All R1b-S1194 and lower sub-clades (CTS4528, A8039)
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About us

(Below information last updated June 2019 - admin).
(27 May 2019 - revised below text - fixed some links).
(NOTE: The following data is always open to improvement and re-interpretation based on new discoveries and evolving information).

This project is a special focus project for the SNPs of S1194 and below (A8039, CTS4528/DF100, etc: ) .  If you are not positive for any of these SNPs or sub-SNPs, you should  find an alternate project that does focus on your terminal SNP or allocated Haplogroup.

The R1b-S1194 SNP is one of at least three branches that are estimated to have mutated approx 4800 years ago somewhere in Europe. The two other branches called R1b-P312 & R1b-U106 are what make up the bulk of Western Europe. R1b-P312 and its many sub-branches dominate and the name 'Celtic' is most often associated with this Y-DNA line. R1b-U106 is dominantly associated with 'Scandinavian & Germanic' peoples.  R1b-S1194 (this project), shows evidence of association with 'South Baltic/Germanic' peoples. R1b-S1194 is tiny by comparison to the other two. These labels are very loose and merely a guide as to some positioning of the three lines of DNA.

The goal of the project is to try to trace the origins and migration paths of R1b-S1194 (also called CTS4528/DF100). So, if you have any of these SNPs please feel free to join.

A very brief history of R1b-M269 and its impact on Europe:

This is a summary based on current knowledge as of 1st half 2019. It may change as more detailed information becomes available especially from on-going ancient DNA discoveries in Europe. So, for those deeply interested, one history starting at R1b-M269 is covered well by Prof David Anthony in the below link to a recent update of his works - (at the linked to PDF document, See story 2 - pages 39-70). These views put forward by Prof Anthony are a good starting point. As always, expect details to change as newer data emerges. One view  but forward by Prof Anthony that may not eventuate is that R1b-P312 (and thus R1b-U106 + R1b-S1194) arrived in Europe via the Hungarian Plains (Carpathian Basin). Prof Anthony has suggested that L11 and P312 could be found in the Yamnaya Kurgan burials in the Hungarian Plains but thus far only I* DNA and R1b-Z2103 DNA (a different branch of R1b parallel to R1b-L51) are being found there.  R1b-Z2103 seems to have arrived there then stopped in the Hungarian Plains with only very small traces of R1b-Z2103 showing up west of the plains. But, R1b-Z2103 can be seen even today in the Balkans and Middle East. 


Below is a link to the Eupedia R1b phylogenetic tree that includes R1b-M269 and is helpful as a reference as to where M269 fits into the total R1b picture.  The notations on this tree may not be 100% up-to-date but the main purpose is to show that R1b-L51 & R1b-Z2103 are separate brother sub-clades of R1b-L23 which in turn is a sub-clade of R1b-M269.  It is also worth noting that L23 itself is separate (a brother branch) to the Armenian R1b-PF7562 branch. That Armenian branch was one of the very early splits from R1b-M269 and is thus one of the oldest R1b lines still located in a small regional area. 

See https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml  (Scroll down to the tree).

R1b-M269, from the Pontic/Caspian Steppes to the Sth Baltic and elsewhere:

(Several of the following diagrams are the work of Edward Peggler and he 1st presented them here (an overall excellent and insightful read) ...


Edward has granted us permission to to link to his diagrams and to reuse extracts of his notes. (Please do not copy or link to them without his permission). We chose his diagrams because they convey very clear meanings in an uncomplicated way. 

Our story begins with the Yamnaya Culture (c . 3300-2800 BCE) which had been preceded by the Khvalynsk culture (1st half of the 5th Millenium BCE).  Both these cultures were genetically closely related to the widespread European Corded Ware culture complex (c. 2900-2200 BCE).

Origins: Samara Valley Russia  (up above Volgograd (former Stalingrad)). Groups of Yamnaya with R1a and R1b DNA, migrated in multiple waves into surrounding regions in all directions. In this project, we are particularly interested in the groups that migrated to northern, central and western Europe as one of these Yamnaya groups carried our parent line of R1b-L51 DNA. Other migrating Yamnaya groups also carried the R1a line that include (among many), the Slavic, Balto-Slavic & Uralic peoples in Europe. Other Yamnya groups with R1a Y-DNA moved into into others parts of Asia including what is today Turkey, Iran and northern India. 

