europe.
3 - Related - 34/37 - You share the same surname (or a variant) with another male and you mismatch by three 'points' --a 34/37 match. Because of the volatility within some of the markers this is slightly tighter then being 11/12 or 23/25 and it's most likely that you matched 24/25 or 25/25 on previous Y-DNA tests. Your mismatch will most often be found within DYS 439 or DYS 385 A, 385 B,389-1 and 389-2 from our first panel of 12 markers, or within the second panel: DYS #'s 458, 459 a, 459b, 449, or within 464 a-d. If you matched exactly on previous tests you probably have a mismatch at DYS 576, 570, CDYa or CDYb in our newest panel of markers. Your mismatch is likely within the range of most well established surname lineages in Western Europe.
4 -Probably Related - 33/37 - You share the same surname (or a variant) with another male and you mismatch by four 'points' --a 33/37 match. Because of the volatility within some of the markers this is about the same as being 11/12 and it's most likely that you matched 23/25 or 24/25 on previous Y-DNA tests. If you matched exactly on previous tests you probably have a mismatch at DYS 576, 570, CDYa or CDYb in our newest panel of markers. If several or many generations have passed it is likely that these two lines are related through other family members. That would require that each line had passed a mutation and one person would have experienced at least 2 mutations. The only way to confirm is to test additional family lines and find where the mutations took place. Only by testing additional family members can you find the person in between each of you...this 'in betweener' becomes essential for you to find, and without him the possibility of a match exists, but further evidence must be pursued. If you test additional individuals you will most likely find that their DNA falls in-between the persons who are 4 apart demonstrating relatedness within this family cluster or haplotype.
5 -Only Possibly Related - 32/37 - You share the same surname (or a variant) with another male and you mismatch by five 'points' --a 32/37 match. It is most likely that you did not 12/12 or 24/25 or 25/25 in previous Y-DNA tests. If several or many generations have passed it is possible that these two group members are related through other family members. That would require that each line had experienced separate mutations and one person would have experienced at least 2 mutations. The only way to confirm or deny is to test additional family lines and find where the mutation took place. Only by testing additional family members can you find the person in between each of you...this 'in betweener' becomes essential for you to find, and without him only the possibility of a match exists, further evidence should be pursued. If you test additional individuals you must find the person whose DNA results falls in-between the persons that are 5 apart demonstrating relatedness within this family cluster or haplotype.
6 - Not Related - 31/37 - This is too far off to be considered related, unless you can find an “in-betweener’ as for determining ‘Only Possibly Related,’ above. It is important to determine what set of results most typifies the largest number members of the group you are 'close' to matching. You may be 31/37 with an individual, but 34/37 with the center of the group, and your potential relatedness to him is through the center of the group.
>6 - Not Related - 30/37 - You are not related and the odds greatly favor that you have not shared a common male ancestor with this person within thousands of years. You are probably even in different Haplogroups on the Phylogenetic tree of Homo Sapiens.
The test results of the current participants are contained in the Y-Results tab. Differences in marker values can be seen in all the participants. Analysis of the E1b1 results shows that all the participants are related. Starting with member #96932, he is related most closely with member N45041 with a genetic distance of one. These two members are 2nd cousins and share a common great grandfather. They both are more distantly related to the third member #96933. He is a 2nd cousin once removed to the other two. The three participants’ most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was their great great grandfather.
As can be seen in the Y-Results tab there are numerous marker differences between the E1b1 members and the R1b1 and R1a members. This indicates that there is no relationship between these two groups. Likewise, the three R1b1 and Ria members display a significant number of differences (14) between their markers. As shown in the genetic distance table, any number of differences greater than 6 indicate that these families are not related (within thousands of years). As this project continues and more results are available for comparison, perhaps a clearer picture of the groups and origins of various Hochreiter families will emerge.
An example of the successful use of genetic genealogy is demonstrated in Y-DNA matching of Hochreiter families living in Rochester, NY and ones living in Buffalo, NY. The original project participants were from Rochester, NY and were classified in the E1b1b1 Haplogroup. A Hochreiter in Buffalo volunteered to take the Y-DNA test and the results showed a definite relationship. The Buffalo participant was the only other Hochreiter outside of Rochester who is in the Haplogroup E1b1b1. The match for 37 markers varied by only 1 or 2 levels, which statistically demonstrates a Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) within the last 10 generations.
There is now a research effort to trace and link the two families with historical documentation. What is known at this point is that the Hochreiter families in Rochester all descend from ancestors who emigrated from the town of Moosbach located in the Oberpfalz region of Bavaria, Germany. The earliest known arrival to Rochester was Johann (John) Hochreiter. The US Census shows the date of immigration as 1883. Johann was born on 14 May 1861 in Moosbach and his parents were Georg Andreas Hochreiter and Maria Landgraf. The Buffalo participant traces his ancestry to (Johann) Baptist Hochreiter from Bavaria. Although his exact year of immigration is not yet known, he and his family are listed in the 1870 and 1880 U.S. Census in Buffalo, NY. The census indicates that their eldest child was born around 1859 in New York State. This predates the arrival of the Rochester families by over 20 years. The close DNA match and the fact that Baptist Hochreiter came from Bavaria make it very likely that the families were closely related and the MRCA was from Moosbach. Additional research and documentation is needed to prove these assumptions. There is now an effort to connect the families with documentation from that era. But this (re)discovery of the relationship would not have been possible without the use of genetic genealogy. Neither group was aware of their close relationship because any memory of the relationship had passed away with the older generations.