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We have several distinct groups within the project.  It is recommended by many experts that any man who belongs to a R haplogroup test at least 37 markers, preferably 67 markers, and doing all available 111 markers is wise in some situations.  Many in these groups are members of an R haplogroup.

The haplogroup details may not make a lot of sense to someone at first glance, but the subclade details have been changed from designations like R1b1a2a1a2a to R-P312.  This last version gives you the terminal SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism).  Y-DNA chromosome testing has moved beyond the standard STR markers (the 111 markers just mentioned), and the leading edge is in testing SNPs as experts work to refine the Y-tree further.  Testing the STR markers is still a basic and wise thing to do, but SNP testing is the next level.

All of this does not negate the importance of sticking to surname matches, unless there is a reason to doubt that the biological line does not follow the surname line, at least until you reach the point when surnames were not common or consistently passed from father to son.  It is rare that the paper trail will outlast the surname inheritance pattern, excepting patronymics, etc.

For the most recent Y-tree, to figure out which SNPs you can order to extend your results, no matter what the haplogroup is, it is best to consult the Y-tree at the ISOGG (International Society of Genetic Genealogy) website.  
This tree is kept up to date and is often more up-to-date than the tree shown on your page at Family Tree DNA.  Be aware that research is ongoing, and various theories are put forward and then tested, and then either proved right or wrong, about where a branch of the human family separated from another one.  That is what SNP testing is trying to prove.  The Y-tree is tweaked and changed whenever it seems wise to do so, but that's often at least a few times a year.  Even versions of the tree dating back to 2012 or 2013 can be out-of-date in some details.  My brother's old subclade description shifted as a result of updates, so nothing is set in concrete.  While I have tried to give you up-to-date information, it is not expert advice, and you should consult someone with more knowledge before deciding which SNP tests to order.

For example, my brother is listed as R-P312.  I have tested him to 111 markers, and I also ran the Big Y.  There are still new and developing SNPs not reflected in the Big Y.  Only expensive full-genome testing would save me further testing.  But I have joined him to the relevant haplogroup project.  After investigating the R-P312 branches, I tested him for the DF27 SNP, and he was positive.  Now I'm testing him for two more SNPs, to see which way the results will point me into the finer branches of what is called the R1b-DF27 group.

You don't need to figure this out by yourself.  You can join the R1b haplogroup project at FTDNA -- without leaving our project, as you can belong to multiple projects at the same time -- and let the administrator of that project advise you on which SNPs you should test next.  That project's website is here:  https://www.familytreedna.com/public/r1b/
The group's website is informative, and it will be helpful to you to read it, whether or not you actually join the project itself.

One thing you need to understand is that the terminal SNPs are non-sequential.  The "names" are derived from the testing company creating the SNP test, and the number they assign it.  More than one company is involved, and sometimes a SNP is called one thing by one company and another by another company.  That is indicated by a forward slash. 

It is not necessary to test all these markers.  Someone with a R-U106 designation could test the three branch SNPs, one at a time, until he got a positive result.

"R" Haplogroup

Therefore, the basic R1b group is also called R-M343 or R1b-M343.  
R-P25 is the next step "downstream" from R-M343, also called R1b1.
There are three branches from this point, the main one being P297.
R-M269 is a little downstream from R-M343.
R-L23 is the next marker downstream, also called R1b1a2a.  There is another branch, the Z2103, with its own three branches from that point.
R-L51 is the next mainstream marker. 
R-L11 is the next marker downstream, also known as R1b1a2a1a.
R-311 is the next marker downstream.
From there, the tree divides into two main branches, the P312 (R1b1a2a1a2) and the U106 (R1b1a2a1a1).  We have some of both those branches in the project. 
R-P312 has five known branches currently, and one of those is the DF27 to which my brother belongs, but the nomenclature at FTDNA does not reflect that.

R-L21 members can test for further SNPs
R-L371 is P312 > L21 > DF13 > L371
R-M222 is P312 > L21 > DF13 > DF49 > M222
R-Z381 is a branch of R-U106

"I" Haplogroup

The "I" haplogroup is much smaller than the "R" haplogroup, but SNP testing is still a wise thing to do, along with joining the relevant haplogroup project.

I-M253 -- see ISOGG Y-tree for "I" haplogroup
I-L126 -- see ISOGG Y-tree for "I" haplogroup

"J" Haplogroup

J-M172 -- see ISOGG Y-tree for "J" haplogroup

"E" Haplogroup

E-M78 -- see ISOGG Y-tree for "E" haplogroup