It is believed the R1b migration into Europe that begat P312/U106 & S1194 may have occurred around 2,800 BCE. Then around 2,500 BCE, R1b-P312 in particular swept through western Europe  into Britain. and other parts of Western Europe. The recent (2018) study of Bell Beakers by Olalde et al., makes a case for Bell Beaker R1b-P312 (often referred to as 'Celts') arriving in Britain around 2,500 BCE where they displaced the pre-existing WHG & EEF Y-DNA by an estimated 90% with a 200-300 years.  

See https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/feb/21/arrival-of-beaker-folk-changed-britain-forever-ancient-dna-study-shows 

There isn't really clear evidence yet as to why this rapid re-populating of western Europe and Britain happened.  Some thoughts on this include the following ... It may have been as a result of a pandemic affecting the existing population of UK & Western plus middle Europe. See https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/dec/06/earliest-plague-strain-found-in-sweden-holds-clue-to-stone-age-migration-from-east -  the change may have been by conquest (the arriving R1b-P312 Bell Beaker peoples were a warrior race) but there are some reasons to question this line of thought i.e. is it really possible for a band of P312 to sweep the majority of European and British WHG/EEF Y-DNA away in just 200-500 years? (between approximately 2800BCE and 2300BCE).  We think other reasons need to be considered but it was a possibility. There are many known periods where the climate of the region (esp the Nth Sea) was severely impacted by weather & by seaborne inundations e.g. for some later major events See  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunkirk_transgression . 

Such weather changes could have and did have serious effects of farming and thus the people in Europe. However, the massive European population change that occurred between 2,900 BCE -2,200 BCE could also have been from any combination of the events just outlined. If it were to be shown that P312 expanded in the Netherlands area then weather events may have favored their rapid expansion from this region.

Simplified overview of Yamnaya movement: (click link for image)


Yamnaya peoples, were an admixture of WHG (Western Hunter Gatherers), EHG (Eastern Hunter Gatherers who in turn were an admixture that included WHG + ANE (Ancient North Eurasians)). Yamna also show admixture with CHG (Caucasus Hunter Gatherer). The R1 (incl R1a & R1b) Y-DNA line appears to have come from the ANE who were known to be in Siberia. The oldest R1 burial found to date is from Mal'ta in Siberia at 24,000 YBP. Ancient branches of R1 DNA are also found in an estimated 30% of North American Indian Tribes and believed to have reached America via the Bering Straits from Siberia.

7000 BCE - 3,000 BCE: Maps of known groups and the emergence of the Yamnaya 

WHG=Western Hunter Gatherers, EHG=Eastern Hunter Gatherers, CHG=Caucasus Hunter Gatherers, EEF=Early European Farmers.

(click below links for the maps)

WHG EHG & CHG - 7000BCE: 


EEF & EHG - 4000BCE:




The Yamnaya contribution to the Cordedware Culture

Yamnaya groups with mostly R1a Y-DNA, became the core contributor/component of the Cordedware Culture. This culture spanned Germany/Bohemia and into Russia (through and beyond Moscow). The Western end of the Cordedware culture includes R1b burials whereas the bulk of Cordedware region burials (spreading north east from Bohemia) appear as dominantly R1a Y-DNA with little to no R1b Y-DNA showing up outside today's Germany & Czech regions. Many researchers are still looking into why this split of R1a/R1b  shows up in the Western Cordedware edge and that R1a tends to dominate elsewhere in Cordedware burials.


At the Western End of the Cordedware Culture a later highly influential culture emerged called the Únětice Culture centered in Bohemia. Today that area is covered by both Czech Republic and Slovakia plus adjacent countries (incl: Poland, Germany & Ukraine). There is some evidence emerging in ancient DNA burials suggesting this region could have been an origin for P312 & possibly even U106 & thus perhaps also S1194. P312 may have emerged more towards Austria while U106 more in northern Bohemia towards the south Baltic. The two do show up as quite separate groups speaking different variants of Indo-European. S1194 appears (to this project admins) to have existed alongside U106 and more towards the south Baltic region, and, after a long period of being in a bottleneck. Again, this area of research is still ongoing and recent developments are hinting at an even more westerly origin for P312. What complicates our understanding of P312 & U106 & S1194 actual origins, is that they are all brother clades currently given a similar estimated date of origin (at YFull this is 4,800 years ago, perhaps even as old as 5,100 YBP) but P312 today, vastly outnumbers U106 and both P312+U106 greatly outnumber S1194 which is really tiny in numbers. An S1194 bottleneck is one logical explanation for the vast disparity in current numbers alive today versus the understood common date of origin of the three brother mutations of P312/U106/S1194. 

The emergence of R1b-P312 & R1b-U106 and R1b-S1194:

R1b-P312 dominates Western Europe and is most often associated with the name 'Celtic'. In the British Isles, P321 varies from roughly 80% to 20% with *0% in western Ireland.

