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Y-DNA results:

We can now see that the Chisholm clan is composed of multiple patriarchs who migrated from different parts of the world to create the clan in Scotland. We have identified several lines that show relationship between two or more testers plus many others who do not yet have a Chisholm match.

Only males can test Y-DNA because it is the gene that makes a male a male. It is passed directly from father to son.  Haplogroups are DNA signatures that are used to look at migrations of man. One source on this topic is Spencer Wells, Deep Ancestry.

To learn more about the haplogroups and to see research and graphics of the Y-DNA tree, go to Additional information can be found by searching the internet for the haplogroup you are interested in. Be sure to specify Y-DNA Haplogroup.

The test kits have been sorted into their respective haplogroups. Those haplogroups listed in red are estimated by FTDNA. Those listed in green have been SNP tested to confirm the haplotype. More people are doing SNP tests because it can further refine what part of the haplogroup they come from. This is particularly true in Haplogroups E, G, I, J, and R.  A few people do not have assigned haplogroups because their haplotype numbers are somewhat unusual. Only a SNP test can confirm the haplogroup when a haplotype (set of scores shown in DYS Values) is rare. When this happens, FTDNA performs a free “backbone” test to confirm the haplogroup.

Haplogroups are DNA signatures that are used to look at migrations of man. A resource on this topic is Spencer Wells, Deep Ancestry. To see research and graphics of the Y-DNA tree, go to ISOGG YSNP Tree.

• Y-DNA Haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration. E1b1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea.

•Y-DNA Haplogroup G began about 30,000 years ago on the eastern edge of the Middle East. Members of this group lived in the Indus Valley before the expansion of Neolithic farmers into the region. After the glaciers melted theG2 lineage expanded northward and eastward to repopulate Europe and Eurasia.

• Y-DNA Haplogroup I overwintered in the Balkans during the last Ice Age and some members of this group also overwintered in Iberia. Kit 99204 came from Eastern Europe. The subgroup I1 today is found mainly in northwestern Europe; some I1’s are Anglo-Saxons, and others are Norse Vikings. The largest single Chisholm group are the Norse Vikings. Within that grouping some genealogical paper trails lead to the Border and others to the Highlands which is consistent with the History of the Chisholms. One of the oldest inhabitants of great Britain is the I2a group called Isles . Another I2a grouping comes from Sardinia and the last I2b group is found both in Britain and Northwest continental Europe.

• Haplogroup J, particularly J2 came out of the Near East, moved west along the Mediterranean to Italy and southern Spain. No J2’s got to Ireland, but they did get to Wales, England and Scotland in small numbers.

• Haplogroup R1a is believed to have arisen on the Eurasian Steppe, and today is most frequently observed in eastern Europe and in western and central Asia. It is also associated with Vikings, particularly Norwegian Vikings.

• Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b is the most prolific haplogroup in Europe and its frequency changes in a cline from west (where it reaches a saturation point of almost 100% in areas of Western Ireland) to east (where it becomes uncommon in parts of Eastern Europe and virtually disappears beyond the Middle East. This group is thought to have spent the last Ice Age in the refuge found in Spain and southern France. The group labeled Hap R1b is a mixed group of men who are unrelated. Many different genetic lines moved into territories controlled by Chisholms and took on the name as was a common Scottish custom. Some men who were formerly in the group of unrelated men have found matches and are in put in related R1b groupings. The 3 largest groups are the Celtic Picts from the Strathglass area, a grouping called Britain #1 and the Virginia, USA grouping.

mtDNA Results

mtDNA test kits are also arranged by mtdna Haplogroups. mtDNA is passed from the female to all of her children, so both females and males have mtDNA, but males cannot pass it to succeeding generations. mtDNA Haplogroups with the same name as Y-DNA Haplogroups have no relationship with each other. An example is that mtDNA Haplogroup K has a different history from Y-DNA Haplogroup K. mtDNA Haplogroups show the deep ancestry of the tester and are described in Spencer Wells, Deep Ancestry. Descriptions are also available on the tester's personal page under mtDNA - Results. Additional information can be found by searching the internet for the haplogroup you are interested in. Be sure to specify mtDNA Haplogroup.

mtDNA haplogroup H (also known as Helena) comprises 40 to 60 % of the mtDNA gene pool in Western Europe and as such is considered the most successful of the mtDNA haplogroups in reproducing itself. It also comprises about 20 % of southwest Asian lineages, 15 % of central Asian lineages and 5 % of northern Asian lineages.

mtDNA Haplogroup HV is found throughout the Near East and in parts of East Africa. Around 30,000 years ago some members moved north and west to carry their lineages into Europe.

•mtDNA Haplogroup I occurs in high frequencies in northern Europe and northern Eurasia. This group is thought to have migrated to these areas from the Middle East. They are associated with the Aurignacian culture which is distinguished by innovations in tools and tool manufacturing.

mtDNA haplogroup J (also known as Jasmine) has a very wide distribution, being common in eastern and northern Europe, and is present as far east as the Indus Valley bordering Indian and Pakistan and as far south as the Arabian peninsula. mtDNA haplogroup J is largely considered one of the main genetic signatures of the Neolithic expansion and is associated with the spread of agriculture.

mtDNA Haplogroup T (also known as Tara) is common in eastern and northern Europe and found as far east as the Indus Valley and the Arabian Peninsula. It is considered one of the main genetic signatures of the Neolithic expansion.

mtDNA Haplogroup U (also known as Ursula) has a wide distribution. Most in mtDNA haplogroup U come from a group that moved northwest out of the Near East. Today they are found in Europe and the eastern Mediterranean at frequencies of almost 7% of the population.