Genetic Genealogy Project of Balkans
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About us

***You can >>Click Here<< To order Y-DNA,mt-DNA or Family Finder Tests***

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Project is open for all people from Balkans:

Erhan Inal(Admin)/Genealogy Page:
FTDNA Thracian Project:


What are Y-DNA Haplogroups? Y-DNA Haplogroups are the major branches of the Y-DNA Chromosome tree. They are defined by "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms" (SNPs) called Snips. SNPs are accumulated along different lineages as Y-DNA Chromosomes are passed from father to son(s) over many generations. All Y-DNA Haplogroups ultimately descend from a single Y-DNA Chromosome carried by a male who lived in the distant past.

What are mt-DNA Haplogroups? Your mitochondrial DNA provides information about your maternal haplogroup, which was passed down from your mother, via her mother, and so on. Both males and females inherit the maternal haplogroup from their mother.

What are Y-DNA\mt-DNA Haplogroup Projects? Surname Projects pertain to recent ancestry, ie, four to twelve (or more) generations back. Y-DNA\mt-DNA Haplogroup Projectspertain to a person's deep ancestry, ie, their ancient ethnic origins. Meaning thousands of years ago. So the research emphasis changes from genealogy to a mixture of Anthropology and Archaeology, but yDNA\mtDNA still plays a major role for the time being.  Anthropology is defined as the study of humans everywhere and throughout time. Archaeology is defined as the study of human cultures. 

Clade comes from the Greek word Klados = branch. A Clade on the Y Chromosome tree is also called a Haplogroup. Subclade is a term to describe the relationship between two clades with the sub-clade being downstream (occurring later in time). A Clade includes all the descendants of a single founder (common ancestor).

Haplogroup is defined as a group of similar Haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) mutation. Your Haplogroup tells much about your ancient ethnic origins. Meaning thousands of years ago.

CHROMOSOME is a structure found in the nucleus of a cell that contains genetic material. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pair of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes, X for females and Y for males.

Human Y Chromosome DNA (yDNA) Haplogroups are lettered A thru T and are further divided using numbers and lower case letters. The Y Chromosome contains two types of ancestral markers. Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are highly informative for tracing your recent ancestry. They will allow you to find matches in the last four to twelve generations. Meanwhile the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) help you understand your deep ancestry. SNPs are small "mistakes" that occur in DNA. SNPs are rare. They happen at a rate of approx one mutation every few hundred generations. When a SNP occurs it marks a point in the shared Y chromosome tree. Each mutation event can be linked to a time and place in history. By testing SNPs it is possible to retrace the history of a paternal line. Because a Haplogroup consists of similar Haplotypes, it is possible to predict a person's Haplogroup from his Haplotype. A SNP test confirms the Haplogroup.

SNP is defined as a change in the DNA which happens when a single nucleotide (A, T, G or C) in the genome sequence is altered. A person has many SNPs that together create a unique DNA pattern for that individual. Snips clarify the branching of a tree--separation of different subhaplogroups.

Haplotype is defined as one person's set of values for the DYS markers that have been tested. In other words, your yDNA test results. Think of Haplotypes as leaves on a tree, and a Haplogroup as a limb of that tree. Haplotype is a contaction of the phrase "haploid genotype".

Allele is defined as a DNA sequence that repeats at a certain location (DYS marker) on the Y Chromosome. The Allele value is the number of times the sequence repeats. Pronounced uh-LEEL.

STR is a short DNA motif (pattern) repeated in tandem. A, T, G or C repeated eleven times would give the DYS marker a value or allele of eleven.DYS is short for DNA/ Y-Chromosome/ Segment. The name of a marker on the Y-Chromosome.