R1b-U106 is much smaller than P312 and is mostly associated with Scandinavian/Germanic peoples. In the British Isles U106 varies from 30% to 5% and is Strongest in Eastern England.

R1b-S1194 is tiny compared to its bother clades P312 & U106. It is associated with South Baltic / Germanic peoples. S1194 is < 0.05% in the British Isles  & found mostly in former border regions.

At some point (this still needs more research) the three main R1b clades of R1b-P312 & R1b-U106 & R1b-S1194 mutated then evolved. This evolution is slowly showing up in data from ancient DNA burials and looking like they may have had origins in the Únětice Culture. If it was earlier then a lot more evidence from more ancient burials is needed to show this as we don't have that evidence today. It is expected that as new ancient DNA finds occur, they will help clarify to an even finer degree, where the parent SNP of these 3 clades (R1b-L11) established itself. R1b-L11 is essentially equivalent in tree location to L151, P310, P311. As of today, no ancient burials show R1b-L11 any further towards Samara (Pontic-Caspian Steppes) than north western Ukraine, southern Germany and Bohemia (other than a L11+ but P312- & U106- ancient burial at Csepel Island in Hungary labelled find # I7043).  Until L11 Y-DNA is found closer to Samara or in the Carpathian Basin / Hungarian Plains, the fair assumption is that L11 evolved in the Northern European Plains. As previously mentioned, there is some small evidence of L11 in the Carpathian basin at Csepel Island Hungary, but more concrete research is needed to understand this find as it is enigmatic. Csepel Island was an ancient cross-roads and trading post and certain to have burials of people from other nearby trading areas.

Research projects are actively looking into the Hungarian Plains Kurgans to see what Y-DNA shows up.  We can expect to see new papers about them in 2019. Kurgans are typical Yamnaya burial mounds. By far the most of these Carpathian Kurgans are East of the Tisza river in eastern Hungary.  Some researchers believe these will only include other branches of Yamnaya (such as I2+ and R1b-Z2103 Y-DNA) but not R1b-L51 or the lower R1b-L11 branches. There is an ongoing investigation of them and their contents but to-date still no L51 or L11 other than the Csepel Island find of I7043.

R1b-P312 vs R1b-U106 burials showing a clear bronze age Nth/Sth split:  (This analysis came from 'citizen scientist' Richard Rocca). 


We at the S1194 FTDNA Project believe R1b-S1194 were among the R1b-U106 peoples and not part of R1b-P312 groups until much later on (i.e. not until the historic migration period of the Scandinavian/Germanic tribes from the Sth Baltic. Note in the above map that the R1b-L11 burial I7043 shown in Hungary is the one at Csepel Island - a Bronze Age crossroads and trading post. This raises the question as to if this particular burial is of an R1b-L11 trader who came from the Bohemia region shown above (see the two other burials in the Czech Republic).  There is the possibility that R1b-U106 emerged in middle Germany or even near the Sth Baltic. We need more finds to help clarify this issue. Note that Richard Rocca believes that the Csepel Island burial named # I7043 is actually R1b-U106 and this is why he shows it under R1b-U106 in his map link above.

So where is the oldest R1b-S1194 ancient DNA find ?: 

Unfortunately we simply don't know. Our guess is they will start to show up between the region of the Únětice culture in Bohemia, and the Sth Baltic, when found. But this is only an 'educated' guess. As of Feburary 2019 we don't have any provable ancient burials in middle Europe, for R1b-S1194. In 2017 & 2018 we had some 'false alarms', one where a citizen scientist GENETIKER who claimed that ancient burial # E09568  in southern Germany was R1b-S1194 but that claim could not be verified or validated. However, the ancient burial find labelled I7043, listed with haplogroup R1b-L151(xU106,xP312), ca. 2500-2200 BCE from Szigetszentmiklós-Üdülősor (on Csepel Island) 'might' theoretically be R1b-S1194 because it is listed with U106- & P312- but it is far more likely to also be S1194- as well thus we here place absolutely no confidence in it being R1b-S1194 at all. Citizen scientists Richard Rocca believes I7043 is R1b-U106 (as mentioned above). 

The GENETIKER S1194 claim can be seen at this link (scroll down to see four S1194 calls where they are highlighted in bold black lettering). 

GENETIKER's E09568 S1194 calls  https://genetiker.wordpress.com/y-snp-calls-for-e09568/

R1b-P312 & Hallstatt / La Tene.  R1b-U106 and Jutland.  R1b-S1194 and the Sth Baltic.




