Ancient DNA

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About us

The project contains the following Ancient DNA samples. Raw genome data provided by these authors below are genotyped and available as FTDNA kit. If you happen to match any of the ancient DNA and you will be invited to join this project.  This helps to understand the ancient world better. Genotyped ancient DNA files and GEDMatch kit# for ancient samples can be found here.

Altai Neanderthal
The Neanderthal genome project is a collaboration of scientists coordinated by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany and 454 Life Sciences in the United States to sequence the Neanderthal genome. The authors estimate the age to be 50,000 years ago.
Reference:
Prüfer, Kay, Fernando Racimo, Nick Patterson, Flora Jay, Sriram Sankararaman, Susanna Sawyer, Anja Heinze et al. "The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains." 
Nature 505, no. 7481 (2014): 43-49.

Clovis Anzick
Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America. The genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The authors estimate the age to be 12,500 years ago.
Reference:
Rasmussen, Morten, Sarah L. Anzick, Michael R. Waters, Pontus Skoglund, Michael DeGiorgio, Thomas W. Stafford Jr, Simon Rasmussen et al. "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana." 
Nature 506, no. 7487 (2014): 225-229.

Denisova
The genome sequence of a Denisovan individual was generated from a small fragment of a finger bone discovered in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia in 2008. The authors estimate the age to be 30,000 years ago.
Reference:
Meyer, Matthias, Martin Kircher, Marie-Theres Gansauge, Heng Li, Fernando Racimo, Swapan Mallick, Joshua G. Schraiber et al. "A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual." 
Science 338, no. 6104 (2012): 222-226.

Hinxton-4
One of the 5 ancient DNA samples from skeletons excavated from Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK with estimated dates from the iron age through the Roman period (2500-1800 years ago).
Reference:
This data is part of a pre-publication release - Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.


Linearbandkeramik
Genome sequence of ~7,500 year old early farmer from the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture from Stuttgart in Germany.
Reference:
Lazaridis, Iosif, Nick Patterson, Alissa Mittnik, Gabriel Renaud, Swapan Mallick, Peter H. Sudmant, Joshua G. Schraiber et al. "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans."
arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.6639 (2013).

Loschbour
Genome sequence of ~8,000 year old skeleton from the Loschbour rock shelter in Heffingen, Luxembourg.
Reference:
Lazaridis, Iosif, Nick Patterson, Alissa Mittnik, Gabriel Renaud, Swapan Mallick, Peter H. Sudmant, Joshua G. Schraiber et al. "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans."
arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.6639 (2013).

Palaeo Eskimo
The Saqqaq Genome Project generated 20x sequence coverage over the genome of an individual from the Extinct Palaeo-Eskimo Saqqaq culture. The project was a large collaboration between many Centres across the world, coordinated by Professor Eske Willerslev from the Centre for GeoGenetics at University of Copenhagen, Denmark. The authors estimate the age to be 4,000 years ago.
Reference:
Rasmussen, Morten, Yingrui Li, Stinus Lindgreen, Jakob Skou Pedersen, Anders Albrechtsen, Ida Moltke, Mait Metspalu et al. "Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo." 
Nature 463, no. 7282 (2010): 757-762.

BR2
The Great Hungarian Plain was a crossroads of cultural transformations that have shaped European prehistory. Here we analyse a 5,000-year transect of human genomes, sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields, from 13 Hungarian Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age burials including two to high (~22 × ) and seven to ~1 × coverage, to investigate the impact of these on Europe’s genetic landscape.
Reference:
Cristina Gamba, Eppie R. Jones, Matthew D. Teasdale, Russell L. McLaughlin, Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Valeria Mattiangeli, László Domboróczki, Ivett Kővári, Ildikó Pap, Alexandra Anders, Alasdair Whittle, János Dani, Pál Raczky, Thomas F. G. Higham, Michael Hofreiter, Daniel G. Bradley & Ron Pinhasi "Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory"doi:10.1038/ncomms6257.

Ust'-Ishim
We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ~45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before—or simultaneously with—the separation of the populations in western and eastern Eurasia and carries a similar amount of Neanderthal ancestry as present-day Eurasians.
Qiaomei Fu, Heng Li, Priya Moorjani, Flora Jay, Sergey M. Slepchenko, Aleksei A. Bondarev, Philip L. F. Johnson, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Kay Prüfer, Cesare de Filippo, Matthias Meyer, Nicolas Zwyns, Domingo C. Salazar-García, Yaroslav V. Kuzmin, Susan G. Keates, Pavel A. Kosintsev, Dmitry I. Razhev, Michael P. Richards, Nikolai V. Peristov, Michael Lachmann, Katerina Douka, Thomas F. G. Higham, Montgomery Slatkin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, David Reich et al. "Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western SiberiaNature 514, 445–449.

NE1
The Great Hungarian Plain was a crossroads of cultural transformations that have shaped European prehistory. Here we analyse a 5,000-year transect of human genomes, sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields, from 13 Hungarian Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age burials including two to high (~22 × ) and seven to ~1 × coverage, to investigate the impact of these on Europe’s genetic landscape.
Reference:
Cristina Gamba, Eppie R. Jones, Matthew D. Teasdale, Russell L. McLaughlin, Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Valeria Mattiangeli, László Domboróczki, Ivett Kővári, Ildikó Pap, Alexandra Anders, Alasdair Whittle, János Dani, Pál Raczky, Thomas F. G. Higham, Michael Hofreiter, Daniel G. Bradley & Ron Pinhasi "Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory"doi:10.1038/ncomms6257.