It has been published that R1b-P312 had reached Britain as Bell Beaker peoples around 2,500BC (Olalde et al 2018), prior to this new publication R1b-P312 had been thought of as originating and expanded from the Hallstatt & La Tene Culture regions in the areas of Austria and Switzerland. Of the R1b-P312 branches,  L21 shows up in the UK, DF27 shows up in the Atlantic coast & Iberia - Another branch shows up in Italy (R1b-U152).  Other branches (DF19 & ZZ337) also appear in other parts of Europe. The name Celtic tends to be associated with R1b-P312 but there were tribes of R1b-P312 DNA people who were clearly not part of known Celtic cultures.  However as a generalization 'Celtic' is a reasonable label to describe them to help keep definitions simple.  The evidence surrounding the Hallstatt & La Tene cultures show they occurred much later than the 2,500 BCE date for Bell Beaker (R1b-P312-L21) sweeping into Britain.

It is also likely that R1b-U106 consolidated then expanded out from the base of the Jutland Peninsula and is strong in Friesland (Nth Netherlands & Nth West Germany). The land of the Jutland Peninsula right down to Hamburg, was, in the past, a part of Denmark until 1864. Today the top part of this previously Danish controlled area is called Schleswig and the lower part called Holstein. The Angles (of Anglo-Saxon origin) came from Sth Schleswig. (West) Saxons came from Holstien & greater Frisia. R1b-U106 remains very strong in these same regions today. R1b-U106 is thought of as Scandinavian/Germanic. Today, R1b-U106 is particularly dense in the north of the Netherlands and also Northern Germany and particularly in the areas called Friesland / Frisia. Interestingly, the English language is believed to have more in common with old Frisian than with old Saxon. 

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Schleswig-Holstein#/media/File:Jutland_Peninsula_map.PNG

Just where R1b-S1194 became established and expanded from is still being determined but a 2010 study by N Myres et al, suggested three early places of origin in Europe/UK where L11* showed up. One was the Sth Baltic region, another was in England and the other was in a very small pocket the Sth Alps region .  The deep question here is which of these three places might R1b-S1194 have expanded out of to reach the others. It is obvious S1194 did not spontaneously occur in all of them. Different people have different views on this issue. One view suggests the Sth Alps pocket were later tribal migrations from the Sth Baltic in line with known historical narratives. We know that there was a period of Scandinavian/Germanic migration/invasion from Jutland & East Denmark into Europe in the post Roman era, and later into England in the Scandinavian/Viking era 850AD-1100AD However the question is not settled to everyone's satisfaction. One good possibility for S1194 in UK is based on the Danish invasion of England by King Sweyn in 1013AD, consolidated by his son Canute (Knud) in 1018AD.  Canute was for a time the king of England and a large part of Scandinavia (this included Western Norway and Skaane (now part of Sth Sweden).

The more data that comes to hand, the better we will be able to refine the points of origin and expansion for S1194.  Until better evidence emerges, this project team accepts the Sth Baltic as the probable initial point of expansion to the other known and emerging hot-spots.  Two other regions are showing up in addition to the three in the N.Myres et al., report.  One is in the Rhine Valley region (close to Stuttgart) and Brabbant in the Netherlands.  Both of those areas feature in known historical narratives for Scandinavian/Germanic migrations/invasions. It is fair to say some people think the Netherlands may have been the origin of R1b-S1194 however this is just one opinion among several and as of today is lacking any known historical narrative that explains how S1194 reached the other 'hot-spots'.  There are also no ancient burial finds (yet) that support this.

Did R1b-P312 + R1b-U106 + R1b-S1194 originate in the Northern Plains of Europe ?. (Feb 2019).

Northern European Plains area: 

See  http://www.s1194.org/Images/files/NthEuroPlains.jpg

The cultures that shaped us as admixtures of GAC + CW + Yamnaya: 

See http://www.s1194.org/Images/files/GAC_CW_Cultures.jpg

And a reminder of the later Únětice culture:

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unetice_culture

This possibility of a Northern European Plains origin is considered more real today (in 2019) by researchers who keep pointing out the lack of R1b-L51 & L11 sub-clade burial finds showing up anywhere East of the Ukraine & Poland & Bohemia (outside the Northern European Plains). There was a period where some of us wondered if ancient DNA research into the Kurgan burials in the Hungarian plains, might finally reveal P312 / U106 or S1195 traces. But, no. Thus far the ancient DNA Yamnaya finds in Hungary are either I Y-DNA or R1b-Z2103 which is a brother clade to L51.  Z2103 does show up around Hungary and the Balkans to the East.  Current data suggests that the Yamnaya migration that went into the Hungarian Plains were a separate group that did not include L51 / L11 but did include Z2103.  It is entirely possible that L51 / L11 arrived in Europe travelling north of the Carpathian mountains in a completely separate migration.  Here we lean towards L11 in particular, arriving north of the Carpathian mountains but today, this is only our opinion. This issue is being very actively investigated in 2019.  See again the view of L23 & its two main sub-clades of L51 & Z2103 here:  


restated, Z2103 burials are being found in the Hungarian Plains kurgans but, L51 / L11 burials are not yet showing up there. As always this is work in progress.


S1194 Group: Jan 2018.
Family Tree DNA are nearing completion of their upgrade to Human Reference Genome 38, which has involved providing more detail on BigY tests. Currently this detail isn't being used to its full advantage. To properly investigate this data, James Kane, Alex Williamson and Iain McDonald have set up a data repository, to which they are asking any willing persons within R-S1194 to upload the raw VCF/BED data from their next-generation sequencing tests (BigY, YElite, WGS, etc.):
Please visit this link = http://www.haplogroup-r.org/submit_data.php
Instructions and a description of how we agree to use your data are available on the above website. If you are unable to follow these instructions, use the instructions on Iain McDonald's website. 
We would also ask that Full Genomes Corp. testers re-submit their YElite/WGS data once a Build 38 version becomes available.

This database is already collecting data on R-P312 and R-U106 testers. Incorporating data from R-S1194 testers will allow us to compare the three main branches of R-L11 to each other in an unbiased way.

While we are in earliest stages of this analysis now, ultimately, we hope this will allow us to systematically explore R-S1194 in proper context with R-P312 and R-U106 in a relatively unbiased way, answering questions such as: "Do branches of R-S1194 share the same distributions as branches of R-U106?", and "Which branches of R-S1194 formed at the same time as branches of R-P312?".

James Kane:                http://www.haplogroup-r.org/
Alex Williamson:           http://ytree.net/
Iain McDonald:             http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/~mcdonald/genetics.html
Doug Marker:               https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/df100-cts4528-l11-p310-l151-p311/about/background


11 Jan 2015:

The project is making good progress on establishing the best tests to take in order to get a clearer picture of where in the growing DF100/CTS4528 tree we fit.  You are invited to join our facebook forum here:

https://www.facebook.com/groups/southbalticdna/   -  Title: South Baltic DNA - L11/P310/P311/L151

The FB group is for sharing information with other 'rare DNA' members and most of us are DF100/CTS4528. We have members who administer other projects and in particular a member who handles DF100/CTS4528 for both ISOGG and the ftDNA Ht35 project.

This month Jan, we have begun creating a list of tests DF100/CTS4528 people can take to help them find where they belong in our emerging tree. We are also working on a future project to correlate known old family names to areas of probability of origin in UK, Holland, Sth Baltic areas (Denmark, Sweden, Germany & Poland) plus Sth Italian Alps). 

You are also welcome to look at our repository of useful information here: 


17 Nov 2014: 

At this time it has become pretty well apparent that if a person is + for either one of DF100 or CTS4528 then both *can be assumed*.  If at a future time someone emerges who is negative for one but not the other then we may again request that both tests be taken but for now, doing both tests as add-ons becomes an unnecessary cost, however, if some wants to buy both they are welcome to do so.  In time it is assumed that newer testing chips will fix the discrepancy where only one or the other is tested (i.e. as is the case with the NatGeo Genome2 test which tests for CTS4528 but not for DF100).  Big-Y does test for both.

This diagram comes from the HT35new project and is reproduced in part here (Just the CTS4528 DF100 part) with their kind permission.


16 Dec 2014: 

This is a link to some very useful research done on DF100/CTS4528 plus R1b in general, by Michael Maglio (of Origin Hunters). The link covers some recent interesting research on R1b DNA back-flow to the Lebanon area that strongly indicates how L11 (P311) DNA was more likely taken to those areas within  the past 1,000 years and that R1b Crusaders were the ones taking it there. Michael argues the case quite well, that L11 (P311) DNA that shows up in Armenia/Anatolia/Lebanon needs careful checking so as not to make the mistake of assuming this DNA has been in these places longer than it really was which runs the very strong risk of confusing the origins and historical migration of R1b into Europe from these areas in the near East. Michael uses STR variance to position people within their haplogroup and tells a very convincing story of where he sees R1b (and particularly in his earlier work - our DF100-CTS4528), originated and spread from around the South Baltic to near east and not necessarily the other way round.



Project Administrator.